PDBsum entry 1fnn

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Cell cycle PDB id
Protein chains
379 a.a. *
ADP ×2
_MG ×2
Waters ×327
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Cell cycle
Title: Crystal structure of cdc6p from pyrobaculum aerophilum
Structure: Cell division control protein 6. Chain: a, b. Synonym: cdc6p. Engineered: yes
Source: Pyrobaculum aerophilum. Organism_taxid: 13773. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.00Å     R-factor:   0.221     R-free:   0.257
Authors: J.Liu,C.L.Smith,D.Deryckere,K.Deangelis,G.S.Martin, J.M.Berger
Key ref:
J.Liu et al. (2000). Structure and function of Cdc6/Cdc18: implications for origin recognition and checkpoint control. Mol Cell, 6, 637-648. PubMed id: 11030343 DOI: 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00062-9
22-Aug-00     Release date:   04-Oct-00    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8ZYK1  (Q8ZYK1_PYRAE) -  ORC1-type DNA replication protein
389 a.a.
379 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     cell division   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     nucleotide binding     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00062-9 Mol Cell 6:637-648 (2000)
PubMed id: 11030343  
Structure and function of Cdc6/Cdc18: implications for origin recognition and checkpoint control.
J.Liu, C.L.Smith, D.DeRyckere, K.DeAngelis, G.S.Martin, J.M.Berger.
Cdc6/Cdc18 is a conserved and essential component of prereplication complexes. The 2.0 A crystal structure of an archaeal Cdc6 ortholog, in conjunction with a mutational analysis of the homologous Cdc18 protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, reveals novel aspects of Cdc6/Cdc18 function. Two domains of Cdc6 form an AAA+-type nucleotide binding fold that is observed bound to Mg.ADP. A third domain adopts a winged-helix fold similar to known DNA binding modules. Sequence comparisons show that the winged-helix domain is conserved in Orc1, and mutagenesis data demonstrate that this region of Cdc6/Cdc18 is required for function in vivo. Additional mutational analyses suggest that nucleotide binding and/or hydrolysis by Cdc6/Cdc18 is required not only for progression through S phase, but also for maintenance of checkpoint control during S phase.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Nucleotide Binding by Cdc6A) Comparison of Cdc6 with various AAA^+ proteins. NSF-D2, Cdc6, and δ′ are shown in ribbon representation and colored cyan, green/red, and gold. Mg•ATP and Mg•ADP are shown bound to NSF-D2 and Cdc6, respectively, as black ball-and-stick. Structural comparisons between the AAA^+ regions of Cdc6, NSF-D2, and δ' can be made by using the core regions with sequence similarity as an additional guide: domain I of Cdc6 has an overall rmsd of 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å (spanning 100 and 79 residues) to NSF-D2, and δ′, respectively; domain II of Cdc6 superposes with the equivalent regions of NSF and δ' to 1.3 Å and 1.2 Å rmsd over 25 and 21 amino acids. Global rmsds spanning both domains are similar to individual domain rmsds for NSF-D2 and Cdc6 but are markedly different for cdc6 and δ′ (2.0 Å rmsd over 125 residues for NSF-D2 compared to 2.5 Å rmsd over 100 residues for δ′).(B) Stereogram view of the nucleotide binding region. Secondary structure is shown as a white coil. Residues within 4 Å of bound Mg•ADP are shown as gray ball-and-stick and are labeled; the one exception is His-167, which is part of the conserved sensor I motif but lies 5 Å away from the β-phosphate group. ADP is colored as magenta ball-and-stick, and the Mg^2+ ion and coordinating waters are shown as black and red spheres, respectively. Hydrogen bonds are shown as dashed lines. Backbone nitrogen atoms are shown as blue spheres and are exaggerated in size for emphasis.(A) and (B) generated by RIBBONS ([10]).
Figure 7.
Figure 7. Cdc6 Domain III(A) Ribbon diagram comparing the similar regions of Cdc6 domain III (right, gold) and histone H5 (left, blue). “HTH” and “W” designate the helix-turn-helix and wing regions, respectively. Secondary-structural elements of Cdc6 correspond to those in (C).(B) One model for domain III function. Domain III (gold) is shown docked onto duplex DNA (gray stick). To generate the model, domain III was superposed on E2F as seen in the E2F/DNA cocrystal structure ([63]). The rmsd between E2F and P. aerophilum Cdc6 domain III is 2.4 Å over 64 C[α] positions. Amino acids known to be important for appropriate Cdc6 activity are shown as magenta (null mutants) or cyan (2C-arrest mutants) ball-and-stick. It is interesting to note that, much like origin sequences, the surface of this domain is not conserved among Cdc6/Cdc18 orthologs. However, most of the observed mutations cluster on one side of the domain, and alleles 46 and 47 fall on or near the putative DNA binding elements (see Figure 6).(C) ClustalX ([59]) sequence alignment of the C-termini of Cdc6/Cdc18 and Orc1 orthologs. The secondary-structural elements observed in Cdc6 are drawn below as cylinders (α helices), arrows (β strands), and coil (lines). The P. aerophilum cdc6 and S. pombe cdc18^+ sequences are boxed in gray, while colors indicate regions of chemical conservation; for example, blue represents hydrophobic conservation, orange represents conservation of positively charged groups, etc.(A) and (B) generated by RIBBONS ([10]).
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Mol Cell (2000, 6, 637-648) copyright 2000.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21227921 E.C.Dueber, A.Costa, J.E.Corn, S.D.Bell, and J.M.Berger (2011).
Molecular determinants of origin discrimination by Orc1 initiators in archaea.
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20080949 A.Norris, and J.D.Boeke (2010).
Silent information regulator 3: the Goldilocks of the silencing complex.
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20945455 A.Sharma, A.Kar, M.Kaur, S.M.Ranade, A.Sankaran, S.Misra, K.Rawat, and S.Saxena (2010).
Specific replication factors are targeted by different genotoxic agents to inhibit replication.
  IUBMB Life, 62, 764-775.  
19633266 A.Gupta, P.Mehra, A.Deshmukh, A.Dar, P.Mitra, N.Roy, and S.K.Dhar (2009).
Functional dissection of the catalytic carboxyl-terminal domain of origin recognition complex subunit 1 (PfORC1) of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
  Eukaryot Cell, 8, 1341-1351.  
19722278 B.I.Khayrutdinov, W.J.Bae, Y.M.Yun, J.H.Lee, T.Tsuyama, J.J.Kim, E.Hwang, K.S.Ryu, H.K.Cheong, C.Cheong, J.S.Ko, T.Enomoto, P.A.Karplus, P.Güntert, S.Tada, Y.H.Jeon, and Y.Cho (2009).
Structure of the Cdt1 C-terminal domain: conservation of the winged helix fold in replication licensing factors.
  Protein Sci, 18, 2252-2264.
PDB codes: 2klo 3a4c
19217277 D.B.Wigley (2009).
ORC proteins: marking the start.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 19, 72-78.  
19233205 G.Nimrod, A.Szilágyi, C.Leslie, and N.Ben-Tal (2009).
Identification of DNA-binding proteins using structural, electrostatic and evolutionary features.
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19946136 M.L.Bochman, and A.Schwacha (2009).
The Mcm complex: unwinding the mechanism of a replicative helicase.
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18650940 A.Costa, G.van Duinen, B.Medagli, J.Chong, N.Sakakibara, Z.Kelman, S.K.Nair, A.Patwardhan, and S.Onesti (2008).
Cryo-electron microscopy reveals a novel DNA-binding site on the MCM helicase.
  EMBO J, 27, 2250-2258.  
18579587 A.Kumar, W.S.Joo, G.Meinke, S.Moine, E.N.Naumova, and P.A.Bullock (2008).
Evidence for a structural relationship between BRCT domains and the helicase domains of the replication initiators encoded by the Polyomaviridae and Papillomaviridae families of DNA tumor viruses.
  J Virol, 82, 8849-8862.  
19073923 A.S.Brewster, G.Wang, X.Yu, W.B.Greenleaf, J.M.Carazo, M.Tjajadia, M.G.Klein, and X.S.Chen (2008).
Crystal structure of a near-full-length archaeal MCM: functional insights for an AAA+ hexameric helicase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 20191-20196.
PDB code: 3f9v
18523437 A.T.McGeoch, and S.D.Bell (2008).
Extra-chromosomal elements and the evolution of cellular DNA replication machineries.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 9, 569-574.  
  19238189 G.T.Haugland, M.Innselset, D.Madern, and N.K.Birkeland (2008).
Characterization of the Cdc6 Homologues from the Euryarchaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.
  Open Biochem J, 2, 129-134.  
18757887 G.T.Haugland, N.Sakakibara, A.L.Pey, C.R.Rollor, N.K.Birkeland, and Z.Kelman (2008).
Thermoplasma acidophilum Cdc6 protein stimulates MCM helicase activity by regulating its ATPase activity.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 36, 5602-5609.  
18390662 J.H.Shin, G.Y.Heo, and Z.Kelman (2008).
The Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Cdc6-2 protein, the putative helicase loader, dissociates the minichromosome maintenance helicase.
  J Bacteriol, 190, 4091-4094.  
18451106 S.Marcand, B.Pardo, A.Gratias, S.Cahun, and I.Callebaut (2008).
Multiple pathways inhibit NHEJ at telomeres.
  Genes Dev, 22, 1153-1158.  
18293358 S.Tada, L.R.Kundu, and T.Enomoto (2008).
Insight into initiator-DNA interactions: a lesson from the archaeal ORC.
  Bioessays, 30, 208-211.  
17531813 D.Hermand, and P.Nurse (2007).
Cdc18 enforces long-term maintenance of the S phase checkpoint by anchoring the Rad3-Rad26 complex to chromatin.
  Mol Cell, 26, 553-563.  
17761879 E.L.Dueber, J.E.Corn, S.D.Bell, and J.M.Berger (2007).
Replication origin recognition and deformation by a heterodimeric archaeal Orc1 complex.
  Science, 317, 1210-1213.
PDB code: 2qby
17584917 L.Knizewski, L.N.Kinch, N.V.Grishin, L.Rychlewski, and K.Ginalski (2007).
Realm of PD-(D/E)XK nuclease superfamily revisited: detection of novel families with modified transitive meta profile searches.
  BMC Struct Biol, 7, 40.  
17761880 M.Gaudier, B.S.Schuwirth, S.L.Westcott, and D.B.Wigley (2007).
Structural basis of DNA replication origin recognition by an ORC protein.
  Science, 317, 1213-1216.
PDB code: 2v1u
17435790 M.L.Mott, and J.M.Berger (2007).
DNA replication initiation: mechanisms and regulation in bacteria.
  Nat Rev Microbiol, 5, 343-354.  
17630848 R.A.Sclafani, and T.M.Holzen (2007).
Cell cycle regulation of DNA replication.
  Annu Rev Genet, 41, 237-280.  
17130241 S.Boronat, and J.L.Campbell (2007).
Mitotic Cdc6 stabilizes anaphase-promoting complex substrates by a partially Cdc28-independent mechanism, and this stabilization is suppressed by deletion of Cdc55.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 1158-1171.  
17158702 E.R.Barry, and S.D.Bell (2006).
DNA replication in the archaea.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 70, 876-887.  
16908543 H.Liaw, and A.J.Lustig (2006).
Sir3 C-terminal domain involvement in the initiation and spreading of heterochromatin.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 7616-7631.  
16493661 H.Matsumura, H.Takahashi, T.Inoue, T.Yamamoto, H.Hashimoto, M.Nishioka, S.Fujiwara, M.Takagi, T.Imanaka, and Y.Kai (2006).
Crystal structure of intein homing endonuclease II encoded in DNA polymerase gene from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis strain KOD1.
  Proteins, 63, 711-715.
PDB codes: 2cw7 2cw8
16689629 J.P.Erzberger, and J.M.Berger (2006).
Evolutionary relationships and structural mechanisms of AAA+ proteins.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 35, 93.  
16493526 K.Yamashiro, S.Yokobori, T.Oshima, and A.Yamagishi (2006).
Structural analysis of the plasmid pTA1 isolated from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.
  Extremophiles, 10, 327-335.  
16179962 M.De Felice, L.Esposito, M.Rossi, and F.M.Pisani (2006).
Biochemical characterization of two Cdc6/ORC1-like proteins from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.
  Extremophiles, 10, 61-70.  
16430918 M.Rappas, J.Schumacher, H.Niwa, M.Buck, and X.Zhang (2006).
Structural basis of the nucleotide driven conformational changes in the AAA+ domain of transcription activator PspF.
  J Mol Biol, 357, 481-492.
PDB codes: 2c96 2c98 2c99 2c9c
16497662 S.Waga, and A.Zembutsu (2006).
Dynamics of DNA binding of replication initiation proteins during de novo formation of pre-replicative complexes in Xenopus egg extracts.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 10926-10934.  
16228006 C.Speck, Z.Chen, H.Li, and B.Stillman (2005).
ATPase-dependent cooperative binding of ORC and Cdc6 to origin DNA.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 965-971.  
16188887 D.Remus, M.Blanchette, D.C.Rio, and M.R.Botchan (2005).
CDK phosphorylation inhibits the DNA-binding and ATP-hydrolysis activities of the Drosophila origin recognition complex.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 39740-39751.  
16322558 D.Y.Takeda, Y.Shibata, J.D.Parvin, and A.Dutta (2005).
Recruitment of ORC or CDC6 to DNA is sufficient to create an artificial origin of replication in mammalian cells.
  Genes Dev, 19, 2827-2836.  
15808743 L.Aravind, V.Anantharaman, S.Balaji, M.M.Babu, and L.M.Iyer (2005).
The many faces of the helix-turn-helix domain: transcription regulation and beyond.
  FEMS Microbiol Rev, 29, 231-262.  
15611053 M.Su'etsugu, T.R.Shimuta, T.Ishida, H.Kawakami, and T.Katayama (2005).
Protein associations in DnaA-ATP hydrolysis mediated by the Hda-replicase clamp complex.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 6528-6536.  
16045748 N.P.Robinson, and S.D.Bell (2005).
Origins of DNA replication in the three domains of life.
  FEBS J, 272, 3757-3766.  
16208361 N.Yan, J.Chai, E.S.Lee, L.Gu, Q.Liu, J.He, J.W.Wu, D.Kokel, H.Li, Q.Hao, D.Xue, and Y.Shi (2005).
Structure of the CED-4-CED-9 complex provides insights into programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  Nature, 437, 831-837.
PDB code: 2a5y
16150924 R.Kasiviswanathan, J.H.Shin, and Z.Kelman (2005).
Interactions between the archaeal Cdc6 and MCM proteins modulate their biochemical properties.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 33, 4940-4950.  
  15876567 R.Zhang, and C.T.Zhang (2005).
Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method.
  Archaea, 1, 335-346.  
16002295 T.S.Takahashi, D.B.Wigley, and J.C.Walter (2005).
Pumps, paradoxes and ploughshares: mechanism of the MCM2-7 DNA helicase.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 30, 437-444.  
16242991 Z.Kelman, and M.F.White (2005).
Archaeal DNA replication and repair.
  Curr Opin Microbiol, 8, 669-676.  
15082529 D.L.Pappas, R.Frisch, and M.Weinreich (2004).
The NAD(+)-dependent Sir2p histone deacetylase is a negative regulator of chromosomal DNA replication.
  Genes Dev, 18, 769-781.  
15556043 E.Schwob (2004).
Flexibility and governance in eukaryotic DNA replication.
  Curr Opin Microbiol, 7, 680-690.  
14978287 K.C.McGarry, V.T.Ryan, J.E.Grimwade, and A.C.Leonard (2004).
Two discriminatory binding sites in the Escherichia coli replication origin are required for DNA strand opening by initiator DnaA-ATP.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 2811-2816.  
15090549 M.E.Stauffer, and W.J.Chazin (2004).
Structural mechanisms of DNA replication, repair, and recombination.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 30915-30918.  
15480865 P.Contursi, F.M.Pisani, A.Grigoriev, R.Cannio, S.Bartolucci, and M.Rossi (2004).
Identification and autonomous replication capability of a chromosomal replication origin from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.
  Extremophiles, 8, 385-391.  
15358831 S.A.Capaldi, and J.M.Berger (2004).
Biochemical characterization of Cdc6/Orc1 binding to the replication origin of the euryarchaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 4821-4832.  
15007098 S.L.Forsburg (2004).
Eukaryotic MCM proteins: beyond replication initiation.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 68, 109-131.  
14504622 A.Stenlund (2003).
Initiation of DNA replication: lessons from viral initiator proteins.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 4, 777-785.  
14527289 B.Grabowski, and Z.Kelman (2003).
Archeal DNA replication: eukaryal proteins in a bacterial context.
  Annu Rev Microbiol, 57, 487-516.  
12628342 C.Pelizon (2003).
Down to the origin: Cdc6 protein and the competence to replicate.
  Trends Cell Biol, 13, 110-113.  
12837750 J.H.Shin, B.Grabowski, R.Kasiviswanathan, S.D.Bell, and Z.Kelman (2003).
Regulation of minichromosome maintenance helicase activity by Cdc6.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 38059-38067.  
14635251 J.Méndez, and B.Stillman (2003).
Perpetuating the double helix: molecular machines at eukaryotic DNA replication origins.
  Bioessays, 25, 1158-1167.  
12823825 J.Yates, M.Aroyo, D.J.Sherratt, and F.X.Barre (2003).
Species specificity in the activation of Xer recombination at dif by FtsK.
  Mol Microbiol, 49, 241-249.  
12694608 L.M.Kelman, and Z.Kelman (2003).
Archaea: an archetype for replication initiation studies?
  Mol Microbiol, 48, 605-615.  
12966100 M.De Felice, L.Esposito, B.Pucci, F.Carpentieri, M.De Falco, M.Rossi, and F.M.Pisani (2003).
Biochemical characterization of a CDC6-like protein from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 46424-46431.  
12682358 N.Fujikawa, H.Kurumizaka, O.Nureki, T.Terada, M.Shirouzu, T.Katayama, and S.Yokoyama (2003).
Structural basis of replication origin recognition by the DnaA protein.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 2077-2086.
PDB code: 1j1v
12694607 R.Bernander (2003).
The archaeal cell cycle: current issues.
  Mol Microbiol, 48, 599-604.  
12766757 R.Giraldo, C.Fernández-Tornero, P.R.Evans, R.Díaz-Orejas, and A.Romero (2003).
A conformational switch between transcriptional repression and replication initiation in the RepA dimerization domain.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 565-571.
PDB code: 1hkq
12586394 R.Giraldo (2003).
Common domains in the initiators of DNA replication in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya: combined structural, functional and phylogenetic perspectives.
  FEMS Microbiol Rev, 26, 533-554.  
14636567 S.E.Kearsey, and S.Cotterill (2003).
Enigmatic variations: divergent modes of regulating eukaryotic DNA replication.
  Mol Cell, 12, 1067-1075.  
12909626 S.Ohta, Y.Tatsumi, M.Fujita, T.Tsurimoto, and C.Obuse (2003).
The ORC1 cycle in human cells: II. Dynamic changes in the human ORC complex during the cell cycle.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 41535-41540.  
12637554 T.Díaz-López, M.Lages-Gonzalo, A.Serrano-López, C.Alfonso, G.Rivas, R.Díaz-Orejas, and R.Giraldo (2003).
Structural changes in RepA, a plasmid replication initiator, upon binding to origin DNA.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 18606-18616.  
12514740 Y.H.Lee, S.Nadaraia, D.Gu, D.F.Becker, and J.J.Tanner (2003).
Structure of the proline dehydrogenase domain of the multifunctional PutA flavoprotein.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 109-114.
PDB codes: 1k87 4o8a
12151338 C.Pelizon, F.d'Adda di Fagagna, L.Farrace, and R.A.Laskey (2002).
Human replication protein Cdc6 is selectively cleaved by caspase 3 during apoptosis.
  EMBO Rep, 3, 780-784.  
12205096 F.Guo, M.R.Maurizi, L.Esser, and D.Xia (2002).
Crystal structure of ClpA, an Hsp100 chaperone and regulator of ClpAP protease.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 46743-46752.
PDB codes: 1k6k 1ksf
11756674 G.M.Wilmes, and S.P.Bell (2002).
The B2 element of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS1 origin of replication requires specific sequences to facilitate pre-RC formation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 101-106.  
11931756 H.L.Klein, and K.N.Kreuzer (2002).
Replication, recombination, and repair: going for the gold.
  Mol Cell, 9, 471-480.  
11805305 J.G.Cook, C.H.Park, T.W.Burke, G.Leone, J.DeGregori, A.Engel, and J.R.Nevins (2002).
Analysis of Cdc6 function in the assembly of mammalian prereplication complexes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 1347-1352.  
11931757 J.Méndez, X.H.Zou-Yang, S.Y.Kim, M.Hidaka, W.P.Tansey, and B.Stillman (2002).
Human origin recognition complex large subunit is degraded by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis after initiation of DNA replication.
  Mol Cell, 9, 481-491.  
12234917 J.P.Erzberger, M.M.Pirruccello, and J.M.Berger (2002).
The structure of bacterial DnaA: implications for general mechanisms underlying DNA replication initiation.
  EMBO J, 21, 4763-4773.
PDB code: 1l8q
12415300 M.J.Davey, D.Jeruzalmi, J.Kuriyan, and M.O'Donnell (2002).
Motors and switches: AAA+ machines within the replisome.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 3, 826-835.  
11950940 N.S.Frolova, N.Schek, N.Tikhmyanova, and T.R.Coleman (2002).
Xenopus Cdc6 performs separate functions in initiating DNA replication.
  Mol Biol Cell, 13, 1298-1312.  
11827963 N.Takahashi, S.Tsutsumi, T.Tsuchiya, B.Stillman, and T.Mizushima (2002).
Functions of sensor 1 and sensor 2 regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6p in vivo and in vitro.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 16033-16040.  
12209147 P.Chène (2002).
ATPases as drug targets: learning from their structure.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 1, 665-673.  
11839737 S.Nishida, K.Fujimitsu, K.Sekimizu, T.Ohmura, T.Ueda, and T.Katayama (2002).
A nucleotide switch in the Escherichia coli DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication: evidnece from a mutant DnaA protein defective in regulatory ATP hydrolysis in vitro and in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 14986-14995.  
12045100 S.P.Bell, and A.Dutta (2002).
DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 71, 333-374.  
11416203 A.Aslani, B.Macao, S.Simonsson, and P.Elias (2001).
Complementary intrastrand base pairing during initiation of Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA replication.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 7194-7199.  
11514535 B.Grabowski, and Z.Kelman (2001).
Autophosphorylation of archaeal Cdc6 homologues is regulated by DNA.
  J Bacteriol, 183, 5459-5464.  
11525729 D.Jeruzalmi, M.O'Donnell, and J.Kuriyan (2001).
Crystal structure of the processivity clamp loader gamma (gamma) complex of E. coli DNA polymerase III.
  Cell, 106, 429-441.
PDB code: 1jr3
11562464 F.Matsunaga, P.Forterre, Y.Ishino, and H.Myllykallio (2001).
In vivo interactions of archaeal Cdc6/Orc1 and minichromosome maintenance proteins with the replication origin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 11152-11157.  
11593009 I.Chesnokov, D.Remus, and M.Botchan (2001).
Functional analysis of mutant and wild-type Drosophila origin recognition complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 11997-12002.  
11709174 J.Wang, J.J.Song, I.S.Seong, M.C.Franklin, S.Kamtekar, S.H.Eom, and C.H.Chung (2001).
Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in a protease-associated ATPase HsIU.
  Structure, 9, 1107-1116.
PDB codes: 1hqy 1ht1 1ht2
11572976 M.Weinreich, C.Liang, H.H.Chen, and B.Stillman (2001).
Binding of cyclin-dependent kinases to ORC and Cdc6p regulates the chromosome replication cycle.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 11211-11217.  
11296251 R.Giraldo, and R.Diaz-Orejas (2001).
Similarities between the DNA replication initiators of Gram-negative bacteria plasmids (RepA) and eukaryotes (Orc4p)/archaea (Cdc6p).
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 4938-4943.  
11359560 S.A.MacNeill (2001).
Understanding the enzymology of archaeal DNA replication: progress in form and function.
  Mol Microbiol, 40, 520-529.  
11473577 T.Ogura, and A.J.Wilkinson (2001).
AAA+ superfamily ATPases: common structure--diverse function.
  Genes Cells, 6, 575-597.  
11115744 R.Bernander, and K.Skarstad (2000).
Mapping of a chromosome replication origin in an archaeon.
  Trends Microbiol, 8, 535-537.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.