PDBsum entry 1ecl

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Topoisomerase PDB id
Protein chain
552 a.a. *
Waters ×536
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Topoisomerase
Title: Amino terminal 67kda domain of escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase i (residues 2-590 of mature protein) cloning artifact adds two residues to the amino-terminus which were not observed in the experimental electron density (gly-2, ser-1).
Structure: Escherichia coli topoisomerase i. Chain: a. Synonym: escherichia coli omega protein. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Escherichia coli. Organism_taxid: 562. Gene: topa.
1.90Å     R-factor:   0.218    
Authors: C.D.Lima,J.C.Wang,A.Mondragon
Key ref:
C.D.Lima et al. (1994). Three-dimensional structure of the 67K N-terminal fragment of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I. Nature, 367, 138-146. PubMed id: 8114910 DOI: 10.1038/367138a0
05-May-95     Release date:   31-Jul-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P06612  (TOP1_ECOLI) -  DNA topoisomerase 1
865 a.a.
552 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Dna topoisomerase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: ATP-independent breakage of single-stranded DNA, followed by passage and rejoining.
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     DNA topological change   1 term 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/367138a0 Nature 367:138-146 (1994)
PubMed id: 8114910  
Three-dimensional structure of the 67K N-terminal fragment of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I.
C.D.Lima, J.C.Wang, A.Mondragón.
The three-dimensional structure of the 67K amino-terminal fragment of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I has been determined to 2.2 A resolution. The polypeptide folds in an unusual way to give four distinct domains enclosing a hole large enough to accommodate a double-stranded DNA. The active-site tyrosyl residue, which is involved in the transient breakage of a DNA strand and the formation of a covalent enzyme-DNA intermediate, is present at the interface of two domains. The structure suggests a plausible mechanism by which E. coli DNA topoisomerase I and other members of the same DNA topoisomerase subfamily could catalyse the passage of one DNA strand through a transient break in another strand.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 2.
FIG 2. Overall architecture.
Figure 5.
FIG 5. Proposed steps in the strand passage reaction.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (1994, 367, 138-146) copyright 1994.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21051354 A.Ganguly, Y.Del Toro Duany, M.G.Rudolph, and D.Klostermeier (2011).
The latch modulates nucleotide and DNA binding to the helicase-like domain of Thermotoga maritima reverse gyrase and is required for positive DNA supercoiling.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 39, 1789-1800.
PDB code: 3oiy
22108601 S.M.Vos, E.M.Tretter, B.H.Schmidt, and J.M.Berger (2011).
All tangled up: how cells direct, manage and exploit topoisomerase function.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 12, 827-841.  
21482796 Z.Zhang, B.Cheng, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2011).
Crystal structure of a covalent intermediate in DNA cleavage and rejoining by Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108, 6939-6944.  
20723754 D.A.Koster, A.Crut, S.Shuman, M.A.Bjornsti, and N.H.Dekker (2010).
Cellular strategies for regulating DNA supercoiling: a single-molecule perspective.
  Cell, 142, 519-530.  
21087076 W.Yang (2010).
Topoisomerases and site-specific recombinases: similarities in structure and mechanism.
  Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 45, 520-534.  
19358853 C.A.Adams, M.Melikishvili, D.W.Rodgers, J.J.Rasimas, A.E.Pegg, and M.G.Fried (2009).
Topologies of complexes containing O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase and DNA.
  J Mol Biol, 389, 248-263.  
19596812 G.Fu, J.Wu, W.Liu, D.Zhu, Y.Hu, J.Deng, X.E.Zhang, L.Bi, and D.C.Wang (2009).
Crystal structure of DNA gyrase B' domain sheds lights on the mechanism for T-segment navigation.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 37, 5908-5916.
PDB code: 2zjt
19489720 J.C.Wang, and J.C.Wang (2009).
A journey in the world of DNA rings and beyond.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 78, 31-54.  
19726668 J.Plank, and T.S.Hsieh (2009).
Helicase-appended topoisomerases: new insight into the mechanism of directional strand transfer.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 30737-30741.  
19106140 N.M.Baker, R.Rajan, and A.Mondragón (2009).
Structural studies of type I topoisomerases.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 37, 693-701.  
19150358 R.D.Shereda, N.J.Reiter, S.E.Butcher, and J.L.Keck (2009).
Identification of the SSB binding site on E. coli RecQ reveals a conserved surface for binding SSB's C terminus.
  J Mol Biol, 386, 612-625.  
19657341 W.K.Chu, and I.D.Hickson (2009).
RecQ helicases: multifunctional genome caretakers.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 9, 644-654.  
18755053 A.J.Schoeffler, and J.M.Berger (2008).
DNA topoisomerases: harnessing and constraining energy to govern chromosome topology.
  Q Rev Biophys, 41, 41.  
18096618 B.Cheng, E.P.Sorokin, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2008).
Mutation adjacent to the active site tyrosine can enhance DNA cleavage and cell killing by the TOPRIM Gly to Ser mutant of bacterial topoisomerase I.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 36, 1017-1025.  
18186484 B.Xiong, D.L.Burk, J.Shen, X.Luo, H.Liu, J.Shen, and A.M.Berghuis (2008).
The type IA topoisomerase catalytic cycle: A normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation.
  Proteins, 71, 1984-1994.  
18215123 G.S.Laco, and Y.Pommier (2008).
Role of a tryptophan anchor in human topoisomerase I structure, function and inhibition.
  Biochem J, 411, 523-530.  
17331537 A.Changela, R.J.DiGate, and A.Mondragón (2007).
Structural studies of E. coli topoisomerase III-DNA complexes reveal a novel type IA topoisomerase-DNA conformational intermediate.
  J Mol Biol, 368, 105-118.
PDB codes: 2o19 2o54 2o59 2o5c 2o5e
17804808 B.Taneja, B.Schnurr, A.Slesarev, J.F.Marko, and A.Mondragón (2007).
Topoisomerase V relaxes supercoiled DNA by a constrained swiveling mechanism.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 14670-14675.  
18097402 K.C.Dong, and J.M.Berger (2007).
Structural basis for gate-DNA recognition and bending by type IIA topoisomerases.
  Nature, 450, 1201-1205.
PDB code: 2rgr
17517607 K.Y.Kwan, R.J.Greenwald, S.Mohanty, A.H.Sharpe, A.C.Shaw, and J.C.Wang (2007).
Development of autoimmunity in mice lacking DNA topoisomerase 3beta.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 9242-9247.  
17715145 S.Balaji, and L.Aravind (2007).
The RAGNYA fold: a novel fold with multiple topological variants found in functionally diverse nucleic acid, nucleotide and peptide-binding proteins.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 35, 5658-5671.  
16395333 B.Taneja, A.Patel, A.Slesarev, and A.Mondragón (2006).
Structure of the N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals a new family of topoisomerases.
  EMBO J, 25, 398-408.
PDB codes: 2csb 2csd
16582104 D.Strahs, C.X.Zhu, B.Cheng, J.Chen, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2006).
Experimental and computational investigations of Ser10 and Lys13 in the binding and cleavage of DNA substrates by Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 1785-1797.  
16629677 L.Chen, and L.Huang (2006).
Oligonucleotide cleavage and rejoining by topoisomerase III from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus: temperature dependence and strand annealing-promoted DNA religation.
  Mol Microbiol, 60, 783-794.  
16159875 B.Cheng, S.Shukla, S.Vasunilashorn, S.Mukhopadhyay, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2005).
Bacterial cell killing mediated by topoisomerase I DNA cleavage activity.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 38489-38495.  
15489515 E.Crozat, N.Philippe, R.E.Lenski, J.Geiselmann, and D.Schneider (2005).
Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. XII. DNA topology as a key target of selection.
  Genetics, 169, 523-532.  
16077031 F.Allemand, N.Mathy, D.Brechemier-Baey, and C.Condon (2005).
The 5S rRNA maturase, ribonuclease M5, is a Toprim domain family member.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 33, 4368-4376.  
15537633 J.L.Plank, S.H.Chu, J.R.Pohlhaus, T.Wilson-Sali, and T.S.Hsieh (2005).
Drosophila melanogaster topoisomerase IIIalpha preferentially relaxes a positively or negatively supercoiled bubble substrate and is essential during development.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 3564-3573.  
16238625 M.Valjavec-Gratian, T.A.Henderson, and T.M.Hill (2005).
Tus-mediated arrest of DNA replication in Escherichia coli is modulated by DNA supercoiling.
  Mol Microbiol, 58, 758-773.  
14725760 A.C.Rodríguez, and D.Stock (2004).
Studying topoisomerases in the fourth dimension.
  Structure, 12, 7-9.  
14711811 B.Cheng, J.Feng, S.Gadgil, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2004).
Flexibility at Gly-194 is required for DNA cleavage and relaxation activity of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 8648-8654.  
15215234 B.Cheng, J.Feng, V.Mulay, S.Gadgil, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2004).
Site-directed mutagenesis of residues involved in G Strand DNA binding by Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 39207-39213.  
15116069 B.I.Lee, K.H.Kim, S.J.Park, S.H.Eom, H.K.Song, and S.W.Suh (2004).
Ring-shaped architecture of RecR: implications for its role in homologous recombinational DNA repair.
  EMBO J, 23, 2029-2038.
PDB code: 1vdd
15139806 K.D.Corbett, and J.M.Berger (2004).
Structure, molecular mechanisms, and evolutionary relationships in DNA topoisomerases.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 33, 95.  
15140883 T.Viard, R.Cossard, M.Duguet, and La Tour (2004).
Thermotoga maritima-Escherichia coli chimeric topoisomerases. Answers about involvement of the carboxyl-terminal domain in DNA topoisomerase I-mediated catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 30073-30080.  
12581655 A.Changela, K.Perry, B.Taneja, and A.Mondragón (2003).
DNA manipulators: caught in the act.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 13, 15-22.  
14517231 D.A.Bernstein, M.C.Zittel, and J.L.Keck (2003).
High-resolution structure of the E.coli RecQ helicase catalytic core.
  EMBO J, 22, 4910-4921.
PDB codes: 1oyw 1oyy
12769857 M.Kato, T.Ito, G.Wagner, C.C.Richardson, and T.Ellenberger (2003).
Modular architecture of the bacteriophage T7 primase couples RNA primer synthesis to DNA synthesis.
  Mol Cell, 11, 1349-1360.
PDB code: 1nui
12052259 A.Ahumada, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2002).
The role of the Zn(II) binding domain in the mechanism of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I.
  BMC Biochem, 3, 13.  
12191478 A.B.Hickman, D.R.Ronning, R.M.Kotin, and F.Dyda (2002).
Structural unity among viral origin binding proteins: crystal structure of the nuclease domain of adeno-associated virus Rep.
  Mol Cell, 10, 327-337.
PDB code: 1m55
11823434 A.C.Rodríguez, and D.Stock (2002).
Crystal structure of reverse gyrase: insights into the positive supercoiling of DNA.
  EMBO J, 21, 418-426.
PDB codes: 1gku 1gl9
11809893 A.Das, C.Mandal, A.Dasgupta, T.Sengupta, and H.K.Majumder (2002).
An insight into the active site of a type I DNA topoisomerase from the kinetoplastid protozoan Leishmania donovani.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 794-802.
PDB code: 1juw
12411510 F.Storici, G.Henneke, E.Ferrari, D.A.Gordenin, U.Hübscher, and M.A.Resnick (2002).
The flexible loop of human FEN1 endonuclease is required for flap cleavage during DNA replication and repair.
  EMBO J, 21, 5930-5942.  
12042765 J.C.Wang (2002).
Cellular roles of DNA topoisomerases: a molecular perspective.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 3, 430-440.  
12007989 J.J.Champoux (2002).
A first view of the structure of a type IA topoisomerase with bound DNA.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 23, 199-201.  
11809772 K.Perry, and A.Mondragón (2002).
Biochemical characterization of an invariant histidine involved in Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 13237-13245.  
11809802 R.L.Diaz, A.D.Alcid, J.M.Berger, and S.Keeney (2002).
Identification of residues in yeast Spo11p critical for meiotic DNA double-strand break formation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 1106-1115.  
11395412 J.J.Champoux (2001).
DNA topoisomerases: structure, function, and mechanism.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 70, 369-413.  
11459977 M.A.Trakselis, S.C.Alley, E.Abel-Santos, and S.J.Benkovic (2001).
Creating a dynamic picture of the sliding clamp during T4 DNA polymerase holoenzyme assembly by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 8368-8375.  
11239459 Z.Li, A.Mondragón, and R.J.DiGate (2001).
The mechanism of type IA topoisomerase-mediated DNA topological transformations.
  Mol Cell, 7, 301-307.  
10681504 C.X.Zhu, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (2000).
The acidic triad conserved in type IA DNA topoisomerases is required for binding of Mg(II) and subsequent conformational change.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 5318-5322.  
10698952 J.Y.Lee, C.Chang, H.K.Song, J.Moon, J.K.Yang, H.K.Kim, S.T.Kwon, and S.W.Suh (2000).
Crystal structure of NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase: modular architecture and functional implications.
  EMBO J, 19, 1119-1129.
PDB codes: 1dgs 1dgt 1v9p
10684600 K.L.West, E.L.Meczes, R.Thorn, R.M.Turnbull, R.Marshall, and C.A.Austin (2000).
Mutagenesis of E477 or K505 in the B' domain of human topoisomerase II beta increases the requirement for magnesium ions during strand passage.
  Biochemistry, 39, 1223-1233.  
10716934 M.Okuda, Y.Watanabe, H.Okamura, F.Hanaoka, Y.Ohkuma, and Y.Nishimura (2000).
Structure of the central core domain of TFIIEbeta with a novel double-stranded DNA-binding surface.
  EMBO J, 19, 1346-1356.
PDB codes: 1d8j 1d8k
10841763 M.R.Redinbo, J.J.Champoux, and W.G.Hol (2000).
Novel insights into catalytic mechanism from a crystal structure of human topoisomerase I in complex with DNA.
  Biochemistry, 39, 6832-6840.
PDB code: 1ej9
10871343 N.V.Grishin (2000).
Two tricks in one bundle: helix-turn-helix gains enzymatic activity.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 2229-2233.  
10856254 Q.Huai, J.D.Colandene, Y.Chen, F.Luo, Y.Zhao, M.D.Topal, and H.Ke (2000).
Crystal structure of NaeI-an evolutionary bridge between DNA endonuclease and topoisomerase.
  EMBO J, 19, 3110-3118.
PDB code: 1ev7
10660571 S.Bahng, E.Mossessova, P.Nurse, and K.J.Marians (2000).
Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV. III. Identification of a region of parE involved in covalent catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 4112-4117.  
10636841 T.M.Wilson, A.D.Chen, and T.Hsieh (2000).
Cloning and characterization of Drosophila topoisomerase IIIbeta. Relaxation of hypernegatively supercoiled DNA.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 1533-1540.  
10692165 Z.Li, A.Mondragón, H.Hiasa, K.J.Marians, and R.J.DiGate (2000).
Identification of a unique domain essential for Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase III-catalysed decatenation of replication intermediates.
  Mol Microbiol, 35, 888-895.  
10574789 A.Mondragón, and R.DiGate (1999).
The structure of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase III.
  Structure, 7, 1373-1383.
PDB code: 1d6m
10574790 C.Li, D.Zhao, A.Djebli, and M.Shoham (1999).
Crystal structure of colicin E3 immunity protein: an inhibitor of a ribosome-inactivating RNase.
  Structure, 7, 1365-1372.
PDB code: 3eip
10545127 M.D.Nichols, K.DeAngelis, J.L.Keck, and J.M.Berger (1999).
Structure and function of an archaeal topoisomerase VI subunit with homology to the meiotic recombination factor Spo11.
  EMBO J, 18, 6177-6188.
PDB code: 1d3y
10047584 M.R.Redinbo, J.J.Champoux, and W.G.Hol (1999).
Structural insights into the function of type IB topoisomerases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 29-36.  
  10493576 M.Young, K.Kirshenbaum, K.A.Dill, and S.Highsmith (1999).
Predicting conformational switches in proteins.
  Protein Sci, 8, 1752-1764.  
9927662 Q.Liu, and J.C.Wang (1999).
Similarity in the catalysis of DNA breakage and rejoining by type IA and IIA DNA topoisomerases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 881-886.  
  9440516 C.Bouthier de la Tour, C.Portemer, H.Kaltoum, and M.Duguet (1998).
Reverse gyrase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: properties and gene structure.
  J Bacteriol, 180, 274-281.  
9503631 C.Gabay, J.Lieman-Hurwitz, M.Hassidim, M.Ronen-Tarazi, and A.Kaplan (1998).
Modification of topA in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 resulted in mutants capable of growing under low but not high concentration of CO2.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 159, 343-347.  
9535856 C.X.Zhu, C.J.Roche, N.Papanicolaou, A.DiPietrantonio, and Y.C.Tse-Dinh (1998).
Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved aspartates, glutamates and arginines in the active site region of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 8783-8789.  
9634692 D.B.Wigley (1998).
Teaching a new dog old tricks?
  Structure, 6, 543-548.  
9568707 D.J.Sherratt, and D.B.Wigley (1998).
Conserved themes but novel activities in recombinases and topoisomerases.
  Cell, 93, 149-152.  
9920460 H.Gao, W.A.Denny, R.Garg, and C.Hansch (1998).
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for 9-anilinoacridines: a comparative analysis.
  Chem Biol Interact, 116, 157-180.  
9653108 J.M.Berger, D.Fass, J.C.Wang, and S.C.Harrison (1998).
Structural similarities between topoisomerases that cleave one or both DNA strands.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 7876-7881.  
9748476 J.M.Berger (1998).
Structure of DNA topoisomerases.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1400, 3.  
9722641 L.Aravind, D.D.Leipe, and E.V.Koonin (1998).
Toprim--a conserved catalytic domain in type IA and II topoisomerases, DnaG-type primases, OLD family nucleases and RecR proteins.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 26, 4205-4213.  
9488652 L.Stewart, M.R.Redinbo, X.Qiu, W.G.Hol, and J.J.Champoux (1998).
A model for the mechanism of human topoisomerase I.
  Science, 279, 1534-1541.
PDB code: 1a36
9488644 M.R.Redinbo, L.Stewart, P.Kuhn, J.J.Champoux, and W.G.Hol (1998).
Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA.
  Science, 279, 1504-1513.
PDB codes: 1a31 1a35
9685374 Q.Liu, and J.C.Wang (1998).
Identification of active site residues in the "GyrA" half of yeast DNA topoisomerase II.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 20252-20260.  
9497321 S.J.Chen, and J.C.Wang (1998).
Identification of active site residues in Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 6050-6056.  
9663686 V.Bidnenko, S.D.Ehrlich, and L.Jannière (1998).
In vivo relations between pAMbeta1-encoded type I topoisomerase and plasmid replication.
  Mol Microbiol, 28, 1005-1016.  
9082984 H.J.Kwon, R.Tirumalai, A.Landy, and T.Ellenberger (1997).
Flexibility in DNA recombination: structure of the lambda integrase catalytic core.
  Science, 276, 126-131.
PDB code: 1ae9
9360603 J.Brandsen, S.Werten, P.C.van der Vliet, M.Meisterernst, J.Kroon, and P.Gros (1997).
C-terminal domain of transcription cofactor PC4 reveals dimeric ssDNA binding site.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 900-903.
PDB code: 1pcf
  9045834 K.M.Borges, A.Bergerat, A.M.Bogert, J.DiRuggiero, P.Forterre, and F.T.Robb (1997).
Characterization of the reverse gyrase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.
  J Bacteriol, 179, 1721-1726.  
  9444478 P.A.Bullock (1997).
The initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro.
  Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 32, 503-568.  
15989585 W.A.Denny (1997).
Dual topoisomerase I/II poisons as anticancer drugs.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 6, 1845-1851.  
8564532 A.Maxwell (1996).
Protein gates in DNA topoisomerase II.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 109-112.  
8972852 C.Jaxel, C.Bouthier de la Tour, M.Duguet, and M.Nadal (1996).
Reverse gyrase gene from Sulfolobus shibatae B12: gene structure, transcription unit and comparative sequence analysis of the two domains.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 4668-4675.  
8621552 H.L.Zhang, S.Malpure, Z.Li, H.Hiasa, and R.J.DiGate (1996).
The role of the carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues in Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase III-mediated catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 9039-9045.  
8702632 J.Sekiguchi, and S.Shuman (1996).
Covalent DNA binding by vaccinia topoisomerase results in unpairing of the thymine base 5' of the scissile bond.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 19436-19442.  
8932368 K.Jo, and M.D.Topal (1996).
Effects on NaeI-DNA recognition of the leucine to lysine substitution that transforms restriction endonuclease NaeI to a topoisomerase: a model for restriction endonuclease evolution.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 4171-4175.  
  8668189 N.Alami-Ouahabi, S.Veilleux, M.L.Meistrich, and G.Boissonneault (1996).
The testis-specific high-mobility-group protein, a phosphorylation-dependent DNA-packaging factor of elongating and condensing spermatids.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 3720-3729.  
8552584 R.Krah, S.A.Kozyavkin, A.I.Slesarev, and M.Gellert (1996).
A two-subunit type I DNA topoisomerase (reverse gyrase) from an extreme hyperthermophile.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 106-110.  
7783632 A.Luttinger (1995).
The twisted 'life' of DNA in the cell: bacterial topoisomerases.
  Mol Microbiol, 15, 601-606.  
7773745 A.Sharma, and A.Mondragón (1995).
DNA topoisomerases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 39-47.  
  8563641 M.Safro, and L.Mosyak (1995).
Structural similarities in the noncatalytic domains of phenylalanyl-tRNA and biotin synthetases.
  Protein Sci, 4, 2429-2432.  
8747458 N.Lue, A.Sharma, A.Mondragón, and J.C.Wang (1995).
A 26 kDa yeast DNA topoisomerase I fragment: crystallographic structure and mechanistic implications.
  Structure, 3, 1315-1322.
PDB code: 1ois
8574578 Z.Kelman, J.Finkelstein, and M.O'Donnell (1995).
Protein structure. Why have six-fold symmetry?
  Curr Biol, 5, 1239-1242.  
  7641701 Z.Wu, and G.Chaconas (1995).
A novel DNA binding and nuclease activity in domain III of Mu transposase: evidence for a catalytic region involved in donor cleavage.
  EMBO J, 14, 3835-3843.  
7994576 A.Sharma, R.Hanai, and A.Mondragón (1994).
Crystal structure of the amino-terminal fragment of vaccinia virus DNA topoisomerase I at 1.6 A resolution.
  Structure, 2, 767-777.
PDB code: 1vcc
7922032 C.D.Lima, and A.Mondragón (1994).
Mechanism of type II DNA topoisomerases: a tale of two gates.
  Structure, 2, 559-560.  
7874480 G.Orphanides, and A.Maxwell (1994).
Topoisomerases. In one gate, out the other.
  Curr Biol, 4, 1006-1009.  
7922035 J.Janin (1994).
Proteins with a ring.
  Structure, 2, 571-573.  
7816625 K.Matsuo, J.Silke, K.Gramatikoff, and W.Schaffner (1994).
The CpG-specific methylase SssI has topoisomerase activity in the presence of Mg2+.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 22, 5354-5359.  
  7925284 M.F.Noirot-Gros, V.Bidnenko, and S.D.Ehrlich (1994).
Active site of the replication protein of the rolling circle plasmid pC194.
  EMBO J, 13, 4412-4420.  
  8050995 M.H.Lee, T.Ohta, and G.C.Walker (1994).
A monocysteine approach for probing the structure and interactions of the UmuD protein.
  J Bacteriol, 176, 4825-4837.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.