PDBsum entry 1csn

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Phosphotransferase PDB id
Protein chain
293 a.a. *
SO4 ×2
Waters ×103
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Phosphotransferase
Title: Binary complex of casein kinase-1 with mgatp
Structure: Casein kinase-1. Chain: a. Ec: 2.7.1.-
Source: Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fission yeast. Organism_taxid: 4896
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.00Å     R-factor:   0.207    
Authors: R.-M.Xu,X.Cheng
Key ref: R.M.Xu et al. (1995). Crystal structure of casein kinase-1, a phosphate-directed protein kinase. EMBO J, 14, 1015-1023. PubMed id: 7889932
25-Apr-95     Release date:   31-Jul-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P40233  (CKI1_SCHPO) -  Casein kinase I homolog 1
446 a.a.
293 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
Bound ligand (Het Group name = ATP)
corresponds exactly
+ protein
+ phosphoprotein
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     protein phosphorylation   1 term 
  Biochemical function     transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups     4 terms  


EMBO J 14:1015-1023 (1995)
PubMed id: 7889932  
Crystal structure of casein kinase-1, a phosphate-directed protein kinase.
R.M.Xu, G.Carmel, R.M.Sweet, J.Kuret, X.Cheng.
The structure of a truncated variant of casein kinase-1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has been determined in complex with MgATP at 2.0 A resolution. The model resembles the 'closed', ATP-bound conformations of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, with clear differences in the structure of surface loops that impart unique features to casein kinase-1. The structure is of unphosphorylated, active conformation of casein kinase-1 and the peptide-binding site is fully accessible to substrate.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20041275 A.Venerando, O.Marin, G.Cozza, V.H.Bustos, S.Sarno, and L.A.Pinna (2010).
Isoform specific phosphorylation of p53 by protein kinase CK1.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 67, 1105-1118.  
20159853 J.Mok, P.M.Kim, H.Y.Lam, S.Piccirillo, X.Zhou, G.R.Jeschke, D.L.Sheridan, S.A.Parker, V.Desai, M.Jwa, E.Cameroni, H.Niu, M.Good, A.Remenyi, J.L.Ma, Y.J.Sheu, H.E.Sassi, R.Sopko, C.S.Chan, C.De Virgilio, N.M.Hollingsworth, W.A.Lim, D.F.Stern, B.Stillman, B.J.Andrews, M.B.Gerstein, M.Snyder, and B.E.Turk (2010).
Deciphering protein kinase specificity through large-scale analysis of yeast phosphorylation site motifs.
  Sci Signal, 3, ra12.  
19274088 C.L.Dahlberg, E.Z.Nguyen, D.Goodlett, and D.Kimelman (2009).
Interactions between Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) and two substrates from disparate signaling pathways reveal mechanisms for substrate-kinase specificity.
  PLoS ONE, 4, e4766.  
  21160770 C.Modak, and J.Chai (2009).
Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening.
  World J Gastrointest Oncol, 1, 26-33.  
19141289 E.D.Scheeff, J.Eswaran, G.Bunkoczi, S.Knapp, and G.Manning (2009).
Structure of the Pseudokinase VRK3 Reveals a Degraded Catalytic Site, a Highly Conserved Kinase Fold, and a Putative Regulatory Binding Site.
  Structure, 17, 128-138.
PDB codes: 2jii 2v62
19450734 M.D.Urbaniak (2009).
Casein kinase 1 isoform 2 is essential for bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei.
  Mol Biochem Parasitol, 166, 183-185.  
17912359 J.D.Knight, B.Qian, D.Baker, and R.Kothary (2007).
Conservation, variability and the modeling of active protein kinases.
  PLoS ONE, 2, e982.  
17893330 M.J.Muskus, F.Preuss, J.Y.Fan, E.S.Bjes, and J.L.Price (2007).
Drosophila DBT lacking protein kinase activity produces long-period and arrhythmic circadian behavioral and molecular rhythms.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 8049-8064.  
  17620722 M.Kitano-Takahashi, H.Morita, S.Kondo, K.Tomizawa, R.Kato, M.Tanio, Y.Shirota, H.Takahashi, S.Sugio, and T.Kohno (2007).
Expression, purification and crystallization of a human tau-tubulin kinase 2 that phosphorylates tau protein.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 63, 602-604.  
17522047 S.Y.Ku, P.Yip, K.A.Cornell, M.K.Riscoe, J.B.Behr, G.Guillerm, and P.L.Howell (2007).
Structures of 5-methylthioribose kinase reveal substrate specificity and unusual mode of nucleotide binding.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 22195-22206.
PDB codes: 2pu8 2pui 2pul 2pun 2pup
16894615 H.Yao, I.Mihalek, and O.Lichtarge (2006).
Rank information: a structure-independent measure of evolutionary trace quality that improves identification of protein functional sites.
  Proteins, 65, 111-123.  
16990132 M.Petronczki, J.Matos, S.Mori, J.Gregan, A.Bogdanova, M.Schwickart, K.Mechtler, K.Shirahige, W.Zachariae, and K.Nasmyth (2006).
Monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores at meiosis I requires casein kinase 1.
  Cell, 126, 1049-1064.  
16244704 E.D.Scheeff, and P.E.Bourne (2005).
Structural evolution of the protein kinase-like superfamily.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 1, e49.  
16040609 J.P.Vainonen, M.Hansson, and A.V.Vener (2005).
STN8 protein kinase in Arabidopsis thaliana is specific in phosphorylation of photosystem II core proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 33679-33686.  
16183636 N.LaRonde-LeBlanc, and A.Wlodawer (2005).
A family portrait of the RIO kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 37297-37300.  
16008568 N.Laronde-Leblanc, T.Guszczynski, T.Copeland, and A.Wlodawer (2005).
Structure and activity of the atypical serine kinase Rio1.
  FEBS J, 272, 3698-3713.
PDB codes: 1zp9 1ztf 1zth
15565646 P.Sobrado, A.Jedlicki, V.H.Bustos, C.C.Allende, and J.E.Allende (2005).
Basic region of residues 228-231 of protein kinase CK1alpha is involved in its interaction with axin: binding to axin does not affect the kinase activity.
  J Cell Biochem, 94, 217-224.  
14761950 G.Li, H.Yin, and J.Kuret (2004).
Casein kinase 1 delta phosphorylates tau and disrupts its binding to microtubules.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 15938-15945.  
14709910 M.Okano, T.Yokoyama, T.Miyanaga, and K.Ohtsuki (2004).
Activation of C-kinase eta through its cholesterol-3-sulfate-dependent phosphorylation by casein kinase I in vitro.
  Biol Pharm Bull, 27, 109-112.  
15229886 N.Fernandez-Fuentes, A.Hermoso, J.Espadaler, E.Querol, F.X.Aviles, and B.Oliva (2004).
Classification of common functional loops of kinase super-families.
  Proteins, 56, 539-555.  
15341724 N.LaRonde-LeBlanc, and A.Wlodawer (2004).
Crystal structure of A. fulgidus Rio2 defines a new family of serine protein kinases.
  Structure, 12, 1585-1594.
PDB codes: 1tqi 1tqm 1tqp
15105419 P.Babu, R.J.Deschenes, and L.C.Robinson (2004).
Akr1p-dependent palmitoylation of Yck2p yeast casein kinase 1 is necessary and sufficient for plasma membrane targeting.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 27138-27147.  
14535884 W.Liu, Z.H.Xu, D.Luo, and H.W.Xue (2003).
Roles of OsCKI1, a rice casein kinase I, in root development and plant hormone sensitivity.
  Plant J, 36, 189-202.  
12086621 C.I.Chang, B.E.Xu, R.Akella, M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (2002).
Crystal structures of MAP kinase p38 complexed to the docking sites on its nuclear substrate MEF2A and activator MKK3b.
  Mol Cell, 9, 1241-1249.
PDB codes: 1lew 1lez
12196540 J.Stamos, M.X.Sliwkowski, and C.Eigenbrot (2002).
Structure of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain alone and in complex with a 4-anilinoquinazoline inhibitor.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 46265-46272.
PDB codes: 1m14 1m17
12191603 R.A.Engh, and D.Bossemeyer (2002).
Structural aspects of protein kinase control-role of conformational flexibility.
  Pharmacol Ther, 93, 99.  
11440715 R.Dajani, E.Fraser, S.M.Roe, N.Young, V.Good, T.C.Dale, and L.H.Pearl (2001).
Crystal structure of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta: structural basis for phosphate-primed substrate specificity and autoinhibition.
  Cell, 105, 721-732.
PDB code: 1h8f
11340052 S.L.Cohen, and B.T.Chait (2001).
Mass spectrometry as a tool for protein crystallography.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 30, 67-85.  
10924763 C.Schwab, A.J.DeMaggio, N.Ghoshal, L.I.Binder, J.Kuret, and P.L.McGeer (2000).
Casein kinase 1 delta is associated with pathological accumulation of tau in several neurodegenerative diseases.
  Neurobiol Aging, 21, 503-510.  
10713991 K.A.Denessiouk, and M.S.Johnson (2000).
When fold is not important: a common structural framework for adenine and AMP binding in 12 unrelated protein families.
  Proteins, 38, 310-326.  
11092838 P.L.Lowrey, and J.S.Takahashi (2000).
Genetics of the mammalian circadian system: Photic entrainment, circadian pacemaker mechanisms, and posttranslational regulation.
  Annu Rev Genet, 34, 533-562.  
10775102 P.L.Lowrey, K.Shimomura, M.P.Antoch, S.Yamazaki, P.D.Zemenides, M.R.Ralph, M.Menaker, and J.S.Takahashi (2000).
Positional syntenic cloning and functional characterization of the mammalian circadian mutation tau.
  Science, 288, 483-492.  
9890950 D.A.Enke, P.Kaldis, J.K.Holmes, and M.J.Solomon (1999).
The CDK-activating kinase (Cak1p) from budding yeast has an unusual ATP-binding pocket.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 1949-1956.  
10454194 J.M.Sowadski, L.F.Epstein, L.Lankiewicz, and R.Karlsson (1999).
Conformational diversity of catalytic cores of protein kinases.
  Pharmacol Ther, 82, 157-164.  
  10514399 N.Ghoshal, J.F.Smiley, A.J.DeMaggio, M.F.Hoekstra, E.J.Cochran, L.I.Binder, and J.Kuret (1999).
A new molecular link between the fibrillar and granulovacuolar lesions of Alzheimer's disease.
  Am J Pathol, 155, 1163-1172.  
10029530 N.Narayana, T.C.Diller, K.Koide, M.E.Bunnage, K.C.Nicolaou, L.L.Brunton, N.H.Xuong, L.F.Ten Eyck, and S.S.Taylor (1999).
Crystal structure of the potent natural product inhibitor balanol in complex with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
  Biochemistry, 38, 2367-2376.
PDB code: 1bx6
10095790 V.Pulgar, O.Marin, F.Meggio, C.C.Allende, J.E.Allende, and L.A.Pinna (1999).
Optimal sequences for non-phosphate-directed phosphorylation by protein kinase CK1 (casein kinase-1)--a re-evaluation.
  Eur J Biochem, 260, 520-526.  
9430669 A.Cegielska, K.F.Gietzen, A.Rivers, and D.M.Virshup (1998).
Autoinhibition of casein kinase I epsilon (CKI epsilon) is relieved by protein phosphatases and limited proteolysis.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 1357-1364.  
9843365 I.I.Mathews, M.D.Erion, and S.E.Ealick (1998).
Structure of human adenosine kinase at 1.5 A resolution.
  Biochemistry, 37, 15607-15620.
PDB code: 1bx4
9539704 J.Szczepanowska, U.Ramachandran, C.J.Herring, J.M.Gruschus, J.Qin, E.D.Korn, and H.Brzeska (1998).
Effect of mutating the regulatory phosphoserine and conserved threonine on the activity of the expressed catalytic domain of Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain kinase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 4146-4151.  
9630228 J.Zhu, F.Shibasaki, R.Price, J.C.Guillemot, T.Yano, V.Dötsch, G.Wagner, P.Ferrara, and F.McKeon (1998).
Intramolecular masking of nuclear import signal on NF-AT4 by casein kinase I and MEKK1.
  Cell, 93, 851-861.  
  10082373 K.A.Denessiouk, J.V.Lehtonen, and M.S.Johnson (1998).
Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition.
  Protein Sci, 7, 1768-1771.  
  9605318 K.A.Denessiouk, J.V.Lehtonen, T.Korpela, and M.S.Johnson (1998).
Two "unrelated" families of ATP-dependent enzymes share extensive structural similarities about their cofactor binding sites.
  Protein Sci, 7, 1136-1146.  
9761932 K.L.Longenecker, P.J.Roach, and T.D.Hurley (1998).
Crystallographic studies of casein kinase I delta toward a structural understanding of auto-inhibition.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 54, 473-475.  
9564028 K.Niefind, B.Guerra, L.A.Pinna, O.G.Issinger, and D.Schomburg (1998).
Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays at 2.1 A resolution.
  EMBO J, 17, 2451-2462.
PDB code: 1a6o
9125522 F.Heitz, M.C.Morris, D.Fesquet, J.C.Cavadore, M.Dorée, and G.Divita (1997).
Interactions of cyclins with cyclin-dependent kinases: a common interactive mechanism.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4995-5003.  
9434895 F.Sicheri, and J.Kuriyan (1997).
Structures of Src-family tyrosine kinases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 777-785.  
  9070439 F.W.Herberg, B.Zimmermann, M.McGlone, and S.S.Taylor (1997).
Importance of the A-helix of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase for stability and for orienting subdomains at the cleft interface.
  Protein Sci, 6, 569-579.  
9062128 J.Zhou, and J.A.Adams (1997).
Is there a catalytic base in the active site of cAMP-dependent protein kinase?
  Biochemistry, 36, 2977-2984.  
9092812 L.C.Groenen, F.Walker, A.W.Burgess, and H.R.Treutlein (1997).
A model for the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase involvement of an asymmetric dimer?
  Biochemistry, 36, 3826-3836.  
9045715 L.Stempka, A.Girod, H.J.Müller, G.Rincke, F.Marks, M.Gschwendt, and D.Bossemeyer (1997).
Phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) at threonine 505 is not a prerequisite for enzymatic activity. Expression of rat PKCdelta and an alanine 505 mutant in bacteria in a functional form.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 6805-6811.  
9095200 L.Tong, S.Pav, D.M.White, S.Rogers, K.M.Crane, C.L.Cywin, M.L.Brown, and C.A.Pargellis (1997).
A highly specific inhibitor of human p38 MAP kinase binds in the ATP pocket.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 311-316.
PDB code: 1ian
9309223 M.Eriksson, U.Uhlin, S.Ramaswamy, M.Ekberg, K.Regnström, B.M.Sjöberg, and H.Eklund (1997).
Binding of allosteric effectors to ribonucleotide reductase protein R1: reduction of active-site cysteines promotes substrate binding.
  Structure, 5, 1077-1092.
PDB codes: 1r1r 2r1r 3r1r 4r1r
8989312 N.Kobayashi, and N.Go (1997).
ATP binding proteins with different folds share a common ATP-binding structural motif.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 6-7.  
9261084 N.Narayana, S.Cox, X.Nguyen-huu, L.F.Ten Eyck, and S.S.Taylor (1997).
A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
  Structure, 5, 921-935.
PDB code: 1bkx
9334178 S.Barik, R.E.Taylor, and D.Chakrabarti (1997).
Identification, cloning, and mutational analysis of the casein kinase 1 cDNA of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Stage-specific expression of the gene.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 26132-26138.  
9305961 S.Sarno, P.Vaglio, O.Marin, O.G.Issinger, K.Ruffato, and L.A.Pinna (1997).
Mutational analysis of residues implicated in the interaction between protein kinase CK2 and peptide substrates.
  Biochemistry, 36, 11717-11724.  
9201952 V.N.Kasho, M.Stengelin, I.N.Smirnova, and L.D.Faller (1997).
A proposal for the Mg2+ binding site of P-type ion motive ATPases and the mechanism of phosphoryl group transfer.
  Biochemistry, 36, 8045-8052.  
9202006 W.Hemmer, M.McGlone, I.Tsigelny, and S.S.Taylor (1997).
Role of the glycine triad in the ATP-binding site of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 16946-16954.  
8639687 B.D.Grant, and J.A.Adams (1996).
Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of cAMP-dependent protein kinase using rapid quench flow techniques.
  Biochemistry, 35, 2022-2029.  
8798432 C.Chan, and G.N.Gill (1996).
Mutational analysis of the nucleotide binding site of the epidermal growth factor receptor and v-Src protein-tyrosine kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 22619-22623.  
8718888 J.A.Adams (1996).
Insight into tyrosine phosphorylation in v-Fps using proton inventory techniques.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10949-10956.  
  8947030 J.L.Smith, L.A.Silveira, and J.A.Spudich (1996).
Activation of Dictyostelium myosin light chain kinase A by phosphorylation of Thr166.
  EMBO J, 15, 6075-6083.  
  8786241 J.M.Sowadski, C.A.Ellis, and Madhusudan (1996).
Detergent binding to unmyristylated protein kinase A--structural implications for the role of myristate.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 7.  
8612268 L.N.Johnson, M.E.Noble, and D.J.Owen (1996).
Active and inactive protein kinases: structural basis for regulation.
  Cell, 85, 149-158.  
8662649 M.Cheng, E.Zhen, M.J.Robinson, D.Ebert, E.Goldsmith, and M.H.Cobb (1996).
Characterization of a protein kinase that phosphorylates serine 189 of the mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog ERK3.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 12057-12062.  
8621539 M.Cheng, T.G.Boulton, and M.H.Cobb (1996).
ERK3 is a constitutively nuclear protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 8951-8958.  
8824261 R.A.Engh, A.Girod, V.Kinzel, R.Huber, and D.Bossemeyer (1996).
Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase inhibitors H7, H8, and H89. Structural implications for selectivity.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 26157-26164.
PDB codes: 1ydr 1yds 1ydt
8692811 R.M.Xu, G.Carmel, J.Kuret, and X.Cheng (1996).
Structural basis for selectivity of the isoquinoline sulfonamide family of protein kinase inhibitors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 6308-6313.
PDB code: 2csn
9022677 V.Pulgar, C.Tapia, P.Vignolo, J.Santos, C.E.Sunkel, C.C.Allende, and J.E.Allende (1996).
The recombinant alpha isoform of protein kinase CK1 from Xenopus laevis can phosphorylate tyrosine in synthetic substrates.
  Eur J Biochem, 242, 519-528.  
  8816449 X.Wang, M.F.Hoekstra, A.J.DeMaggio, N.Dhillon, A.Vancura, J.Kuret, G.C.Johnston, and R.A.Singer (1996).
Prenylated isoforms of yeast casein kinase I, including the novel Yck3p, suppress the gcs1 blockage of cell proliferation from stationary phase.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 5375-5385.  
8601310 Y.Bourne, M.H.Watson, M.J.Hickey, W.Holmes, W.Rocque, S.I.Reed, and J.A.Tainer (1996).
Crystal structure and mutational analysis of the human CDK2 kinase complex with cell cycle-regulatory protein CksHs1.
  Cell, 84, 863-874.
PDB code: 1buh
  8887677 Z.Songyang, K.P.Lu, Y.T.Kwon, L.H.Tsai, O.Filhol, C.Cochet, D.A.Brickey, T.R.Soderling, C.Bartleson, D.J.Graves, A.J.DeMaggio, M.F.Hoekstra, J.Blenis, T.Hunter, and L.C.Cantley (1996).
A structural basis for substrate specificities of protein Ser/Thr kinases: primary sequence preference of casein kinases I and II, NIMA, phosphorylase kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, CDK5, and Erk1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 6486-6493.  
8529658 F.Meggio, A.Donella Deana, M.Ruzzene, A.M.Brunati, L.Cesaro, B.Guerra, T.Meyer, H.Mett, D.Fabbro, and P.Furet (1995).
Different susceptibility of protein kinases to staurosporine inhibition. Kinetic studies and molecular bases for the resistance of protein kinase CK2.
  Eur J Biochem, 234, 317-322.  
8789188 P.Furet, G.Caravatti, N.Lydon, J.P.Priestle, J.M.Sowadski, U.Trinks, and P.Traxler (1995).
Modelling study of protein kinase inhibitors: binding mode of staurosporine and origin of the selectivity of CGP 52411.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 9, 465-472.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.