PDBsum entry 1gfi

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Signal transduction protein PDB id
Protein chain
313 a.a. *
Waters ×91
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Signal transduction protein
Title: Structures of active conformations of gi alpha 1 and the mechanism of gtp hydrolysis
Structure: Guanine nucleotide-binding protein g. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Rattus norvegicus. Norway rat. Organism_taxid: 10116.
2.20Å     R-factor:   0.214     R-free:   0.284
Authors: D.E.Coleman,A.M.Berghuis,S.R.Sprang
Key ref: D.E.Coleman et al. (1994). Structures of active conformations of Gi alpha 1 and the mechanism of GTP hydrolysis. Science, 265, 1405-1412. PubMed id: 8073283 DOI: 10.1126/science.8073283
11-Nov-94     Release date:   31-Mar-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P10824  (GNAI1_RAT) -  Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1
354 a.a.
313 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     protein complex   11 terms 
  Biological process     cell cycle   7 terms 
  Biochemical function     nucleotide binding     11 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.8073283 Science 265:1405-1412 (1994)
PubMed id: 8073283  
Structures of active conformations of Gi alpha 1 and the mechanism of GTP hydrolysis.
D.E.Coleman, A.M.Berghuis, E.Lee, M.E.Linder, A.G.Gilman, S.R.Sprang.
Mechanisms of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis by members of the G protein alpha subunit-p21ras superfamily of guanosine triphosphatases have been studied extensively but have not been well understood. High-resolution x-ray structures of the GTP gamma S and GDP.AlF4- complexes formed by the G protein Gi alpha 1 demonstrate specific roles in transition-state stabilization for two highly conserved residues. Glutamine204 (Gln61 in p21ras) stabilizes and orients the hydrolytic water in the trigonal-bipyramidal transition state. Arginine 178 stabilizes the negative charge at the equatorial oxygen atoms of the pentacoordinate phosphate intermediate. Conserved only in the G alpha family, this residue may account for the higher hydrolytic rate of G alpha proteins relative to those of the p21ras family members. The fold of Gi alpha 1 differs from that of the homologous Gt alpha subunit in the conformation of a helix-loop sequence located in the alpha-helical domain that is characteristic of these proteins; this site may participate in effector binding. The amino-terminal 33 residues are disordered in GTP gamma S-Gi alpha 1, suggesting a mechanism that may promote release of the beta gamma subunit complex when the alpha subunit is activated by GTP.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21677684 K.Aktories (2011).
Bacterial protein toxins that modify host regulatory GTPases.
  Nat Rev Microbiol, 9, 487-498.  
21229145 L.Lenoci, M.Duvernay, S.Satchell, E.DiBenedetto, and H.E.Hamm (2011).
Mathematical model of PAR1-mediated activation of human platelets.
  Mol Biosyst, 7, 1129-1137.  
20639466 A.Nishimura, K.Kitano, J.Takasaki, M.Taniguchi, N.Mizuno, K.Tago, T.Hakoshima, and H.Itoh (2010).
Structural basis for the specific inhibition of heterotrimeric Gq protein by a small molecule.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 13666-13671.
PDB code: 3ah8
20976244 B.R.Temple, C.D.Jones, and A.M.Jones (2010).
Evolution of a signaling nexus constrained by protein interfaces and conformational States.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 6, e1000962.  
20351284 N.A.Lambert, C.A.Johnston, S.D.Cappell, S.Kuravi, A.J.Kimple, F.S.Willard, and D.P.Siderovski (2010).
Regulators of G-protein signaling accelerate GPCR signaling kinetics and govern sensitivity solely by accelerating GTPase activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 7066-7071.  
19222191 A.M.Preininger, M.A.Funk, W.M.Oldham, S.M.Meier, C.A.Johnston, S.Adhikary, A.J.Kimple, D.P.Siderovski, H.E.Hamm, and T.M.Iverson (2009).
Helix dipole movement and conformational variability contribute to allosteric GDP release in Galphai subunits.
  Biochemistry, 48, 2630-2642.
PDB code: 3d7m
19760664 H.E.Hamm, S.M.Meier, G.Liao, and A.M.Preininger (2009).
Trp fluorescence reveals an activation-dependent cation-pi interaction in the Switch II region of Galphai proteins.
  Protein Sci, 18, 2326-2335.  
19369209 J.H.Orth, I.Preuss, I.Fester, A.Schlosser, B.A.Wilson, and K.Aktories (2009).
Pasteurella multocida toxin activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by deamidation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 7179-7184.  
19033377 K.H.Nielsen, H.Chamieh, C.B.Andersen, F.Fredslund, K.Hamborg, H.Le Hir, and G.R.Andersen (2009).
Mechanism of ATP turnover inhibition in the EJC.
  RNA, 15, 67-75.
PDB code: 3ex7
19211784 M.Garcia-Marcos, P.Ghosh, and M.G.Farquhar (2009).
GIV is a nonreceptor GEF for G alpha i with a unique motif that regulates Akt signaling.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 3178-3183.  
19074425 N.Suzuki, K.Tsumoto, N.Hajicek, K.Daigo, R.Tokita, S.Minami, T.Kodama, T.Hamakubo, and T.Kozasa (2009).
Activation of leukemia-associated RhoGEF by Galpha13 with significant conformational rearrangements in the interface.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 5000-5009.  
19424291 R.Gasper, S.Meyer, K.Gotthardt, M.Sirajuddin, and A.Wittinghofer (2009).
It takes two to tango: regulation of G proteins by dimerization.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 10, 423-429.  
19806206 R.Prasobh, and N.Manoj (2009).
The repertoire of heterotrimeric G proteins and RGS proteins in Ciona intestinalis.
  PLoS One, 4, e7349.  
19617882 T.R.Cummins, A.M.Rush, M.Estacion, S.D.Dib-Hajj, and S.G.Waxman (2009).
Voltage-clamp and current-clamp recordings from mammalian DRG neurons.
  Nat Protoc, 4, 1103-1112.  
19820068 T.Zielinski, A.J.Kimple, S.Q.Hutsell, M.D.Koeff, D.P.Siderovski, and R.G.Lowery (2009).
Two Galpha(i1) rate-modifying mutations act in concert to allow receptor-independent, steady-state measurements of RGS protein activity.
  J Biomol Screen, 14, 1195-1206.  
18975915 A.Goc, T.E.Angel, B.Jastrzebska, B.Wang, P.L.Wintrode, and K.Palczewski (2008).
Different properties of the native and reconstituted heterotrimeric G protein transducin.
  Biochemistry, 47, 12409-12419.  
18771287 A.M.Preininger, J.Parello, S.M.Meier, G.Liao, and H.E.Hamm (2008).
Receptor-mediated changes at the myristoylated amino terminus of Galpha(il) proteins.
  Biochemistry, 47, 10281-10293.  
18258741 A.R.Zurita, and L.Birnbaumer (2008).
The same mutation in Gsalpha and transducin alpha reveals behavioral differences between these highly homologous G protein alpha-subunits.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 2363-2368.  
18519563 C.A.Johnston, K.Afshar, J.T.Snyder, G.G.Tall, P.Gönczy, D.P.Siderovski, and F.S.Willard (2008).
Structural determinants underlying the temperature-sensitive nature of a Galpha mutant in asymmetric cell division of Caenorhabditis elegans.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 21550-21558.
PDB codes: 2ebc 3umr
18541531 C.J.Thomas, G.G.Tall, A.Adhikari, and S.R.Sprang (2008).
Ric-8A catalyzes guanine nucleotide exchange on G alphai1 bound to the GPR/GoLoco exchange inhibitor AGS3.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 23150-23160.  
18249008 E.McCusker, and A.S.Robinson (2008).
Refolding of G protein alpha subunits from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli.
  Protein Expr Purif, 58, 342-355.  
18959762 F.Marziale, S.Pucciarelli, P.Ballarini, R.Melki, A.Uzun, V.A.Ilyin, H.W.Detrich, and C.Miceli (2008).
Different roles of two gamma-tubulin isotypes in the cytoskeleton of the Antarctic ciliate Euplotes focardii: remodelling of interaction surfaces may enhance microtubule nucleation at low temperature.
  FEBS J, 275, 5367-5382.  
18434540 K.C.Slep, M.A.Kercher, T.Wieland, C.K.Chen, M.I.Simon, and P.B.Sigler (2008).
Molecular architecture of Galphao and the structural basis for RGS16-mediated deactivation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 6243-6248.
PDB codes: 3c7k 3c7l
18454845 K.Sayar, O.U─čur, T.Liu, V.J.Hilser, and O.Onaran (2008).
Exploring allosteric coupling in the alpha-subunit of Heterotrimeric G proteins using evolutionary and ensemble-based approaches.
  BMC Struct Biol, 8, 23.  
18713003 L.Gremer, B.Gilsbach, M.R.Ahmadian, and A.Wittinghofer (2008).
Fluoride complexes of oncogenic Ras mutants to study the Ras-RasGap interaction.
  Biol Chem, 389, 1163-1171.  
18647648 M.Crouthamel, M.M.Thiyagarajan, D.S.Evanko, and P.B.Wedegaertner (2008).
N-terminal polybasic motifs are required for plasma membrane localization of Galpha(s) and Galpha(q).
  Cell Signal, 20, 1900-1910.  
18348980 M.J.Phillips, G.Calero, B.Chan, S.Ramachandran, and R.A.Cerione (2008).
Effector proteins exert an important influence on the signaling-active state of the small GTPase Cdc42.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 14153-14164.
PDB code: 2qrz
  19025606 M.Y.Yu, M.K.Ho, A.M.Liu, and Y.H.Wong (2008).
Mutations on the Switch III region and the alpha3 helix of Galpha16 differentially affect receptor coupling and regulation of downstream effectors.
  J Mol Signal, 3, 17.  
18502805 V.Hauryliuk, S.Hansson, and M.Ehrenberg (2008).
Cofactor dependent conformational switching of GTPases.
  Biophys J, 95, 1704-1715.  
19020518 W.Li, X.Agirrezabala, J.Lei, L.Bouakaz, J.L.Brunelle, R.F.Ortiz-Meoz, R.Green, S.Sanyal, M.Ehrenberg, and J.Frank (2008).
Recognition of aminoacyl-tRNA: a common molecular mechanism revealed by cryo-EM.
  EMBO J, 27, 3322-3331.
PDB codes: 3ep2 3eq3 3eq4
18043707 W.M.Oldham, and H.E.Hamm (2008).
Heterotrimeric G protein activation by G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 9, 60-71.  
18940608 Z.Chen, W.D.Singer, S.M.Danesh, P.C.Sternweis, and S.R.Sprang (2008).
Recognition of the activated states of Galpha13 by the rgRGS domain of PDZRhoGEF.
  Structure, 16, 1532-1543.
PDB codes: 3cx6 3cx7 3cx8
17962409 A.F.Neuwald (2007).
Galpha Gbetagamma dissociation may be due to retraction of a buried lysine and disruption of an aromatic cluster by a GTP-sensing Arg Trp pair.
  Protein Sci, 16, 2570-2577.  
17201690 B.R.Temple, and A.M.Jones (2007).
The plant heterotrimeric G-protein complex.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 58, 249-266.  
17478502 C.X.Weichenberger, and M.J.Sippl (2007).
NQ-Flipper: recognition and correction of erroneous asparagine and glutamine side-chain rotamers in protein structures.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 35, W403-W406.  
17882334 F.Mancia, and W.A.Hendrickson (2007).
Expression of recombinant G-protein coupled receptors for structural biology.
  Mol Biosyst, 3, 723-734.  
17588669 L.S.Weinstein, T.Xie, Q.H.Zhang, and M.Chen (2007).
Studies of the regulation and function of the Gs alpha gene Gnas using gene targeting technology.
  Pharmacol Ther, 115, 271-291.  
19412439 M.Bastepe (2007).
The GNAS Locus: Quintessential Complex Gene Encoding Gsalpha, XLalphas, and other Imprinted Transcripts.
  Curr Genomics, 8, 398-414.  
  17277460 T.Morikawa, A.Muroya, Y.Nakajima, T.Tanaka, K.Hirai, S.Sugio, K.Wakamatsu, and T.Kohno (2007).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the receptor-uncoupled mutant of Galphai1.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 63, 139-141.  
17463080 W.M.Oldham, N.Van Eps, A.M.Preininger, W.L.Hubbell, and H.E.Hamm (2007).
Mapping allosteric connections from the receptor to the nucleotide-binding pocket of heterotrimeric G proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 7927-7932.  
17904091 Y.Wu, T.Buranda, P.C.Simons, G.P.Lopez, W.E.McIntire, J.C.Garrison, E.R.Prossnitz, and L.A.Sklar (2007).
Rapid-mix flow cytometry measurements of subsecond regulation of G protein-coupled receptor ternary complex dynamics by guanine nucleotides.
  Anal Biochem, 371, 10-20.  
16981699 C.A.Johnston, E.S.Lobanova, A.S.Shavkunov, J.Low, J.K.Ramer, R.Blaesius, Z.Fredericks, F.S.Willard, B.Kuhlman, V.Y.Arshavsky, and D.P.Siderovski (2006).
Minimal determinants for binding activated G alpha from the structure of a G alpha(i1)-peptide dimer.
  Biochemistry, 45, 11390-11400.
PDB code: 2g83
16627949 C.A.Smith, J.A.Cross, A.L.Bognar, and X.Sun (2006).
Mutation of Gly51 to serine in the P-loop of Lactobacillus casei folylpolyglutamate synthetase abolishes activity by altering the conformation of two adjacent loops.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 62, 548-558.
PDB codes: 2gc5 2gc6 2gca 2gcb
16698293 C.Hill, A.Goddard, J.Davey, and G.Ladds (2006).
Investigating RGS proteins in yeast.
  Semin Cell Dev Biol, 17, 352-362.  
16765889 C.X.Weichenberger, and M.J.Sippl (2006).
Self-consistent assignment of asparagine and glutamine amide rotamers in protein crystal structures.
  Structure, 14, 967-972.  
17229000 L.S.Weinstein (2006).
G(s)alpha mutations in fibrous dysplasia and McCune-Albright syndrome.
  J Bone Miner Res, 21, P120-P124.  
17087737 M.Minaba, S.Ichiyama, K.Kojima, M.Ozaki, and Y.Kato (2006).
Activation of nematode G protein GOA-1 by the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype. Functional coupling of G-protein-coupled receptor and G protein originated from evolutionarily distant animals.
  FEBS J, 273, 5508-5516.  
17053066 N.Van Eps, W.M.Oldham, H.E.Hamm, and W.L.Hubbell (2006).
Structural and dynamical changes in an alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein along the activation pathway.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 16194-16199.  
16460808 V.V.Gurevich, and E.V.Gurevich (2006).
The structural basis of arrestin-mediated regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Pharmacol Ther, 110, 465-502.  
16892066 W.M.Oldham, N.Van Eps, A.M.Preininger, W.L.Hubbell, and H.E.Hamm (2006).
Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 772-777.  
16855591 X.Pan, S.Eathiraj, M.Munson, and D.G.Lambright (2006).
TBC-domain GAPs for Rab GTPases accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a dual-finger mechanism.
  Nature, 442, 303-306.
PDB code: 2g77
16307476 A.Eberth, R.Dvorsky, C.F.Becker, A.Beste, R.S.Goody, and M.R.Ahmadian (2005).
Monitoring the real-time kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.
  Biol Chem, 386, 1105-1114.  
16004878 C.A.Johnston, F.S.Willard, M.R.Jezyk, Z.Fredericks, E.T.Bodor, M.B.Jones, R.Blaesius, V.J.Watts, T.K.Harden, J.Sondek, J.K.Ramer, and D.P.Siderovski (2005).
Structure of Galpha(i1) bound to a GDP-selective peptide provides insight into guanine nucleotide exchange.
  Structure, 13, 1069-1080.
PDB code: 1y3a
15747061 C.R.McCudden, M.D.Hains, R.J.Kimple, D.P.Siderovski, and F.S.Willard (2005).
G-protein signaling: back to the future.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 62, 551-577.  
15735747 E.Grabocka, and P.B.Wedegaertner (2005).
Functional consequences of G alpha 13 mutations that disrupt interaction with p115RhoGEF.
  Oncogene, 24, 2155-2165.  
16041481 N.G.Abdulaev, C.Zhang, A.Dinh, T.Ngo, P.N.Bryan, D.M.Brabazon, J.P.Marino, and K.D.Ridge (2005).
Bacterial expression and one-step purification of an isotope-labeled heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit.
  J Biomol NMR, 32, 31-40.  
16292347 P.Hein, M.Frank, C.Hoffmann, M.J.Lohse, and M.Bünemann (2005).
Dynamics of receptor/G protein coupling in living cells.
  EMBO J, 24, 4106-4114.  
15898053 S.Albrizio, G.Caliendo, G.D'Errico, E.Novellino, P.Rovero, and A.M.D'Ursi (2005).
Galphas protein C-terminal alpha-helix at the interface: does the plasma membrane play a critical role in the Galphas protein functionality?
  J Pept Sci, 11, 617-626.  
15665872 Z.Chen, W.D.Singer, P.C.Sternweis, and S.R.Sprang (2005).
Structure of the p115RhoGEF rgRGS domain-Galpha13/i1 chimera complex suggests convergent evolution of a GTPase activator.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 191-197.
PDB code: 1shz
15498497 C.Couwenbergs, A.C.Spilker, and M.Gotta (2004).
Control of embryonic spindle positioning and Galpha activity by C. elegans RIC-8.
  Curr Biol, 14, 1871-1876.  
15128951 C.J.Thomas, X.Du, P.Li, Y.Wang, E.M.Ross, and S.R.Sprang (2004).
Uncoupling conformational change from GTP hydrolysis in a heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 7560-7565.
PDB codes: 1svk 1svs
15653425 E.J.Helmreich (2004).
Structural flexibility of small GTPases. Can it explain their functional versatility?
  Biol Chem, 385, 1121-1136.  
15189163 F.S.Willard, R.J.Kimple, and D.P.Siderovski (2004).
Return of the GDI: the GoLoco motif in cell division.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 73, 925-951.  
15141193 H.Rehmann, and J.L.Bos (2004).
Signal transduction: thumbs up for inactivation.
  Nature, 429, 138-139.  
15189875 J.D.Lawson, E.Pate, I.Rayment, and R.G.Yount (2004).
Molecular dynamics analysis of structural factors influencing back door pi release in myosin.
  Biophys J, 86, 3794-3803.  
15280244 M.H.Chang, K.S.Chae, D.M.Han, and K.Y.Jahng (2004).
The GanB Galpha-protein negatively regulates asexual sporulation and plays a positive role in conidial germination in Aspergillus nidulans.
  Genetics, 167, 1305-1315.  
15368366 M.V.Hinrichs, M.Montecino, M.Bunster, and J.Olate (2004).
Mutation of the highly conserved Arg165 and Glu168 residues of human Gsalpha disrupts the alphaD-alphaE loop and enhances basal GDP/GTP exchange rate.
  J Cell Biochem, 93, 409-417.  
14696184 P.J.Focia, H.Alam, T.Lu, U.D.Ramirez, and D.M.Freymann (2004).
Novel protein and Mg2+ configurations in the Mg2+GDP complex of the SRP GTPase ffh.
  Proteins, 54, 222-230.
PDB code: 1o87
15471870 P.W.Day, J.J.Tesmer, R.Sterne-Marr, L.C.Freeman, J.L.Benovic, and P.B.Wedegaertner (2004).
Characterization of the GRK2 binding site of Galphaq.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 53643-53652.  
12675921 B.Pommier, C.Marie-Claire, S.Da Nascimento, H.L.Wang, B.P.Roques, and F.Noble (2003).
Further evidence that the CCK2 receptor is coupled to two transduction pathways using site-directed mutagenesis.
  J Neurochem, 85, 454-461.  
12932732 G.R.Andersen, P.Nissen, and J.Nyborg (2003).
Elongation factors in protein biosynthesis.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 28, 434-441.  
12517447 J.Cherfils, and M.Chabre (2003).
Activation of G-protein Galpha subunits by receptors through Galpha-Gbeta and Galpha-Ggamma interactions.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 28, 13-17.  
14622106 M.Natochin, and N.O.Artemyev (2003).
A point mutation uncouples transducin-alpha from the photoreceptor RGS and effector proteins.
  J Neurochem, 87, 1262-1271.  
12732734 S.Vorobiev, B.Strokopytov, D.G.Drubin, C.Frieden, S.Ono, J.Condeelis, P.A.Rubenstein, and S.C.Almo (2003).
The structure of nonvertebrate actin: implications for the ATP hydrolytic mechanism.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 5760-5765.
PDB codes: 1d4x 1nlv 1nm1 1nmd 1yag
12212810 A.M.Dursi, S.Albrizio, G.Greco, S.Mazzeo, M.R.Mazzoni, E.Novellino, and P.Rovero (2002).
Conformational analysis of the Galpha(s) protein C-terminal region.
  J Pept Sci, 8, 476-488.  
11985591 E.Jacquin-Joly, M.C.François, M.Burnet, P.Lucas, F.Bourrat, and R.Maida (2002).
Expression pattern in the antennae of a newly isolated lepidopteran Gq protein alpha subunit cDNA.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 2133-2142.  
12429851 H.Onishi, T.Ohki, N.Mochizuki, and M.F.Morales (2002).
Early stages of energy transduction by myosin: roles of Arg in switch I, of Glu in switch II, and of the salt-bridge between them.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 15339-15344.  
12403627 J.Petersen, K.Fisher, C.J.Mitchell, and D.J.Lowe (2002).
Multiple inequivalent metal-nucleotide coordination environments in the presence of the VO2+-inhibited nitrogenase iron protein: pH-dependent structural rearrangements at the nucleotide binding site.
  Biochemistry, 41, 13253-13263.  
  12119276 L.S.Weinstein, M.Chen, and J.Liu (2002).
Gs(alpha) mutations and imprinting defects in human disease.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 968, 173-197.  
11968001 M.Brito, L.Guzmán, X.Romo, X.Soto, M.V.Hinrichs, and J.Olate (2002).
S111N mutation in the helical domain of human Gs(alpha) reduces its GDP/GTP exchange rate.
  J Cell Biochem, 85, 615-620.  
12146960 M.Medkova, A.M.Preininger, N.J.Yu, W.L.Hubbell, and H.E.Hamm (2002).
Conformational changes in the amino-terminal helix of the G protein alpha(i1) following dissociation from Gbetagamma subunit and activation.
  Biochemistry, 41, 9962-9972.  
11772024 M.Natochin, K.G.Gasimov, and N.O.Artemyev (2002).
A GPR-protein interaction surface of Gi(alpha): implications for the mechanism of GDP-release inhibition.
  Biochemistry, 41, 258-265.  
11896404 Madhusudan, P.Akamine, N.H.Xuong, and S.S.Taylor (2002).
Crystal structure of a transition state mimic of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 273-277.
PDB code: 1l3r
12057015 P.B.Wedegaertner (2002).
Characterization of subcellular localization and stability of a splice variant of G alpha i2.
  BMC Cell Biol, 3, 12.  
11863460 P.J.O'Brien, and D.Herschlag (2002).
Alkaline phosphatase revisited: hydrolysis of alkyl phosphates.
  Biochemistry, 41, 3207-3225.  
  12296648 S.A.Woods, E.Marmor, M.Feldkamp, N.Lau, A.J.Apicelli, G.Boss, D.H.Gutmann, and A.Guha (2002).
Aberrant G protein signaling in nervous system tumors.
  J Neurosurg, 97, 627-642.  
11867708 S.Liu, R.A.Cerione, and J.Clardy (2002).
Structural basis for the guanine nucleotide-binding activity of tissue transglutaminase and its regulation of transamidation activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 2743-2747.
PDB code: 1kv3
11700275 A.L.Dawe, and D.L.Nuss (2001).
Hypoviruses and chestnut blight: exploiting viruses to understand and modulate fungal pathogenesis.
  Annu Rev Genet, 35, 1.  
11371635 H.Resat, T.P.Straatsma, D.A.Dixon, and J.H.Miller (2001).
The arginine finger of RasGAP helps Gln-61 align the nucleophilic water in GAP-stimulated hydrolysis of GTP.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 6033-6038.  
11296216 I.Hayashi, T.Oyama, and K.Morikawa (2001).
Structural and functional studies of MinD ATPase: implications for the molecular recognition of the bacterial cell division apparatus.
  EMBO J, 20, 1819-1828.
PDB codes: 1g3q 1g3r
11389832 J.G.Kang, J.Yun, D.H.Kim, K.S.Chung, S.Fujioka, J.I.Kim, H.W.Dae, S.Yoshida, S.Takatsuto, P.S.Song, and C.M.Park (2001).
Light and brassinosteroid signals are integrated via a dark-induced small G protein in etiolated seedling growth.
  Cell, 105, 625-636.  
11258916 Z.Zhu, J.J.Dumas, S.E.Lietzke, and D.G.Lambright (2001).
A helical turn motif in Mss4 is a critical determinant of Rab binding and nucleotide release.
  Biochemistry, 40, 3027-3036.
PDB code: 1hxr
10970849 B.Prakash, L.Renault, G.J.Praefcke, C.Herrmann, and A.Wittinghofer (2000).
Triphosphate structure of guanylate-binding protein 1 and implications for nucleotide binding and GTPase mechanism.
  EMBO J, 19, 4555-4564.
PDB code: 1f5n
11112536 B.Schneider, C.Sigalat, T.Amano, and J.L.Zimmermann (2000).
Evidence for changes in the nucleotide conformation in the active site of H(+)-ATPase as determined by pulsed EPR spectroscopy.
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11163217 C.E.Stebbins, and J.E.Galán (2000).
Modulation of host signaling by a bacterial mimic: structure of the Salmonella effector SptP bound to Rac1.
  Mol Cell, 6, 1449-1460.
PDB codes: 1g4u 1g4w
10880458 D.Mohr, W.Wintermeyer, and M.V.Rodnina (2000).
Arginines 29 and 59 of elongation factor G are important for GTP hydrolysis or translocation on the ribosome.
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10966476 E.M.Ross, and T.M.Wilkie (2000).
GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins.
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10852703 F.J.Moy, P.K.Chanda, M.I.Cockett, W.Edris, P.G.Jones, K.Mason, S.Semus, and R.Powers (2000).
NMR structure of free RGS4 reveals an induced conformational change upon binding Galpha.
  Biochemistry, 39, 7063-7073.
PDB codes: 1ezt 1ezy
10873854 K.Braig, R.I.Menz, M.G.Montgomery, A.G.Leslie, and J.E.Walker (2000).
Structure of bovine mitochondrial F(1)-ATPase inhibited by Mg(2+) ADP and aluminium fluoride.
  Structure, 8, 567-573.
PDB codes: 1e1q 1e1r
10747781 K.G.Muradov, and N.O.Artemyev (2000).
Coupling between the N- and C-terminal domains influences transducin-alpha intrinsic GDP/GTP exchange.
  Biochemistry, 39, 3937-3942.  
10937867 M.Sprinzl, S.Brock, Y.Huang, P.Milovnik, M.Nanninga, M.Nesper-Brock, H.Rütthard, and K.Szkaradkiewicz (2000).
Regulation of GTPases in the bacterial translation machinery.
  Biol Chem, 381, 367-375.  
10937868 M.V.Rodnina, H.Stark, A.Savelsbergh, H.J.Wieden, D.Mohr, N.B.Matassova, F.Peske, T.Daviter, C.O.Gualerzi, and W.Wintermeyer (2000).
GTPases mechanisms and functions of translation factors on the ribosome.
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11032890 M.W.Bell, N.Desai, X.X.Guo, and A.J.Ghalayini (2000).
Tyrosine phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of transducin and its association with Src in photoreceptor rod outer segments.
  J Neurochem, 75, 2006-2019.  
10924155 S.Nadanaciva, J.Weber, and A.E.Senior (2000).
New probes of the F1-ATPase catalytic transition state reveal that two of the three catalytic sites can assume a transition state conformation simultaneously.
  Biochemistry, 39, 9583-9590.  
10819995 T.Shimizu, K.S.Thorn, A.Ruby, and R.D.Vale (2000).
ATPase kinetic characterization and single molecule behavior of mutant human kinesin motors defective in microtubule-based motility.
  Biochemistry, 39, 5265-5273.  
10649434 V.Echeverría, M.V.Hinrichs, M.Torrejón, S.Ropero, J.Martinez, M.J.Toro, and J.Olate (2000).
Mutagenesis in the switch IV of the helical domain of the human Gsalpha reduces its GDP/GTP exchange rate.
  J Cell Biochem, 76, 368-375.  
  10739241 W.Dall'Acqua, and P.Carter (2000).
Substrate-assisted catalysis: molecular basis and biological significance.
  Protein Sci, 9, 1-9.  
10714355 A.Ulloa-Aguirre, D.Stanislaus, J.A.Janovick, and P.M.Conn (1999).
Structure-activity relationships of G protein-coupled receptors.
  Arch Med Res, 30, 420-435.  
10387103 B.Turk, R.Awad, E.V.Usova, I.Björk, and S.Eriksson (1999).
A pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of substrate binding to human recombinant deoxycytidine kinase: a model for nucleoside kinase action.
  Biochemistry, 38, 8555-8561.  
10555980 D.L.Graham, J.F.Eccleston, C.W.Chung, and P.N.Lowe (1999).
Magnesium fluoride-dependent binding of small G proteins to their GTPase-activating proteins.
  Biochemistry, 38, 14981-14987.  
9893994 D.L.Graham, J.F.Eccleston, and P.N.Lowe (1999).
The conserved arginine in rho-GTPase-activating protein is essential for efficient catalysis but not for complex formation with Rho.GDP and aluminum fluoride.
  Biochemistry, 38, 985-991.  
10200251 D.R.Warner, and L.S.Weinstein (1999).
A mutation in the heterotrimeric stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha-subunit with impaired receptor-mediated activation because of elevated GTPase activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 4268-4272.  
10398298 G.Skladchikova, L.C.Ronn, V.Berezin, and E.Bock (1999).
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate affects neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth.
  J Neurosci Res, 57, 207-218.  
  10419963 I.Rombel, P.Peters-Wendisch, A.Mesecar, T.Thorgeirsson, Y.K.Shin, and S.Kustu (1999).
MgATP binding and hydrolysis determinants of NtrC, a bacterial enhancer-binding protein.
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10102276 J.Goldberg (1999).
Structural and functional analysis of the ARF1-ARFGAP complex reveals a role for coatomer in GTP hydrolysis.
  Cell, 96, 893-902.  
10494851 J.Müller, A.Marx, S.Sack, Y.H.Song, and E.Mandelkow (1999).
The structure of the nucleotide-binding site of kinesin.
  Biol Chem, 380, 981-992.  
10666573 J.Vitali, D.Carroll, R.G.Chaudhry, and M.L.Hackert (1999).
Three-dimensional structure of the Gly121Tyr dimeric form of ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus 30a.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 55, 1978-1985.
PDB code: 1c4k
10320361 J.Wei, and T.S.Leyh (1999).
Isomerization couples chemistry in the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system.
  Biochemistry, 38, 6311-6316.  
10714367 M.A.Levine (1999).
Clinical implications of genetic defects in G proteins: oncogenic mutations in G alpha s as the molecular basis for the McCune-Albright syndrome.
  Arch Med Res, 30, 522-531.  
  9872952 Q.Yang, and K.A.Borkovich (1999).
Mutational activation of a Galphai causes uncontrolled proliferation of aerial hyphae and increased sensitivity to heat and oxidative stress in Neurospora crassa.
  Genetics, 151, 107-117.  
10219876 R.H.Jenkins, R.Tuma, J.T.Juuti, D.H.Bamford, and G.J.Thomas (1999).
A novel Raman spectrophotometric method for quantitative measurement of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis.
  Biospectroscopy, 5, 3-8.  
10387006 S.Nadanaciva, J.Weber, and A.E.Senior (1999).
The role of beta-Arg-182, an essential catalytic site residue in Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.
  Biochemistry, 38, 7670-7677.  
10462410 T.M.Wilkie (1999).
G proteins, chemosensory perception, and the C. elegans genome project: An attractive story.
  Bioessays, 21, 713-717.  
10508262 W.V.Zhang, Y.Yang, R.W.Berg, E.Leung, and G.W.Krissansen (1999).
The small GTP-binding proteins Rho and Rac induce T cell adhesion to the mucosal addressin MAdCAM-1 in a hierarchical fashion.
  Eur J Immunol, 29, 2875-2885.  
9826650 A.Lavie, N.Ostermann, R.Brundiers, R.S.Goody, J.Reinstein, M.Konrad, and I.Schlichting (1998).
Structural basis for efficient phosphorylation of 3'-azidothymidine monophosphate by Escherichia coli thymidylate kinase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 14045-14050.
PDB codes: 4tmk 5tmp
9727495 C.U.Lenzen, D.Steinmann, S.W.Whiteheart, and W.I.Weis (1998).
Crystal structure of the hexamerization domain of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein.
  Cell, 94, 525-536.
PDB code: 1d2n
9646865 D.Barford, A.K.Das, and M.P.Egloff (1998).
The structure and mechanism of protein phosphatases: insights into catalysis and regulation.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 27, 133-164.  
9772163 D.E.Coleman, and S.R.Sprang (1998).
Crystal structures of the G protein Gi alpha 1 complexed with GDP and Mg2+: a crystallographic titration experiment.
  Biochemistry, 37, 14376-14385.
PDB code: 1bof
9718317 E.A.Namsaraev, and P.Berg (1998).
Interaction of Rad51 with ATP and Mg2+ induces a conformational change in Rad51.
  Biochemistry, 37, 11932-11939.  
  9865950 H.Käck, J.Sandmark, K.J.Gibson, G.Schneider, and Y.Lindqvist (1998).
Crystal structure of two quaternary complexes of dethiobiotin synthetase, enzyme-MgADP-AlF3-diaminopelargonic acid and enzyme-MgADP-dethiobiotin-phosphate; implications for catalysis.
  Protein Sci, 7, 2560-2566.
PDB codes: 1bs1 1dam
10384279 I.Rombel, A.North, I.Hwang, C.Wyman, and S.Kustu (1998).
The bacterial enhancer-binding protein NtrC as a molecular machine.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 63, 157-166.  
9462506 J.H.Kehrl (1998).
Heterotrimeric G protein signaling: roles in immune function and fine-tuning by RGS proteins.
  Immunity, 8, 1.  
9485425 J.Scheuring, P.J.Berti, and V.L.Schramm (1998).
Transition-state structure for the ADP-ribosylation of recombinant Gialpha1 subunits by pertussis toxin.
  Biochemistry, 37, 2748-2758.  
9697416 K.Scheffzek, M.R.Ahmadian, and A.Wittinghofer (1998).
GTPase-activating proteins: helping hands to complement an active site.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 23, 257-262.  
9753695 M.A.Wall, B.A.Posner, and S.R.Sprang (1998).
Structural basis of activity and subunit recognition in G protein heterotrimers.
  Structure, 6, 1169-1183.  
9846874 N.Nassar, G.R.Hoffman, D.Manor, J.C.Clardy, and R.A.Cerione (1998).
Structures of Cdc42 bound to the active and catalytically compromised forms of Cdc42GAP.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 1047-1052.
PDB codes: 1grn 2ngr
9461067 N.P.Skiba, and H.E.Hamm (1998).
How Gsalpha activates adenylyl cyclase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 88-92.  
9735104 N.T.Ktistakis (1998).
Signalling molecules and the regulation of intracellular transport.
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9631293 S.J.Gamblin, and S.J.Smerdon (1998).
GTPase-activating proteins and their complexes.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 195-201.  
9665734 V.Cepus, A.J.Scheidig, R.S.Goody, and K.Gerwert (1998).
Time-resolved FTIR studies of the GTPase reaction of H-ras p21 reveal a key role for the beta-phosphate.
  Biochemistry, 37, 10263-10271.  
9789008 W.Liu, and J.K.Northup (1998).
The helical domain of a G protein alpha subunit is a regulator of its effector.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 12878-12883.  
9618466 X.Sun, A.L.Bognar, E.N.Baker, and C.A.Smith (1998).
Structural homologies with ATP- and folate-binding enzymes in the crystal structure of folylpolyglutamate synthetase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 6647-6652.
PDB code: 1fgs
9265729 A.Bohm, R.Gaudet, and P.B.Sigler (1997).
Structural aspects of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 8, 480-487.  
9062100 A.J.Berdis, and S.J.Benkovic (1997).
Mechanism of bacteriophage T4 DNA holoenzyme assembly: the 44/62 protein acts as a molecular motor.
  Biochemistry, 36, 2733-2743.  
9305951 A.M.Gulick, C.B.Bauer, J.B.Thoden, and I.Rayment (1997).
X-ray structures of the MgADP, MgATPgammaS, and MgAMPPNP complexes of the Dictyostelium discoideum myosin motor domain.
  Biochemistry, 36, 11619-11628.
PDB codes: 1mma 1mmg 1mmn
9382787 A.Wittinghofer (1997).
Signaling mechanistics: aluminum fluoride for molecule of the year.
  Curr Biol, 7, R682-R685.  
9131251 D.E.Clapham, and E.J.Neer (1997).
G protein beta gamma subunits.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 37, 167-203.  
9315852 E.Pate, N.Naber, M.Matuska, K.Franks-Skiba, and R.Cooke (1997).
Opening of the myosin nucleotide triphosphate binding domain during the ATPase cycle.
  Biochemistry, 36, 12155-12166.  
9305638 G.R.Fanger, N.L.Johnson, and G.L.Johnson (1997).
MEK kinases are regulated by EGF and selectively interact with Rac/Cdc42.
  EMBO J, 16, 4961-4972.  
9220964 H.Mizuguchi, P.F.Cook, C.A.Hasemann, and K.Uyeda (1997).
Chemical mechanism of the fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase reaction from the pH dependence of kinetic parameters of site-directed mutants of active site basic residues.
  Biochemistry, 36, 8775-8784.  
9280438 I.Schlichting, and J.Reinstein (1997).
Structures of active conformations of UMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum suggest phosphoryl transfer is associative.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9290-9296.
PDB codes: 2ukd 3ukd 4ukd
9115987 I.Wong, and T.M.Lohman (1997).
A two-site mechanism for ATP hydrolysis by the asymmetric Rep dimer P2S as revealed by site-specific inhibition with ADP-A1F4.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3115-3125.  
9312017 J.Cherfils, J.Ménétrey, G.Le Bras, I.Janoueix-Lerosey, Gunzburg, J.R.Garel, and I.Auzat (1997).
Crystal structures of the small G protein Rap2A in complex with its substrate GTP, with GDP and with GTPgammaS.
  EMBO J, 16, 5582-5591.
PDB codes: 1kao 2rap
9030716 J.H.Exton (1997).
Cell signalling through guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) and phospholipases.
  Eur J Biochem, 243, 10-20.  
9302988 J.P.Noel (1997).
Turning off the Ras switch with the flick of a finger.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 677-680.  
9204866 J.Scheuring, and V.L.Schramm (1997).
Pertussis toxin: transition state analysis for ADP-ribosylation of G-protein peptide alphai3C20.
  Biochemistry, 36, 8215-8223.  
9371764 K.M.Druey, and J.H.Kehrl (1997).
Inhibition of regulator of G protein signaling function by two mutant RGS4 proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 12851-12856.  
  9111362 L.Kallal, and J.Kurjan (1997).
Analysis of the receptor binding domain of Gpa1p, the G(alpha) subunit involved in the yeast pheromone response pathway.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 2897-2907.  
9434896 M.Geyer, and A.Wittinghofer (1997).
GEFs, GAPs, GDIs and effectors: taking a closer (3D) look at the regulation of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 786-792.  
9302992 M.R.Ahmadian, P.Stege, K.Scheffzek, and A.Wittinghofer (1997).
Confirmation of the arginine-finger hypothesis for the GAP-stimulated GTP-hydrolysis reaction of Ras.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 686-689.  
9109662 M.R.Ahmadian, U.Hoffmann, R.S.Goody, and A.Wittinghofer (1997).
Individual rate constants for the interaction of Ras proteins with GTPase-activating proteins determined by fluorescence spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4535-4541.  
9069252 M.R.Koelle (1997).
A new family of G-protein regulators - the RGS proteins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 9, 143-147.  
9213227 R.E.Gundersen (1997).
Phosphorylation of the G protein alpha-subunit, G alpha 2, of Dictyostelium discoideum requires a functional and activated G alpha 2.
  J Cell Biochem, 66, 268-276.  
  9348541 R.T.Müller, U.Honnert, J.Reinhard, and M.Bähler (1997).
The rat myosin myr 5 is a GTPase-activating protein for Rho in vivo: essential role of arginine 1695.
  Mol Biol Cell, 8, 2039-2053.  
9207071 S.Popov, K.Yu, T.Kozasa, and T.M.Wilkie (1997).
The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) domains of RGS4, RGS10, and GAIP retain GTPase activating protein activity in vitro.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 7216-7220.  
9242920 S.R.Sprang (1997).
G protein mechanisms: insights from structural analysis.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 66, 639-678.  
9434906 S.R.Sprang (1997).
G proteins, effectors and GAPs: structure and mechanism.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 849-856.  
9056720 T.Gudermann, T.Schöneberg, and G.Schultz (1997).
Functional and structural complexity of signal transduction via G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Annu Rev Neurosci, 20, 399-427.  
9159128 T.Iiri, Z.Farfel, and H.R.Bourne (1997).
Conditional activation defect of a human Gsalpha mutant.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 5656-5661.  
9363787 T.Zor, M.Bar-Yaacov, S.Elgavish, B.Shaanan, and Z.Selinger (1997).
Rescue of a mutant G-protein by substrate-assisted catalysis.
  Eur J Biochem, 249, 330-336.  
9251782 W.Wriggers, and K.Schulten (1997).
Stability and dynamics of G-actin: back-door water diffusion and behavior of a subdomain 3/4 loop.
  Biophys J, 73, 624-639.  
9391039 Y.Liu, A.E.Ruoho, V.D.Rao, and J.H.Hurley (1997).
Catalytic mechanism of the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases: modeling and mutational analysis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13414-13419.
PDB codes: 1awk 1awl 1awm 1awn
9108019 Y.W.Xu, S.Moréra, J.Janin, and J.Cherfils (1997).
AlF3 mimics the transition state of protein phosphorylation in the crystal structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and MgADP.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 3579-3583.
PDB codes: 1kdn 2bef
8939752 A.M.Berghuis, E.Lee, A.S.Raw, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
Structure of the GDP-Pi complex of Gly203-->Ala gialpha1: a mimic of the ternary product complex of galpha-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis.
  Structure, 4, 1277-1290.
PDB code: 1git
8740357 A.Wittinghofer (1996).
Deciphering the alphabet of G proteins: the structure of the alpha, beta, gamma heterotrimer.
  Structure, 4, 357-361.  
8805587 C.A.Hasemann, E.S.Istvan, K.Uyeda, and J.Deisenhofer (1996).
The crystal structure of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase reveals distinct domain homologies.
  Structure, 4, 1017-1029.
PDB code: 1bif
8611530 C.A.Smith, and I.Rayment (1996).
X-ray structure of the magnesium(II).ADP.vanadate complex of the Dictyostelium discoideum myosin motor domain to 1.9 A resolution.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5404-5417.
PDB code: 1vom
8785318 C.A.Smith, and I.Rayment (1996).
Active site comparisons highlight structural similarities between myosin and other P-loop proteins.
  Biophys J, 70, 1590-1602.  
8917514 C.K.Chen, T.Wieland, and M.I.Simon (1996).
RGS-r, a retinal specific RGS protein, binds an intermediate conformation of transducin and enhances recycling.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12885-12889.  
8805521 C.W.Müller, G.J.Schlauderer, J.Reinstein, and G.E.Schulz (1996).
Adenylate kinase motions during catalysis: an energetic counterweight balancing substrate binding.
  Structure, 4, 147-156.
PDB code: 4ake
8851656 D.E.Coleman, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
How G proteins work: a continuing story.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 41-44.  
  8741733 D.J.Wilkinson, M.K.Mansoura, P.Y.Watson, L.S.Smit, F.S.Collins, and D.C.Dawson (1996).
CFTR: the nucleotide binding folds regulate the accessibility and stability of the activated state.
  J Gen Physiol, 107, 103-119.  
8791425 H.E.Hamm, and A.Gilchrist (1996).
Heterotrimeric G proteins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 189-196.  
8768893 J.Nyborg, and M.Kjeldgaard (1996).
Elongation in bacterial protein biosynthesis.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 7, 369-375.  
8710841 K.A.Maegley, S.J.Admiraal, and D.Herschlag (1996).
Ras-catalyzed hydrolysis of GTP: a new perspective from model studies.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 8160-8166.  
8986788 L.De Vries, E.Elenko, L.Hubler, T.L.Jones, and M.G.Farquhar (1996).
GAIP is membrane-anchored by palmitoylation and interacts with the activated (GTP-bound) form of G alpha i subunits.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 15203-15208.  
8699958 M.D.Ringel, W.F.Schwindinger, and M.A.Levine (1996).
Clinical implications of genetic defects in G proteins. The molecular basis of McCune-Albright syndrome and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy.
  Medicine (Baltimore), 75, 171-184.  
8994816 M.J.Gething (1996).
Molecular chaperones: clasping the prize.
  Curr Biol, 6, 1573-1576.  
8755504 O.Lichtarge, H.R.Bourne, and F.E.Cohen (1996).
Evolutionarily conserved Galphabetagamma binding surfaces support a model of the G protein-receptor complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 7507-7511.  
8896589 R.D.Vale (1996).
Switches, latches, and amplifiers: common themes of G proteins and molecular motors.
  J Cell Biol, 135, 291-302.  
8898209 R.Gaudet, A.Bohm, and P.B.Sigler (1996).
Crystal structure at 2.4 angstroms resolution of the complex of transducin betagamma and its regulator, phosducin.
  Cell, 87, 577-588.
PDB code: 2trc
8706729 W.Zeidler, N.K.Schirmer, C.Egle, S.Ribeiro, R.Kreutzer, and M.Sprinzl (1996).
Limited proteolysis and amino acid replacements in the effector region of Thermus thermophilus elongation factor Tu.
  Eur J Biochem, 239, 265-271.  
8804611 Z.Salamon, Y.Wang, J.L.Soulages, M.F.Brown, and G.Tollin (1996).
Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy studies of membrane proteins: transducin binding and activation by rhodopsin monitored in thin membrane films.
  Biophys J, 71, 283-294.  
7579036 A.G.Gilman (1995).
Nobel Lecture. G proteins and regulation of adenylyl cyclase.
  Biosci Rep, 15, 65-97.  
  7787065 A.J.Fisher, C.A.Smith, J.Thoden, R.Smith, K.Sutoh, H.M.Holden, and I.Rayment (1995).
Structural studies of myosin:nucleotide complexes: a revised model for the molecular basis of muscle contraction.
  Biophys J, 68, 19S.  
7648317 E.A.Merritt, and W.G.Hol (1995).
AB5 toxins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 165-171.  
7834744 E.J.Neer (1995).
Heterotrimeric G proteins: organizers of transmembrane signals.
  Cell, 80, 249-257.  
8521505 M.A.Wall, D.E.Coleman, E.Lee, J.A.Iñiguez-Lluhi, B.A.Posner, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1995).
The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2.
  Cell, 83, 1047-1058.
PDB codes: 1gg2 1gp2
8599650 M.R.Carson, and M.J.Welsh (1995).
Structural and functional similarities between the nucleotide-binding domains of CFTR and GTP-binding proteins.
  Biophys J, 69, 2443-2448.  
  7556089 P.D.Garcia, R.Onrust, S.M.Bell, T.P.Sakmar, and H.R.Bourne (1995).
Transducin-alpha C-terminal mutations prevent activation by rhodopsin: a new assay using recombinant proteins expressed in cultured cells.
  EMBO J, 14, 4460-4469.  
8747885 R.DeVinney, and H.H.Wang (1995).
Mg2+ enhances high affinity [3H]8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin binding and guanine nucleotide modulation of serotonin-1a receptors.
  J Recept Signal Transduct Res, 15, 757-771.  
7719851 R.Hilgenfeld (1995).
How do the GTPases really work?
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 3-6.  
8749370 R.Hilgenfeld (1995).
Regulatory GTPases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 810-817.  
7601096 R.Murray-Whelan, J.D.Reid, I.Piuz, M.Hezareh, and W.Schlegel (1995).
The guanine-nucleotide-binding protein subunit G alpha i2 is involved in calcium activation of phospholipase A2. Effects of the dominant negative G alpha i2 mutant, [G203T]G alpha i2, on activation of phospholipase A2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
  Eur J Biochem, 230, 164-169.  
8529632 S.Nock, N.Grillenbeck, M.R.Ahmadian, S.Ribeiro, R.Kreutzer, and M.Sprinzl (1995).
Properties of isolated domains of the elongation factor Tu from Thermus thermophilus HB8.
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8591040 S.R.Sprang (1995).
How Ras works: structure of a Rap-Raf complex.
  Structure, 3, 641-643.  
8524786 S.Talluri, A.Bhatt, and D.P.Smith (1995).
Identification of a Drosophila G protein alpha subunit (dGq alpha-3) expressed in chemosensory cells and central neurons.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 11475-11479.  
7719852 T.Schweins, M.Geyer, K.Scheffzek, A.Warshel, H.R.Kalbitzer, and A.Wittinghofer (1995).
Substrate-assisted catalysis as a mechanism for GTP hydrolysis of p21ras and other GTP-binding proteins.
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  7670369 U.Abele, and G.E.Schulz (1995).
High-resolution structures of adenylate kinase from yeast ligated with inhibitor Ap5A, showing the pathway of phosphoryl transfer.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1262-1271.
PDB codes: 1aky 2aky
7758452 W.Zeidler, C.Egle, S.Ribeiro, A.Wagner, V.Katunin, R.Kreutzer, M.Rodnina, W.Wintermeyer, and M.Sprinzl (1995).
Site-directed mutagenesis of Thermus thermophilus elongation factor Tu. Replacement of His85, Asp81 and Arg300.
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7634081 N.O.Artemyev, and H.E.Hamm (1994).
Probing G-protein function.
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7886813 R.J.Lefkowitz, A.Gilman, and M.Rodbell (1994).
Rodbell and Gilman win 1994 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine.
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