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PDBsum entry 1erk

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protein links
Transferase PDB id
1erk
Jmol
Contents
Protein chain
357 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
1erk
Name: Transferase
Title: Structure of signal-regulated kinase
Structure: Extracellular regulated kinase 2. Chain: a. Synonym: mitogen activated protein (map) kinase erk2. Engineered: yes
Source: Rattus norvegicus. Norway rat. Organism_taxid: 10116. Cell_line: bl21. Gene: erk2. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21(de3). Expression_system_taxid: 469008.
Resolution:
2.30Å     R-factor:   0.209     R-free:   0.267
Authors: P.C.Harkins,E.J.Goldsmith
Key ref: F.Zhang et al. (1994). Atomic structure of the MAP kinase ERK2 at 2.3 A resolution. Nature, 367, 704-711. PubMed id: 8107865
Date:
06-Aug-96     Release date:   15-May-97    
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P63086  (MK01_RAT) -  Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Seq:
Struc:
358 a.a.
357 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.2.7.11.24  - Mitogen-activated protein kinase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
ATP
+ protein
= ADP
+ phosphoprotein
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     mitotic spindle   21 terms 
  Biological process     intracellular signal transduction   40 terms 
  Biochemical function     nucleotide binding     15 terms  

 

 
    reference    
 
 
Nature 367:704-711 (1994)
PubMed id: 8107865  
 
 
Atomic structure of the MAP kinase ERK2 at 2.3 A resolution.
F.Zhang, A.Strand, D.Robbins, M.H.Cobb, E.J.Goldsmith.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
The structure of the MAP kinase ERK2, a ubiquitous protein kinase target for regulation by Ras and Raf, has been solved in its unphosphorylated low-activity conformation to a resolution of 2.3 A. The two domains of unphosphorylated ERK2 are farther apart than in the active conformation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the peptide-binding site is blocked by tyrosine 185, one of the two residues that are phosphorylated in the active enzyme. Activation of ERK2 is thus likely to involve both global and local conformational changes.
 

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21110380 J.L.Yap, S.Worlikar, A.D.Mackerell, P.Shapiro, and S.Fletcher (2011).
Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the ERK Signaling Pathway: Towards Novel Anticancer Therapeutics.
  ChemMedChem, 6, 38-48.  
21474065 N.Jura, X.Zhang, N.F.Endres, M.A.Seeliger, T.Schindler, and J.Kuriyan (2011).
Catalytic control in the EGF receptor and its connection to general kinase regulatory mechanisms.
  Mol Cell, 42, 9.  
20739576 B.J.Alter, C.Zhao, F.Karim, G.E.Landreth, and R.W.Gereau (2010).
Genetic targeting of ERK1 suggests a predominant role for ERK2 in murine pain models.
  J Neurosci, 30, 11537-11547.  
20563625 P.Gruszczyński, M.Obuchowski, and R.Kaźmierkiewicz (2010).
Phosphorylation and ATP-binding induced conformational changes in the PrkC, Ser/Thr kinase from B. subtilis.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 24, 733-747.  
21070949 W.Ma, Y.Shang, Z.Wei, W.Wen, W.Wang, and M.Zhang (2010).
Phosphorylation of DCC by ERK2 is facilitated by direct docking of the receptor P1 domain to the kinase.
  Structure, 18, 1502-1511.
PDB code: 3o71
19590255 B.L.Burnette, S.Selness, R.Devraj, G.Jungbluth, R.Kurumbail, L.Stillwell, G.Anderson, S.Mnich, J.Hirsch, R.Compton, P.De Ciechi, H.Hope, M.Hepperle, R.H.Keith, W.Naing, H.Shieh, J.Portanova, Y.Zhang, J.Zhang, R.M.Leimgruber, and J.Monahan (2009).
SD0006: a potent, selective and orally available inhibitor of p38 kinase.
  Pharmacology, 84, 42-60.  
19918049 F.Villa, P.Capasso, M.Tortorici, F.Forneris, A.de Marco, A.Mattevi, and A.Musacchio (2009).
Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of Haspin, an atypical kinase implicated in chromatin organization.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 20204-20209.
PDB code: 2wb8
19689374 K.Burkhard, S.Smith, R.Deshmukh, A.D.MacKerell, and P.Shapiro (2009).
Development of extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors.
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19424502 M.C.Balasu, L.N.Spiridon, S.Miron, C.T.Craescu, A.J.Scheidig, A.J.Petrescu, and S.E.Szedlacsek (2009).
Interface analysis of the complex between ERK2 and PTP-SL.
  PLoS ONE, 4, e5432.  
19141286 X.Min, R.Akella, H.He, J.M.Humphreys, S.E.Tsutakawa, S.J.Lee, J.A.Tainer, M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (2009).
The structure of the MAP2K MEK6 reveals an autoinhibitory dimer.
  Structure, 17, 96.
PDB code: 3enm
19105050 F.Chen, A.D.Mackerell, Y.Luo, and P.Shapiro (2008).
Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for evaluating extracellular signal-regulated kinase docking domain inhibitors.
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18342604 J.C.Ngo, K.Giang, S.Chakrabarti, C.T.Ma, N.Huynh, J.C.Hagopian, P.C.Dorrestein, X.D.Fu, J.A.Adams, and G.Ghosh (2008).
A sliding docking interaction is essential for sequential and processive phosphorylation of an SR protein by SRPK1.
  Mol Cell, 29, 563-576.
PDB code: 3beg
18501927 K.M.Sours, S.C.Kwok, T.Rachidi, T.Lee, A.Ring, A.N.Hoofnagle, K.A.Resing, and N.G.Ahn (2008).
Hydrogen-exchange mass spectrometry reveals activation-induced changes in the conformational mobility of p38alpha MAP kinase.
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19052640 M.Marchi, A.D'Antoni, I.Formentini, R.Parra, R.Brambilla, G.M.Ratto, and M.Costa (2008).
The N-terminal domain of ERK1 accounts for the functional differences with ERK2.
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18068683 R.Akella, T.M.Moon, and E.J.Goldsmith (2008).
Unique MAP Kinase binding sites.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1784, 48-55.  
18829462 V.Levin-Salomon, K.Kogan, N.G.Ahn, O.Livnah, and D.Engelberg (2008).
Isolation of intrinsically active (MEK-independent) variants of the ERK family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 34500-34510.  
18212044 Y.Murakami, K.Tatebayashi, and H.Saito (2008).
Two adjacent docking sites in the yeast Hog1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase differentially interact with the Pbs2 MAP kinase kinase and the Ptp2 protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  Mol Cell Biol, 28, 2481-2494.  
17694525 D.Kuhn, N.Weskamp, E.Hüllermeier, and G.Klebe (2007).
Functional Classification of Protein Kinase Binding Sites Using Cavbase.
  ChemMedChem, 2, 1432-1447.  
17585314 J.A.Ubersax, and J.E.Ferrell (2007).
Mechanisms of specificity in protein phosphorylation.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 8, 530-541.  
  17918909 N.Fernandes, D.E.Bailey, D.L.Vanvranken, and N.L.Allbritton (2007).
Use of docking peptides to design modular substrates with high efficiency for mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
  ACS Chem Biol, 2, 665-673.  
17088252 T.Pang, B.Xiong, J.Y.Li, B.Y.Qiu, G.Z.Jin, J.K.Shen, and J.Li (2007).
Conserved alpha-helix acts as autoinhibitory sequence in AMP-activated protein kinase alpha subunits.
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Maspin augments proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
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16912277 E.A.Kritikou, S.Milstein, P.O.Vidalain, G.Lettre, E.Bogan, K.Doukoumetzidis, P.Gray, T.G.Chappell, M.Vidal, and M.O.Hengartner (2006).
C. elegans GLA-3 is a novel component of the MAP kinase MPK-1 signaling pathway required for germ cell survival.
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16628247 E.S.Groban, A.Narayanan, and M.P.Jacobson (2006).
Conformational changes in protein loops and helices induced by post-translational phosphorylation.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 2, e32.  
17000106 F.Chen, C.N.Hancock, A.T.Macias, J.Joh, K.Still, S.Zhong, A.D.MacKerell, and P.Shapiro (2006).
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17114285 M.A.Emrick, T.Lee, P.J.Starkey, M.C.Mumby, K.A.Resing, and N.G.Ahn (2006).
The gatekeeper residue controls autoactivation of ERK2 via a pathway of intramolecular connectivity.
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16429395 R.D.Machado, M.A.Aldred, V.James, R.E.Harrison, B.Patel, E.C.Schwalbe, E.Gruenig, B.Janssen, R.Koehler, W.Seeger, O.Eickelberg, H.Olschewski, C.G.Elliott, E.Glissmeyer, J.Carlquist, M.Kim, A.Torbicki, A.Fijalkowska, G.Szewczyk, J.Parma, M.J.Abramowicz, N.Galie, H.Morisaki, S.Kyotani, N.Nakanishi, T.Morisaki, M.Humbert, G.Simonneau, O.Sitbon, F.Soubrier, F.Coulet, N.W.Morrell, and R.C.Trembath (2006).
Mutations of the TGF-beta type II receptor BMPR2 in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
  Hum Mutat, 27, 121-132.  
16567630 S.Liu, J.P.Sun, B.Zhou, and Z.Y.Zhang (2006).
Structural basis of docking interactions between ERK2 and MAP kinase phosphatase 3.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 5326-5331.
PDB code: 2fys
16799155 S.Polychronopoulos, M.Verykokakis, M.N.Yazicioglu, M.Sakarellos-Daitsiotis, M.H.Cobb, and G.Mavrothalassitis (2006).
The transcriptional ETS2 repressor factor associates with active and inactive Erks through distinct FXF motifs.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 25601-25611.  
16765894 T.Zhou, L.Sun, J.Humphreys, and E.J.Goldsmith (2006).
Docking interactions induce exposure of activation loop in the MAP kinase ERK2.
  Structure, 14, 1011-1019.
PDB code: 2gph
16689645 V.Vogel (2006).
Mechanotransduction involving multimodular proteins: converting force into biochemical signals.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 35, 459-488.  
16364919 A.Reményi, M.C.Good, R.P.Bhattacharyya, and W.A.Lim (2005).
The role of docking interactions in mediating signaling input, output, and discrimination in the yeast MAPK network.
  Mol Cell, 20, 951-962.
PDB codes: 2b9f 2b9h 2b9i 2b9j
15692043 C.Kim, N.H.Xuong, and S.S.Taylor (2005).
Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA.
  Science, 307, 690-696.
PDB codes: 1u7e 3fhi
16148006 C.Tárrega, P.Ríos, R.Cejudo-Marín, C.Blanco-Aparicio, L.van den Berk, J.Schepens, W.Hendriks, L.Tabernero, and R.Pulido (2005).
ERK2 shows a restrictive and locally selective mechanism of recognition by its tyrosine phosphatase inactivators not shared by its activator MEK1.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 37885-37894.  
15531631 F.Gräter, J.Shen, H.Jiang, M.Gautel, and H.Grubmüller (2005).
Mechanically induced titin kinase activation studied by force-probe molecular dynamics simulations.
  Biophys J, 88, 790-804.  
15316926 G.Pelaia, G.Cuda, A.Vatrella, L.Gallelli, M.Caraglia, M.Marra, A.Abbruzzese, M.Caputi, R.Maselli, F.S.Costanzo, and S.A.Marsico (2005).
Mitogen-activated protein kinases and asthma.
  J Cell Physiol, 202, 642-653.  
15893667 M.Lei, M.A.Robinson, and S.C.Harrison (2005).
The active conformation of the PAK1 kinase domain.
  Structure, 13, 769-778.
PDB codes: 1yhv 1yhw
14695281 A.N.Hoofnagle, J.W.Stoner, T.Lee, S.S.Eaton, and N.G.Ahn (2004).
Phosphorylation-dependent changes in structure and dynamics in ERK2 detected by SDSL and EPR.
  Biophys J, 86, 395-403.  
15036210 C.Jones, and K.Moses (2004).
Cell-cycle regulation and cell-type specification in the developing Drosophila compound eye.
  Semin Cell Dev Biol, 15, 75-81.  
14625311 J.Felberg, D.C.Lefebvre, M.Lam, Y.Wang, D.H.Ng, D.Birkenhead, J.L.Cross, and P.Johnson (2004).
Subdomain X of the kinase domain of Lck binds CD45 and facilitates dephosphorylation.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 3455-3462.  
15102355 J.M.Olson, and A.R.Hallahan (2004).
p38 MAP kinase: a convergence point in cancer therapy.
  Trends Mol Med, 10, 125-129.  
15284239 R.Diskin, N.Askari, R.Capone, D.Engelberg, and O.Livnah (2004).
Active mutants of the human p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 47040-47049.  
15068802 T.Lee, A.N.Hoofnagle, Y.Kabuyama, J.Stroud, X.Min, E.J.Goldsmith, L.Chen, K.A.Resing, and N.G.Ahn (2004).
Docking motif interactions in MAP kinases revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry.
  Mol Cell, 14, 43-55.  
12815381 A.M.Manning, and R.J.Davis (2003).
Targeting JNK for therapeutic benefit: from junk to gold?
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2, 554-565.  
12598366 A.N.Hoofnagle, K.A.Resing, and N.G.Ahn (2003).
Protein analysis by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 32, 1.  
14506247 F.L.Chou, J.M.Hill, J.C.Hsieh, J.Pouyssegur, A.Brunet, A.Glading, F.Uberall, J.W.Ramos, M.H.Werner, and M.H.Ginsberg (2003).
PEA-15 binding to ERK1/2 MAPKs is required for its modulation of integrin activation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 52587-52597.  
12468535 I.Galetic, S.M.Maira, M.Andjelkovic, and B.A.Hemmings (2003).
Negative regulation of ERK and Elk by protein kinase B modulates c-Fos transcription.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 4416-4423.  
12835387 J.P.Kumar, F.Hsiung, M.A.Powers, and K.Moses (2003).
Nuclear translocation of activated MAP kinase is developmentally regulated in the developing Drosophila eye.
  Development, 130, 3703-3714.  
12754209 J.Zhang, B.Zhou, C.F.Zheng, and Z.Y.Zhang (2003).
A bipartite mechanism for ERK2 recognition by its cognate regulators and substrates.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 29901-29912.  
12808096 P.Coulombe, G.Rodier, S.Pelletier, J.Pellerin, and S.Meloche (2003).
Rapid turnover of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway defines a novel paradigm of mitogen-activated protein kinase regulation during cellular differentiation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 4542-4558.  
12773382 P.Y.Wang, P.Liu, J.Weng, E.Sontag, and R.G.Anderson (2003).
A cholesterol-regulated PP2A/HePTP complex with dual specificity ERK1/2 phosphatase activity.
  EMBO J, 22, 2658-2667.  
14580337 R.Bayliss, T.Sardon, I.Vernos, and E.Conti (2003).
Structural basis of Aurora-A activation by TPX2 at the mitotic spindle.
  Mol Cell, 12, 851-862.
PDB codes: 1ol5 1ol6 1ol7
12925535 S.Ghosh, S.Moore, R.M.Bell, and M.Dush (2003).
Functional analysis of a phosphatidic acid binding domain in human Raf-1 kinase: mutations in the phosphatidate binding domain lead to tail and trunk abnormalities in developing zebrafish embryos.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 45690-45696.  
12548283 T.A.Young, B.Delagoutte, J.A.Endrizzi, A.M.Falick, and T.Alber (2003).
Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PknB supports a universal activation mechanism for Ser/Thr protein kinases.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 168-174.
PDB code: 1mru
12517337 X.Huang, M.Begley, K.A.Morgenstern, Y.Gu, P.Rose, H.Zhao, and X.Zhu (2003).
Crystal structure of an inactive Akt2 kinase domain.
  Structure, 11, 21-30.
PDB codes: 1mrv 1mry
11839761 B.Zhou, and Z.Y.Zhang (2002).
The activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is regulated by differential phosphorylation in the activation loop.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 13889-13899.  
12086621 C.I.Chang, B.E.Xu, R.Akella, M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (2002).
Crystal structures of MAP kinase p38 complexed to the docking sites on its nuclear substrate MEF2A and activator MKK3b.
  Mol Cell, 9, 1241-1249.
PDB codes: 1lew 1lez
11823456 F.L.Robinson, A.W.Whitehurst, M.Raman, and M.H.Cobb (2002).
Identification of novel point mutations in ERK2 that selectively disrupt binding to MEK1.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 14844-14852.  
11863439 M.A.Schumacher, J.L.Todd, A.E.Rice, K.G.Tanner, and J.M.Denu (2002).
Structural basis for the recognition of a bisphosphorylated MAP kinase peptide by human VHR protein Phosphatase.
  Biochemistry, 41, 3009-3017.
PDB code: 1j4x
12070158 M.Garcia-Barrio, J.Dong, V.A.Cherkasova, X.Zhang, F.Zhang, S.Ufano, R.Lai, J.Qin, and A.G.Hinnebusch (2002).
Serine 577 is phosphorylated and negatively affects the tRNA binding and eIF2alpha kinase activities of GCN2.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 30675-30683.  
12015977 M.Huse, and J.Kuriyan (2002).
The conformational plasticity of protein kinases.
  Cell, 109, 275-282.  
12372837 M.J.Moore, J.R.Kanter, K.C.Jones, and S.S.Taylor (2002).
Phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Autophosphorylation versus phosphorylation by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 47878-47884.  
11854404 M.L.Sohaskey, and J.E.Ferrell (2002).
Activation of p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, induces phosphorylation and stabilization of MAPK phosphatase XCL100 in Xenopus oocytes.
  Mol Biol Cell, 13, 454-468.  
  12019230 P.J.Muhlrad, and S.Ward (2002).
Spermiogenesis initiation in Caenorhabditis elegans involves a casein kinase 1 encoded by the spe-6 gene.
  Genetics, 161, 143-155.  
12191603 R.A.Engh, and D.Bossemeyer (2002).
Structural aspects of protein kinase control-role of conformational flexibility.
  Pharmacol Ther, 93, 99.  
12149268 S.Shibayama, R.Shibata-Seita, K.Miura, Y.Kirino, and K.Takishima (2002).
Identification of a C-terminal region that is required for the nuclear translocation of ERK2 by passive diffusion.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 37777-37782.  
12191611 T.Tanoue, and E.Nishida (2002).
Docking interactions in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades.
  Pharmacol Ther, 93, 193-202.  
11953434 T.Tanoue, T.Yamamoto, and E.Nishida (2002).
Modular structure of a docking surface on MAPK phosphatases.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 22942-22949.  
12191618 Y.Fukami, T.Nagao, T.Iwasaki, and K.Sato (2002).
Inhibition and activation of c-Src: the head and tail of a coin.
  Pharmacol Ther, 93, 263-270.  
12056917 Z.X.Wang, B.Zhou, Q.M.Wang, and Z.Y.Zhang (2002).
A kinetic approach for the study of protein phosphatase-catalyzed regulation of protein kinase activity.
  Biochemistry, 41, 7849-7857.  
11598120 A.J.Ablooglu, M.Frankel, E.Rusinova, J.B.Ross, and R.A.Kohanski (2001).
Multiple activation loop conformations and their regulatory properties in the insulin receptor's kinase domain.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 46933-46940.  
11158577 A.N.Hoofnagle, K.A.Resing, E.J.Goldsmith, and N.G.Ahn (2001).
Changes in protein conformational mobility upon activation of extracellular regulated protein kinase-2 as detected by hydrogen exchange.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 956-961.  
11531253 K.M.Francis-Thickpenny, D.M.Richardson, C.C.van Ee, D.R.Love, I.M.Winship, B.C.Baguley, G.Chenevix-Trench, and A.N.Shelling (2001).
Analysis of the TGF beta functional pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  Br J Cancer, 85, 687-691.  
11592393 K.Zwerger, and H.Hirt (2001).
Recent advances in plant MAP kinase signalling.
  Biol Chem, 382, 1123-1131.  
11591711 M.A.Emrick, A.N.Hoofnagle, A.S.Miller, L.F.Ten Eyck, and N.G.Ahn (2001).
Constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by synergistic point mutations.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 46469-46479.  
11440715 R.Dajani, E.Fraser, S.M.Roe, N.Young, V.Good, T.C.Dale, and L.H.Pearl (2001).
Crystal structure of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta: structural basis for phosphate-primed substrate specificity and autoinhibition.
  Cell, 105, 721-732.
PDB code: 1h8f
11113199 S.T.Eblen, A.D.Catling, M.C.Assanah, and M.J.Weber (2001).
Biochemical and biological functions of the N-terminal, noncatalytic domain of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 249-259.  
11376431 T.R.Burke, Z.J.Yao, D.G.Liu, J.Voigt, and Y.Gao (2001).
Phosphoryltyrosyl mimetics in the design of peptide-based signal transduction inhibitors.
  Biopolymers, 60, 32-44.  
11157753 T.Tanoue, R.Maeda, M.Adachi, and E.Nishida (2001).
Identification of a docking groove on ERK and p38 MAP kinases that regulates the specificity of docking interactions.
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10933796 A.Y.Jan, E.F.Johnson, A.J.Diamonti, K.L.Carraway III, and K.S.Anderson (2000).
Insights into the HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase mechanism and substrate specificity using a transient kinetic analysis.
  Biochemistry, 39, 9786-9803.  
10821702 C.N.Prowse, J.C.Hagopian, M.H.Cobb, N.G.Ahn, and J.Lew (2000).
Catalytic reaction pathway for the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2.
  Biochemistry, 39, 6258-6266.  
  10794408 D.R.Caffrey, L.A.O'Neill, and D.C.Shields (2000).
A method to predict residues conferring functional differences between related proteins: application to MAP kinase pathways.
  Protein Sci, 9, 655-670.  
11046135 H.G.Kasler, J.Victoria, O.Duramad, and A.Winoto (2000).
ERK5 is a novel type of mitogen-activated protein kinase containing a transcriptional activation domain.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 8382-8389.  
11073971 J.Chen, S.Zhou, Q.Wang, X.Chen, T.Pan, and H.Liu (2000).
Crk1, a novel Cdc2-related protein kinase, is required for hyphal development and virulence in Candida albicans.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 8696-8708.  
  10701366 M.R.Pincus, P.W.Brandt-Rauf, J.Michl, R.P.Carty, and F.K.Friedman (2000).
ras-p21-induced cell transformation: unique signal transduction pathways and implications for the design of new chemotherapeutic agents.
  Cancer Invest, 18, 39-50.  
10995585 M.Saxena, and T.Mustelin (2000).
Extracellular signals and scores of phosphatases: all roads lead to MAP kinase.
  Semin Immunol, 12, 387-396.  
10699758 R.G.Allen, and M.Tresini (2000).
Oxidative stress and gene regulation.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 28, 463-499.  
10655591 T.Tanoue, M.Adachi, T.Moriguchi, and E.Nishida (2000).
A conserved docking motif in MAP kinases common to substrates, activators and regulators.
  Nat Cell Biol, 2, 110-116.  
10428055 A.K.Ho, K.Hashimoto, and C.L.Chik (1999).
3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat pinealocytes.
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The CDK-activating kinase (Cak1p) from budding yeast has an unusual ATP-binding pocket.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 1949-1956.  
10514473 D.Dorin, P.Alano, I.Boccaccio, L.Cicéron, C.Doerig, R.Sulpice, D.Parzy, and C.Doerig (1999).
An atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) homologue expressed in gametocytes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Identification of a MAPK signature.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 29912-29920.  
9925641 D.Jacobs, D.Glossip, H.Xing, A.J.Muslin, and K.Kornfeld (1999).
Multiple docking sites on substrate proteins form a modular system that mediates recognition by ERK MAP kinase.
  Genes Dev, 13, 163-175.  
  10101167 F.W.Farley, B.Satterberg, E.J.Goldsmith, and E.A.Elion (1999).
Relative dependence of different outputs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway on the MAP kinase Fus3p.
  Genetics, 151, 1425-1444.  
  10082509 H.J.Schaeffer, and M.J.Weber (1999).
Mitogen-activated protein kinases: specific messages from ubiquitous messengers.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 2435-2444.  
10358048 J.L.Wilsbacher, E.J.Goldsmith, and M.H.Cobb (1999).
Phosphorylation of MAP kinases by MAP/ERK involves multiple regions of MAP kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 16988-16994.  
10454194 J.M.Sowadski, L.F.Epstein, L.Lankiewicz, and R.Karlsson (1999).
Conformational diversity of catalytic cores of protein kinases.
  Pharmacol Ther, 82, 157-164.  
10220345 J.Shaffer, and J.A.Adams (1999).
An ATP-linked structural change in protein kinase A precedes phosphoryl transfer under physiological magnesium concentrations.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5572-5581.  
10207045 J.Toshima, T.Tanaka, and K.Mizuno (1999).
Dual specificity protein kinase activity of testis-specific protein kinase 1 and its regulation by autophosphorylation of serine-215 within the activation loop.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 12171-12176.  
10439507 K.A.Resing, A.N.Hoofnagle, and N.G.Ahn (1999).
Modeling deuterium exchange behavior of ERK2 using pepsin mapping to probe secondary structure.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 10, 685-702.  
10508788 S.Bellon, M.J.Fitzgibbon, T.Fox, H.M.Hsiao, and K.P.Wilson (1999).
The structure of phosphorylated p38gamma is monomeric and reveals a conserved activation-loop conformation.
  Structure, 7, 1057-1065.
PDB code: 1cm8
10074361 S.M.Bishop, J.B.Ross, and R.A.Kohanski (1999).
Autophosphorylation dependent destabilization of the insulin receptor kinase domain: tryptophan-1175 reports changes in the catalytic cleft.
  Biochemistry, 38, 3079-3089.  
10481143 S.S.Bhagwat, A.M.Manning, M.F.Hoekstra, and A.Lewis (1999).
Gene-regulating protein kinases as important anti-inflammatory targets.
  Drug Discov Today, 4, 472-479.  
10400638 S.S.Hook, B.E.Kemp, and A.R.Means (1999).
Peptide specificity determinants at P-7 and P-6 enhance the catalytic efficiency of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I in the absence of activation loop phosphorylation.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 20215-20222.  
10454215 Y.Fukami, A.A.Tokmakov, K.Konaka, and K.Sato (1999).
Peptide inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway: a structure -mimetic peptide corresponding to the conserved inter-DFG-APE region in the kinase domain.
  Pharmacol Ther, 82, 399-407.  
9756886 A.K.Konstantinidis, R.Radhakrishnan, F.Gu, R.N.Rao, and W.K.Yeh (1998).
Purification, characterization, and kinetic mechanism of cyclin D1. CDK4, a major target for cell cycle regulation.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 26506-26515.  
9726973 A.Krause, H.Holtmann, S.Eickemeier, R.Winzen, M.Szamel, K.Resch, J.Saklatvala, and M.Kracht (1998).
Stress-activated protein kinase/Jun N-terminal kinase is required for interleukin (IL)-1-induced IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression in the human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 23681-23689.  
9604935 A.V.Khokhlatchev, B.Canagarajah, J.Wilsbacher, M.Robinson, M.Atkinson, E.Goldsmith, and M.H.Cobb (1998).
Phosphorylation of the MAP kinase ERK2 promotes its homodimerization and nuclear translocation.
  Cell, 93, 605-615.  
9601030 B.D.Grant, W.Hemmer, I.Tsigelny, J.A.Adams, and S.S.Taylor (1998).
Kinetic analyses of mutations in the glycine-rich loop of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7708-7715.  
9753474 B.Frantz, T.Klatt, M.Pang, J.Parsons, A.Rolando, H.Williams, M.J.Tocci, S.J.O'Keefe, and E.A.O'Neill (1998).
The activation state of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase determines the efficiency of ATP competition for pyridinylimidazole inhibitor binding.
  Biochemistry, 37, 13846-13853.  
  9447975 D.C.Schönwasser, R.M.Marais, C.J.Marshall, and P.J.Parker (1998).
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by conventional, novel, and atypical protein kinase C isotypes.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 790-798.  
9817025 F.A.al-Obeidi, J.J.Wu, and K.S.Lam (1998).
Protein tyrosine kinases: structure, substrate specificity, and drug discovery.
  Biopolymers, 47, 197-223.  
  9618441 F.Banuett (1998).
Signalling in the yeasts: an informational cascade with links to the filamentous fungi.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 62, 249-274.  
9662067 H.C.Chen, H.J.Kung, and D.Robinson (1998).
Digital cloning: identification of human cDNAs homologous to novel kinases through expressed sequence tag database searching.
  J Biomed Sci, 5, 86-92.  
9461566 J.M.English, G.Pearson, R.Baer, and M.H.Cobb (1998).
Identification of substrates and regulators of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK5 using chimeric protein kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 3854-3860.  
9539704 J.Szczepanowska, U.Ramachandran, C.J.Herring, J.M.Gruschus, J.Qin, E.D.Korn, and H.Brzeska (1998).
Effect of mutating the regulatory phosphoserine and conserved threonine on the activity of the expressed catalytic domain of Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain kinase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 4146-4151.  
9636029 K.Y.Horiuchi, P.A.Scherle, J.M.Trzaskos, and R.A.Copeland (1998).
Competitive inhibition of MAP kinase activation by a peptide representing the alpha C helix of ERK.
  Biochemistry, 37, 8879-8885.  
  9744865 L.Bardwell, J.G.Cook, D.Voora, D.M.Baggott, A.R.Martinez, and J.Thorner (1998).
Repression of yeast Ste12 transcription factor by direct binding of unphosphorylated Kss1 MAPK and its regulation by the Ste7 MEK.
  Genes Dev, 12, 2887-2898.  
9520446 L.Ling, Z.Cao, and D.V.Goeddel (1998).
NF-kappaB-inducing kinase activates IKK-alpha by phosphorylation of Ser-176.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 3792-3797.  
9799732 M.J.Robinson, S.A.Stippec, E.Goldsmith, M.A.White, and M.H.Cobb (1998).
A constitutively active and nuclear form of the MAP kinase ERK2 is sufficient for neurite outgrowth and cell transformation.
  Curr Biol, 8, 1141-1150.  
9564044 M.Wiese (1998).
A mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologue of Leishmania mexicana is essential for parasite survival in the infected host.
  EMBO J, 17, 2619-2628.  
9720763 M.von Willebrand, S.Williams, P.Tailor, and T.Mustelin (1998).
Phosphorylation of the Grb2- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85-binding p36/38 by Syk in Lck-negative T cells.
  Cell Signal, 10, 407-413.  
  9528799 P.R.Romano, M.T.Garcia-Barrio, X.Zhang, Q.Wang, D.R.Taylor, F.Zhang, C.Herring, M.B.Mathews, J.Qin, and A.G.Hinnebusch (1998).
Autophosphorylation in the activation loop is required for full kinase activity in vivo of human and yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinases PKR and GCN2.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 2282-2297.  
9857190 R.Pulido, A.Zúñiga, and A.Ullrich (1998).
PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 by association through a kinase interaction motif.
  EMBO J, 17, 7337-7350.  
  9827991 T.Fox, J.T.Coll, X.Xie, P.J.Ford, U.A.Germann, M.D.Porter, S.Pazhanisamy, M.A.Fleming, V.Galullo, M.S.Su, and K.P.Wilson (1998).
A single amino acid substitution makes ERK2 susceptible to pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase.
  Protein Sci, 7, 2249-2255.
PDB code: 1pme
9760235 X.Cheng, S.Shaltiel, and S.S.Taylor (1998).
Mapping substrate-induced conformational changes in cAMP-dependent protein kinase by protein footprinting.
  Biochemistry, 37, 14005-14013.  
9739089 X.Xie, Y.Gu, T.Fox, J.T.Coll, M.A.Fleming, W.Markland, P.R.Caron, K.P.Wilson, and M.S.Su (1998).
Crystal structure of JNK3: a kinase implicated in neuronal apoptosis.
  Structure, 6, 983-991.
PDB code: 1jnk
9753691 Z.Wang, B.J.Canagarajah, J.C.Boehm, S.Kassisà, M.H.Cobb, P.R.Young, S.Abdel-Meguid, J.L.Adams, and E.J.Goldsmith (1998).
Structural basis of inhibitor selectivity in MAP kinases.
  Structure, 6, 1117-1128.
PDB codes: 1a9u 1bl6 1bl7 1bmk 3erk 4erk
  9243503 A.A.Reszka, J.C.Bulinski, E.G.Krebs, and E.H.Fischer (1997).
Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 regulates cytoskeletal organization and chemotaxis via catalytic and microtubule-specific interactions.
  Mol Biol Cell, 8, 1219-1232.  
8999914 A.F.Ferrier, M.Lee, W.B.Anderson, G.Benvenuto, D.K.Morrison, D.R.Lowy, and J.E.DeClue (1997).
Sequential modification of serines 621 and 624 in the Raf-1 carboxyl terminus produces alterations in its electrophoretic mobility.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 2136-2142.  
9125522 F.Heitz, M.C.Morris, D.Fesquet, J.C.Cavadore, M.Dorée, and G.Divita (1997).
Interactions of cyclins with cyclin-dependent kinases: a common interactive mechanism.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4995-5003.  
9434895 F.Sicheri, and J.Kuriyan (1997).
Structures of Src-family tyrosine kinases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 777-785.  
9393860 H.D.Madhani, C.A.Styles, and G.R.Fink (1997).
MAP kinases with distinct inhibitory functions impart signaling specificity during yeast differentiation.
  Cell, 91, 673-684.  
9201951 J.L.Buchbinder, C.B.Luong, M.F.Browner, and R.J.Fletterick (1997).
Partial activation of muscle phosphorylase by replacement of serine 14 with acidic residues at the site of regulatory phosphorylation.
  Biochemistry, 36, 8039-8044.  
9395542 J.Zhao, J.Trewhella, J.Corbin, S.Francis, R.Mitchell, R.Brushia, and D.Walsh (1997).
Progressive cyclic nucleotide-induced conformational changes in the cGMP-dependent protein kinase studied by small angle X-ray scattering in solution.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 31929-31936.  
9062128 J.Zhou, and J.A.Adams (1997).
Is there a catalytic base in the active site of cAMP-dependent protein kinase?
  Biochemistry, 36, 2977-2984.  
9492189 K.Hardy, and G.Chaudhri (1997).
Activation and signal transduction via mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in T lymphocytes.
  Immunol Cell Biol, 75, 528-545.  
9155023 K.Luo, and H.F.Lodish (1997).
Positive and negative regulation of type II TGF-beta receptor signal transduction by autophosphorylation on multiple serine residues.
  EMBO J, 16, 1970-1981.  
9092812 L.C.Groenen, F.Walker, A.W.Burgess, and H.R.Treutlein (1997).
A model for the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase involvement of an asymmetric dimer?
  Biochemistry, 36, 3826-3836.  
9095200 L.Tong, S.Pav, D.M.White, S.Rogers, K.M.Crane, C.L.Cywin, M.L.Brown, and C.A.Pargellis (1997).
A highly specific inhibitor of human p38 MAP kinase binds in the ATP pocket.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 311-316.
PDB code: 1ian
9261084 N.Narayana, S.Cox, X.Nguyen-huu, L.F.Ten Eyck, and S.S.Taylor (1997).
A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
  Structure, 5, 921-935.
PDB code: 1bkx
9376213 P.H.Sugden, and A.Clerk (1997).
Regulation of the ERK subgroup of MAP kinase cascades through G protein-coupled receptors.
  Cell Signal, 9, 337-351.  
9155021 R.E.Cutler, and D.K.Morrison (1997).
Mammalian Raf-1 is activated by mutations that restore Raf signaling in Drosophila.
  EMBO J, 16, 1953-1960.  
9160749 S.E.Clark, R.W.Williams, and E.M.Meyerowitz (1997).
The CLAVATA1 gene encodes a putative receptor kinase that controls shoot and floral meristem size in Arabidopsis.
  Cell, 89, 575-585.  
9305961 S.Sarno, P.Vaglio, O.Marin, O.G.Issinger, K.Ruffato, and L.A.Pinna (1997).
Mutational analysis of residues implicated in the interaction between protein kinase CK2 and peptide substrates.
  Biochemistry, 36, 11717-11724.  
9043657 T.F.Gallagher, G.L.Seibel, S.Kassis, J.T.Laydon, M.J.Blumenthal, J.C.Lee, D.Lee, J.C.Boehm, S.M.Fier-Thompson, J.W.Abt, M.E.Soreson, J.M.Smietana, R.F.Hall, R.S.Garigipati, P.E.Bender, K.F.Erhard, A.J.Krog, G.A.Hofmann, P.L.Sheldrake, P.C.McDonnell, S.Kumar, P.R.Young, and J.L.Adams (1997).
Regulation of stress-induced cytokine production by pyridinylimidazoles; inhibition of CSBP kinase.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 5, 49-64.  
9202006 W.Hemmer, M.McGlone, I.Tsigelny, and S.S.Taylor (1997).
Role of the glycine triad in the ATP-binding site of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 16946-16954.  
9295308 X.S.Wang, K.Diener, C.L.Manthey, S.Wang, B.Rosenzweig, J.Bray, J.Delaney, C.N.Cole, P.Y.Chan-Hui, N.Mantlo, H.S.Lichenstein, M.Zukowski, and Z.Yao (1997).
Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 23668-23674.  
9111004 Y.Jiang, Z.Li, E.M.Schwarz, A.Lin, K.Guan, R.J.Ulevitch, and J.Han (1997).
Structure-function studies of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Loop 12 influences substrate specificity and autophosphorylation, but not upstream kinase selection.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 11096-11102.  
  8985364 Z.He, Y.S.He, Y.Kim, L.Chu, C.Ohmstede, K.K.Biron, and D.M.Coen (1997).
The human cytomegalovirus UL97 protein is a protein kinase that autophosphorylates on serines and threonines.
  J Virol, 71, 405-411.  
9122194 Z.Wang, P.C.Harkins, R.J.Ulevitch, J.Han, M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (1997).
The structure of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 at 2.1-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 2327-2332.
PDB code: 1p38
9405446 Z.Yao, K.Diener, X.S.Wang, M.Zukowski, G.Matsumoto, G.Zhou, R.Mo, T.Sasaki, H.Nishina, C.C.Hui, T.H.Tan, J.P.Woodgett, and J.M.Penninger (1997).
Activation of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (SAPKs/JNKs) by a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 32378-32383.  
8756328 A.A.Russo, P.D.Jeffrey, and N.P.Pavletich (1996).
Structural basis of cyclin-dependent kinase activation by phosphorylation.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 696-700.
PDB code: 1jst
8917426 A.A.Tokmakov, S.Sahara, K.Sato, E.Nishida, and Y.Fukami (1996).
Phosphoregulatory tyrosine of Xenopus mitogen-activated protein kinase is out of the reach of the enzyme catalytic center after autophosphorylation. Biochemical evidence for conformational changes upon phosphorylation.
  Eur J Biochem, 241, 322-329.  
  8819164 B.D.Grant, I.Tsigelny, J.A.Adams, and S.S.Taylor (1996).
Examination of an active-site electrostatic node in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1316-1324.  
8639687 B.D.Grant, and J.A.Adams (1996).
Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of cAMP-dependent protein kinase using rapid quench flow techniques.
  Biochemistry, 35, 2022-2029.  
8798432 C.Chan, and G.N.Gill (1996).
Mutational analysis of the nucleotide binding site of the epidermal growth factor receptor and v-Src protein-tyrosine kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 22619-22623.  
8805593 C.D.Mol, J.M.Harris, E.M.McIntosh, and J.A.Tainer (1996).
Human dUTP pyrophosphatase: uracil recognition by a beta hairpin and active sites formed by three separate subunits.
  Structure, 4, 1077-1092.
PDB codes: 1q5h 1q5u
  8670804 C.E.Shamu, and P.Walter (1996).
Oligomerization and phosphorylation of the Ire1p kinase during intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus.
  EMBO J, 15, 3028-3039.  
8731081 D.Bokemeyer, A.Sorokin, and M.J.Dunn (1996).
Multiple intracellular MAP kinase signaling cascades.
  Kidney Int, 49, 1187-1198.  
8626767 E.R.Butch, and K.L.Guan (1996).
Characterization of ERK1 activation site mutants and the effect on recognition by MEK1 and MEK2.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 4230-4235.  
8805373 F.Bornancin, and P.J.Parker (1996).
Phosphorylation of threonine 638 critically controls the dephosphorylation and inactivation of protein kinase Calpha.
  Curr Biol, 6, 1114-1123.  
  8617203 F.Weis-Garcia, and J.Massagué (1996).
Complementation between kinase-defective and activation-defective TGF-beta receptors reveals a novel form of receptor cooperativity essential for signaling.
  EMBO J, 15, 276-289.  
8900195 H.Brzeska, B.M.Martin, and E.D.Korn (1996).
The catalytic domain of Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain kinase. I. Identification and characterization following tryptic cleavage of the native enzyme.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 27049-27055.  
8900196 H.Brzeska, J.Szczepanowska, J.Hoey, and E.D.Korn (1996).
The catalytic domain of acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain kinase. II. Expression of active catalytic domain and sequence homology to p21-activated kinase (PAK).
  J Biol Chem, 271, 27056-27062.  
8662190 H.Martín, M.C.Castellanos, R.Cenamor, M.Sánchez, M.Molina, and C.Nombela (1996).
Molecular and functional characterization of a mutant allele of the mitogen-activated protein-kinase gene SLT2(MPK1) rescued from yeast autolytic mutants.
  Curr Genet, 29, 516-522.  
8718888 J.A.Adams (1996).
Insight into tyrosine phosphorylation in v-Fps using proton inventory techniques.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10949-10956.  
8601311 J.Goldberg, A.C.Nairn, and J.Kuriyan (1996).
Structural basis for the autoinhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I.
  Cell, 84, 875-887.
PDB code: 1a06
  8947030 J.L.Smith, L.A.Silveira, and J.A.Spudich (1996).
Activation of Dictyostelium myosin light chain kinase A by phosphorylation of Thr166.
  EMBO J, 15, 6075-6083.  
  8786241 J.M.Sowadski, C.A.Ellis, and Madhusudan (1996).
Detergent binding to unmyristylated protein kinase A--structural implications for the role of myristate.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 7.  
8822261 J.P.Liu (1996).
Protein kinase C and its substrates.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 116, 1.  
8798720 K.Colwill, L.L.Feng, J.M.Yeakley, G.D.Gish, J.F.Cáceres, T.Pawson, and X.D.Fu (1996).
SRPK1 and Clk/Sty protein kinases show distinct substrate specificities for serine/arginine-rich splicing factors.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 24569-24575.  
  8617202 K.Colwill, T.Pawson, B.Andrews, J.Prasad, J.L.Manley, J.C.Bell, and P.I.Duncan (1996).
The Clk/Sty protein kinase phosphorylates SR splicing factors and regulates their intranuclear distribution.
  EMBO J, 15, 265-275.  
8910305 K.Lee, C.Du, M.Horn, and L.Rabinow (1996).
Activity and autophosphorylation of LAMMER protein kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 27299-27303.  
8910361 K.P.Wilson, M.J.Fitzgibbon, P.R.Caron, J.P.Griffith, W.Chen, P.G.McCaffrey, S.P.Chambers, and M.S.Su (1996).
Crystal structure of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 27696-27700.
PDB code: 1wfc
8620880 K.Rittinger, D.Negre, G.Divita, M.Scarabel, C.Bonod-Bidaud, R.S.Goody, A.J.Cozzone, and J.C.Cortay (1996).
Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase. Overproduction and kinetics of interaction with its substrates by using intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescent nucleotide analogues.
  Eur J Biochem, 237, 247-254.  
8612268 L.N.Johnson, M.E.Noble, and D.J.Owen (1996).
Active and inactive protein kinases: structural basis for regulation.
  Cell, 85, 149-158.  
8662649 M.Cheng, E.Zhen, M.J.Robinson, D.Ebert, E.Goldsmith, and M.H.Cobb (1996).
Characterization of a protein kinase that phosphorylates serine 189 of the mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog ERK3.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 12057-12062.  
8621539 M.Cheng, T.G.Boulton, and M.H.Cobb (1996).
ERK3 is a constitutively nuclear protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 8951-8958.  
8639522 M.J.Robinson, P.C.Harkins, J.Zhang, R.Baer, J.W.Haycock, M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (1996).
Mutation of position 52 in ERK2 creates a nonproductive binding mode for adenosine 5'-triphosphate.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5641-5646.
PDB code: 1gol
8902843 P.A.Wilden, I.Rovira, and D.E.Broadway (1996).
Insulin receptor structural requirements for the formation of a ternary complex with IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 122, 131-140.  
8939691 P.R.Thompson, D.W.Hughes, and G.D.Wright (1996).
Mechanism of aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase type IIIa: His188 is not a phosphate-accepting residue.
  Chem Biol, 3, 747-755.  
8692811 R.M.Xu, G.Carmel, J.Kuret, and X.Cheng (1996).
Structural basis for selectivity of the isoquinoline sulfonamide family of protein kinase inhibitors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 6308-6313.
PDB code: 2csn
8692801 R.Murali, P.J.Brennan, T.Kieber-Emmons, and M.I.Greene (1996).
Structural analysis of p185c-neu and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases: oligomerization of kinase domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 6252-6257.  
8952507 S.J.Mansour, J.M.Candia, J.E.Matsuura, M.C.Manning, and N.G.Ahn (1996).
Interdependent domains controlling the enzymatic activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1.
  Biochemistry, 35, 15529-15536.  
8601310 Y.Bourne, M.H.Watson, M.J.Hickey, W.Holmes, W.Rocque, S.I.Reed, and J.A.Tainer (1996).
Crystal structure and mutational analysis of the human CDK2 kinase complex with cell cycle-regulatory protein CksHs1.
  Cell, 84, 863-874.
PDB code: 1buh
8663524 Y.Jiang, C.Chen, Z.Li, W.Guo, J.A.Gegner, S.Lin, and J.Han (1996).
Characterization of the structure and function of a new mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38beta).
  J Biol Chem, 271, 17920-17926.  
  8887677 Z.Songyang, K.P.Lu, Y.T.Kwon, L.H.Tsai, O.Filhol, C.Cochet, D.A.Brickey, T.R.Soderling, C.Bartleson, D.J.Graves, A.J.DeMaggio, M.F.Hoekstra, J.Blenis, T.Hunter, and L.C.Cantley (1996).
A structural basis for substrate specificities of protein Ser/Thr kinases: primary sequence preference of casein kinases I and II, NIMA, phosphorylase kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, CDK5, and Erk1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 6486-6493.  
8770389 A.J.Bridges, D.R.Cody, H.Zhou, A.McMichael, and D.W.Fry (1995).
Enantioselective inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase by 4-(alpha-phenethylamino)quinazolines.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 3, 1651-1656.  
7479834 A.S.Zervos, L.Faccio, J.P.Gatto, J.M.Kyriakis, and R.Brent (1995).
Mxi2, a mitogen-activated protein kinase that recognizes and phosphorylates Max protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 10531-10534.  
7592672 A.Scott, C.M.Haystead, and T.A.Haystead (1995).
Purification of a 12,020-dalton protein that enhances the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by MAP kinase kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 24540-24547.  
  7641687 B.Haribabu, S.S.Hook, M.A.Selbert, E.G.Goldstein, E.D.Tomhave, A.M.Edelman, R.Snyderman, and A.R.Means (1995).
Human calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I: cDNA cloning, domain structure and activation by phosphorylation at threonine-177 by calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I kinase.
  EMBO J, 14, 3679-3686.  
  8524219 B.Yashar, K.Irie, J.A.Printen, B.J.Stevenson, G.F.Sprague, K.Matsumoto, and B.Errede (1995).
Yeast MEK-dependent signal transduction: response thresholds and parameters affecting fidelity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 6545-6553.  
8747453 C.Block, and A.Wittinghofer (1995).
Switching to Rac and Rho.
  Structure, 3, 1281-1284.  
7608157 C.Wu, M.Whiteway, D.Y.Thomas, and E.Leberer (1995).
Molecular characterization of Ste20p, a potential mitogen-activated protein or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) kinase kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 15984-15992.  
7706257 C.Y.Huang, C.J.Yuan, D.K.Blumenthal, and D.J.Graves (1995).
Identification of the substrate and pseudosubstrate binding sites of phosphorylase kinase gamma-subunit.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 7183-7188.  
  7579701 D.Ma, J.G.Cook, and J.Thorner (1995).
Phosphorylation and localization of Kss1, a MAP kinase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway.
  Mol Biol Cell, 6, 889-909.  
7780739 D.R.Alessi, N.Gomez, G.Moorhead, T.Lewis, S.M.Keyse, and P.Cohen (1995).
Inactivation of p42 MAP kinase by protein phosphatase 2A and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, but not CL100, in various cell lines.
  Curr Biol, 5, 283-295.  
14732097 E.A.Elion (1995).
Ste5: a meeting place for MAP kinases and their associates.
  Trends Cell Biol, 5, 322-327.  
8529658 F.Meggio, A.Donella Deana, M.Ruzzene, A.M.Brunati, L.Cesaro, B.Guerra, T.Meyer, H.Mett, D.Fabbro, and P.Furet (1995).
Different susceptibility of protein kinases to staurosporine inhibition. Kinetic studies and molecular bases for the resistance of protein kinase CK2.
  Eur J Biochem, 234, 317-322.  
7673144 G.E.Benner, P.B.Dennis, and R.A.Masaracchia (1995).
Activation of an S6/H4 kinase (PAK 65) from human placenta by intramolecular and intermolecular autophosphorylation.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 21121-21128.  
  7862150 J.Cárcamo, A.Zentella, and J.Massagué (1995).
Disruption of transforming growth factor beta signaling by a mutation that prevents transphosphorylation within the receptor complex.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 1573-1581.  
7540485 J.Zhang, F.Zhang, D.Ebert, M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (1995).
Activity of the MAP kinase ERK2 is controlled by a flexible surface loop.
  Structure, 3, 299-307.  
7592979 K.Engel, H.Schultz, F.Martin, A.Kotlyarov, K.Plath, M.Hahn, U.Heinemann, and M.Gaestel (1995).
Constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 by mutation of phosphorylation sites and an A-helix motif.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 27213-27221.  
8749392 L.M.Keranen, E.M.Dutil, and A.C.Newton (1995).
Protein kinase C is regulated in vivo by three functionally distinct phosphorylations.
  Curr Biol, 5, 1394-1403.  
7713916 L.Wei, S.R.Hubbard, W.A.Hendrickson, and L.Ellis (1995).
Expression, characterization, and crystallization of the catalytic core of the human insulin receptor protein-tyrosine kinase domain.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 8122-8130.  
  7529876 M.B.Calalb, T.R.Polte, and S.K.Hanks (1995).
Tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at sites in the catalytic domain regulates kinase activity: a role for Src family kinases.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 954-963.  
7797459 M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (1995).
How MAP kinases are regulated.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 14843-14846.  
8789188 P.Furet, G.Caravatti, N.Lydon, J.P.Priestle, J.M.Sowadski, U.Trinks, and P.Traxler (1995).
Modelling study of protein kinase inhibitors: binding mode of staurosporine and origin of the selectivity of CGP 52411.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 9, 465-472.  
  7565706 P.J.Welch, and J.Y.Wang (1995).
Abrogation of retinoblastoma protein function by c-Abl through tyrosine kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 5542-5551.  
7867619 R.M.Denton, and J.M.Tavaré (1995).
Does mitogen-activated-protein kinase have a role in insulin action? The cases for and against.
  Eur J Biochem, 227, 597-611.  
  7774578 R.Wieser, J.L.Wrana, and J.Massagué (1995).
GS domain mutations that constitutively activate T beta R-I, the downstream signaling component in the TGF-beta receptor complex.
  EMBO J, 14, 2199-2208.  
7566335 S.L.Pelech (1995).
Networking with proline-directed protein kinases implicated in tau phosphorylation.
  Neurobiol Aging, 16, 247.  
7761441 T.Millward, P.Cron, and B.A.Hemmings (1995).
Molecular cloning and characterization of a conserved nuclear serine(threonine) protein kinase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 5022-5026.  
7888623 V.Decroocq-Ferrant, S.Decroocq, J.Van Went, E.Schmidt, and M.Kreis (1995).
A homologue of the MAP/ERK family of protein kinase genes is expressed in vegetative and in female reproductive organs of Petunia hybrida.
  Plant Mol Biol, 27, 339-350.  
8076632 A.Chavanieu, N.E.Keane, P.G.Quirk, B.A.Levine, B.Calas, L.Wei, and L.Ellis (1994).
Phosphorylation effects on flanking charged residues. Structural implications for signal transduction in protein kinases.
  Eur J Biochem, 224, 115-123.  
7855883 B.E.Kemp, M.W.Parker, S.Hu, T.Tiganis, and C.House (1994).
Substrate and pseudosubstrate interactions with protein kinases: determinants of specificity.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 19, 440-444.  
7517688 D.O.Morgan, and H.L.De Bondt (1994).
Protein kinase regulation: insights from crystal structure analysis.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 6, 239-246.  
7712287 E.J.Goldsmith, and M.H.Cobb (1994).
Protein kinases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 4, 833-840.  
  8039496 G.Pagès, A.Brunet, G.L'Allemain, and J.Pouysségur (1994).
Constitutive mutant and putative regulatory serine phosphorylation site of mammalian MAP kinase kinase (MEK1).
  EMBO J, 13, 3003-3010.  
7929589 J.P.Tassan, S.J.Schultz, J.Bartek, and E.A.Nigg (1994).
Cell cycle analysis of the activity, subcellular localization, and subunit composition of human CAK (CDK-activating kinase).
  J Cell Biol, 127, 467-478.  
  7849589 L.N.Johnson, and D.Barford (1994).
Electrostatic effects in the control of glycogen phosphorylase by phosphorylation.
  Protein Sci, 3, 1726-1730.  
7809124 M.Vihinen, D.Vetrie, H.S.Maniar, H.D.Ochs, Q.Zhu, I.Vorechovský, A.D.Webster, L.D.Notarangelo, L.Nilsson, and J.M.Sowadski (1994).
Structural basis for chromosome X-linked agammaglobulinemia: a tyrosine kinase disease.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 12803-12807.  
7528141 N.E.Keane, A.Chavanieu, P.G.Quirk, J.S.Evans, B.A.Levine, B.Calas, L.Wei, and L.Ellis (1994).
Structural determinants of substrate selection by the human insulin-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase.
  Eur J Biochem, 226, 525-536.  
7953546 P.R.Clarke (1994).
Signal transduction. Switching off MAP kinases.
  Curr Biol, 4, 647-650.  
7855889 R.J.Davis (1994).
MAPKs: new JNK expands the group.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 19, 470-473.  
7712293 S.Cox, E.Radzio-Andzelm, and S.S.Taylor (1994).
Domain movements in protein kinases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 4, 893-901.  
8081750 S.S.Taylor, and E.Radzio-Andzelm (1994).
Three protein kinase structures define a common motif.
  Structure, 2, 345-355.  
7874496 Z.Songyang, S.Blechner, N.Hoagland, M.F.Hoekstra, H.Piwnica-Worms, and L.C.Cantley (1994).
Use of an oriented peptide library to determine the optimal substrates of protein kinases.
  Curr Biol, 4, 973-982.  
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