PDBsum entry 1cqe

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Oxidoreductase PDB id
Protein chains
552 a.a. *
BOG ×5
HEM ×2
FLP ×2
Waters ×130
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Oxidoreductase
Title: Prostaglandin h2 synthase-1 complex with flurbiprofen
Structure: Protein (prostaglandin h2 synthase-1). Chain: a, b. Synonym: cyclooxygenase 1, cox-1, prostaglandin-endoperoxid 1. Other_details: protein is glycosylated at residues asn68, a asn410
Source: Ovis aries. Sheep. Organism_taxid: 9940. Tissue: seminal vesicle
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PDB file)
3.10Å     R-factor:   0.186     R-free:   0.226
Authors: D.Picot,P.J.Loll,A.M.Mulichak,R.M.Garavito
Key ref: D.Picot et al. (1994). The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1. Nature, 367, 243-249. PubMed id: 8121489
15-Jun-99     Release date:   30-Jun-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P05979  (PGH1_SHEEP) -  Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
600 a.a.
552 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Arachidonate + AH2 + 2 O2 = prostaglandin H2 + A + H2O
Bound ligand (Het Group name = HEM)
matches with 51.16% similarity
+ AH(2)
+ 2 × O(2)
= prostaglandin H(2)
+ H(2)O
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     oxidation-reduction process   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     peroxidase activity     2 terms  


Nature 367:243-249 (1994)
PubMed id: 8121489  
The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1.
D.Picot, P.J.Loll, R.M.Garavito.
The three-dimensional structure of prostaglandin H2 synthase-1, an integral membrane protein, has been determined at 3.5 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. This bifunctional enzyme comprises three independent folding units: an epidermal growth factor domain, a membrane-binding motif and an enzymatic domain. Two adjacent but spatially distinct active sites were found for its haem-dependent peroxidase and cyclooxygenase activities. The cyclooxygenase active site is created by a long, hydrophobic channel that is the site of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug binding. The conformation of the membrane-binding motif strongly suggests that the enzyme integrates into only one leaflet of the lipid bilayer and is thus a monotopic membrane protein.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21421123 A.L.Tsai, G.Wu, C.E.Rogge, J.M.Lü, S.Peng, W.A.van der Donk, G.Palmer, G.J.Gerfen, and R.J.Kulmacz (2011).
Structural comparisons of arachidonic acid-induced radicals formed by prostaglandin H synthase-1 and -2.
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21315729 G.E.Schulz (2011).
A new classification of membrane protein crystals.
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21403766 J.M.Lü, C.E.Rogge, G.Wu, R.J.Kulmacz, W.A.van der Donk, and A.L.Tsai (2011).
Cyclooxygenase reaction mechanism of PGHS--evidence for a reversible transition between a pentadienyl radical and a new tyrosyl radical by nitric oxide trapping.
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20196542 R.S.Deeb, C.Cheung, T.Nuriel, B.D.Lamon, R.K.Upmacis, S.S.Gross, and D.P.Hajjar (2010).
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20237816 S.Bouaziz-Terrachet, A.Toumi-Maouche, B.Maouche, and S.Taïri-Kellou (2010).
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20215464 V.Limongelli, M.Bonomi, L.Marinelli, F.L.Gervasio, A.Cavalli, E.Novellino, and M.Parrinello (2010).
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19266221 A.Sarkar, and G.Mostafa (2009).
Towards the design of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors based on 4',5 di-substituted biphenyl acetic acid molecules: a QSAR study with a new DFT based descriptor - nucleus independent chemical shift.
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19433337 C.E.Rogge, W.Liu, R.J.Kulmacz, and A.L.Tsai (2009).
Peroxide-induced radical formation at TYR385 and TYR504 in human PGHS-1.
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19218248 C.Yuan, R.S.Sidhu, D.V.Kuklev, Y.Kado, M.Wada, I.Song, and W.L.Smith (2009).
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19286665 F.Brodhun, C.Göbel, E.Hornung, and I.Feussner (2009).
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Cyclooxygenase competitive inhibitors alter tyrosyl radical dynamics in prostaglandin H synthase-2.
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19767390 H.M.Eriksson, P.Wessman, C.Ge, K.Edwards, and A.Wieslander (2009).
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19487671 M.Marcia, U.Ermler, G.Peng, and H.Michel (2009).
The structure of Aquifex aeolicus sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, a basis to understand sulfide detoxification and respiration.
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PDB codes: 3h27 3h28 3h29 3hyv 3hyw 3hyx
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Evolutionarily conserved antigens in autoimmune disease: implications for an infective aetiology.
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A conformational switch in human immunodeficiency virus gp41 revealed by the structures of overlapping epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies.
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PDB code: 3fn0
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Eicosanoids in inflammation and cancer: the role of COX-2.
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His-311 and Arg-559 Are Key Residues Involved in Fatty Acid Oxygenation in Pathogen-inducible Oxygenase.
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Drosophila Pxt: a cyclooxygenase-like facilitator of follicle maturation.
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18976171 T.Yoshida, J.S.Park, K.Yokosuka, K.Jimbo, K.Yamada, K.Sato, and K.Nagata (2008).
Effect of a nonprotein bioactive agent on the reduction of cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human intervertebral disc cells in vitro.
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Molecular determinants for the selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by lumiracoxib.
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18038897 A.M.Ali, G.E.Saber, N.M.Mahfouz, M.A.El-Gendy, A.A.Radwan, and M.A.Hamid (2007).
Synthesis and three-dimensional qualitative structure selectivity relationship of 3,5-disubstituted-2,4-thiazolidinedione derivatives as COX2 inhibitors.
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17177291 A.Mancini, D.V.Jovanovic, Q.W.He, and J.A.Di Battista (2007).
Site-specific proteolysis of cyclooxygenase-2: a putative step in inflammatory prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis.
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18159230 A.Peretz, N.Degani-Katzav, M.Talmon, E.Danieli, A.Gopin, E.Malka, R.Nachman, A.Raz, D.Shabat, and B.Attali (2007).
A tale of switched functions: from cyclooxygenase inhibition to m-channel modulation in new diphenylamine derivatives.
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17848558 B.A.Tews, and G.Meyers (2007).
The pestivirus glycoprotein Erns is anchored in plane in the membrane via an amphipathic helix.
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17656360 C.A.Harman, M.V.Turman, K.R.Kozak, L.J.Marnett, W.L.Smith, and R.M.Garavito (2007).
Structural basis of enantioselective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 by S-alpha-substituted indomethacin ethanolamides.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 28096-28105.
PDB codes: 2oye 2oyu
17301694 C.R.Lee, F.G.Bottone, J.M.Krahn, L.Li, H.W.Mohrenweiser, M.E.Cook, R.M.Petrovich, D.A.Bell, T.E.Eling, and D.C.Zeldin (2007).
Identification and functional characterization of polymorphisms in human cyclooxygenase-1 (PTGS1).
  Pharmacogenet Genomics, 17, 145-160.  
17524979 C.Schneider, D.A.Pratt, N.A.Porter, and A.R.Brash (2007).
Control of oxygenation in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis.
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17882334 F.Mancia, and W.A.Hendrickson (2007).
Expression of recombinant G-protein coupled receptors for structural biology.
  Mol Biosyst, 3, 723-734.  
17851687 G.Perrone, M.Zagami, V.Altomare, C.Battista, S.Morini, and C.Rabitti (2007).
COX-2 localization within plasma membrane caveolae-like structures in human lobular intraepithelial neoplasia of the breast.
  Virchows Arch, 451, 1039-1045.  
17462992 J.Liu, S.A.Seibold, C.J.Rieke, I.Song, R.I.Cukier, and W.L.Smith (2007).
Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases: peroxidase hydroperoxide specificity and cyclooxygenase activation.
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17652088 K.Valmsen, W.E.Boeglin, R.Järving, I.Järving, K.Varvas, A.R.Brash, and N.Samel (2007).
A critical role of non-active site residues on cyclooxygenase helices 5 and 6 in the control of prostaglandin stereochemistry at carbon 15.
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17630907 L.A.Tsaplina, and P.V.Vrzheshch (2007).
Cyclooxygenase and peroxidase inactivation of prostaglandin-H-synthase during catalysis.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 72, 631-639.  
17893810 R.M.Jarvis, E.W.Blanch, A.P.Golovanov, J.Screen, and R.Goodacre (2007).
Quantification of casein phosphorylation with conformational interpretation using Raman spectroscopy.
  Analyst, 132, 1053-1060.  
17403665 S.Ichimura, T.Uchida, S.Taniguchi, S.Hira, T.Tosha, I.Morishima, T.Kitagawa, and K.Ishimori (2007).
Unique peroxidase reaction mechanism in prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2: compound I in prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2 can be formed without assistance by distal glutamine residue.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 16681-16690.  
17409707 S.Muraoka, and T.Miura (2007).
[Metabolism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by peroxidase: implication for gastrointestinal mucosal lesions]
  Yakugaku Zasshi, 127, 749-756.  
17712823 S.Vandevoorde, and D.M.Lambert (2007).
The multiple pathways of endocannabinoid metabolism: a zoom out.
  Chem Biodivers, 4, 1858-1881.  
17482885 U.C.Tran, and C.F.Clarke (2007).
Endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q in eukaryotes.
  Mitochondrion, 7, S62-S71.  
17316818 Y.J.Kang, U.R.Mbonye, C.J.DeLong, M.Wada, and W.L.Smith (2007).
Regulation of intracellular cyclooxygenase levels by gene transcription and protein degradation.
  Prog Lipid Res, 46, 108-125.  
16731967 A.L.Lomize, I.D.Pogozheva, M.A.Lomize, and H.I.Mosberg (2006).
Positioning of proteins in membranes: a computational approach.
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16401081 C.E.Rogge, B.Ho, W.Liu, R.J.Kulmacz, and A.L.Tsai (2006).
Role of Tyr348 in Tyr385 radical dynamics and cyclooxygenase inhibitor interactions in prostaglandin H synthase-2.
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16606823 C.Yuan, C.J.Rieke, G.Rimon, B.A.Wingerd, and W.L.Smith (2006).
Partnering between monomers of cyclooxygenase-2 homodimers.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 6142-6147.  
17046834 H.R.Corradi, A.V.Corrigall, E.Boix, C.G.Mohan, E.D.Sturrock, P.N.Meissner, and K.R.Acharya (2006).
Crystal structure of protoporphyrinogen oxidase from Myxococcus xanthus and its complex with the inhibitor acifluorfen.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 38625-38633.
PDB codes: 2ivd 2ive
16531064 J.B.Méric, S.Rottey, K.Olaussen, J.C.Soria, D.Khayat, O.Rixe, and J.P.Spano (2006).
Cyclooxygenase-2 as a target for anticancer drug development.
  Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 59, 51-64.  
17050691 J.Zhang, F.E.Frerman, and J.J.Kim (2006).
Structure of electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase and electron transfer to the mitochondrial ubiquinone pool.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 16212-16217.
PDB codes: 2gmh 2gmj
16421446 K.Gupta, B.S.Selinsky, and P.J.Loll (2006).
2.0 angstroms structure of prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 reconstituted with a manganese porphyrin cofactor.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 62, 151-156.
PDB code: 2ayl
16869801 M.Buckland, C.B.Jago, H.Fazekasova, K.Scott, P.H.Tan, A.J.George, R.Lechler, and G.Lombardi (2006).
Aspirin-treated human DCs up-regulate ILT-3 and induce hyporesponsiveness and regulatory activity in responder T cells.
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16632499 P.W.Fowler, and P.V.Coveney (2006).
A computational protocol for the integration of the monotopic protein prostaglandin H2 synthase into a phospholipid bilayer.
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17071117 S.Bingham, P.J.Beswick, D.E.Blum, N.M.Gray, and I.P.Chessell (2006).
The role of the cylooxygenase pathway in nociception and pain.
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17030994 S.D.Gilk, Y.Raviv, K.Hu, J.M.Murray, C.J.Beckers, and G.E.Ward (2006).
Identification of PhIL1, a novel cytoskeletal protein of the Toxoplasma gondii pellicle, through photosensitized labeling with 5-[125I]iodonaphthalene-1-azide.
  Eukaryot Cell, 5, 1622-1634.  
16395396 T.Grosser, S.Fries, and G.A.FitzGerald (2006).
Biological basis for the cardiovascular consequences of COX-2 inhibition: therapeutic challenges and opportunities.
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17001073 U.R.Mbonye, M.Wada, C.J.Rieke, H.Y.Tang, D.L.Dewitt, and W.L.Smith (2006).
The 19-amino acid cassette of cyclooxygenase-2 mediates entry of the protein into the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation system.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 35770-35778.  
16732282 Y.Yu, J.Fan, X.S.Chen, D.Wang, A.J.Klein-Szanto, R.L.Campbell, G.A.FitzGerald, and C.D.Funk (2006).
Genetic model of selective COX2 inhibition reveals novel heterodimer signaling.
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16809339 Z.MirAfzali, J.R.Leipprandt, J.L.McCracken, and D.L.DeWitt (2006).
Topography of the prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 synthase-2 in membranes.
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15917246 C.A.Rouzer, and L.J.Marnett (2005).
Glycerylprostaglandin synthesis by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to a zymosan stimulus.
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16140766 C.Fetzer, B.A.Tews, and G.Meyers (2005).
The carboxy-terminal sequence of the pestivirus glycoprotein E(rns) represents an unusual type of membrane anchor.
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16227351 C.J.Hawkey (2005).
COX-2 chronology.
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15605385 C.J.Jeffery (2005).
Mass spectrometry and the search for moonlighting proteins.
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16319876 D.M.Engelman (2005).
Membranes are more mosaic than fluid.
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15542590 D.Ogg, B.Elleby, C.Norström, K.Stefansson, L.Abrahmsén, U.Oppermann, and S.Svensson (2005).
The crystal structure of guinea pig 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 provides a model for enzyme-lipid bilayer interactions.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 3789-3794.
PDB code: 1xse
16059664 H.Park, and S.Lee (2005).
Free energy perturbation approach to the critical assessment of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 19, 17-31.  
16203985 H.Zhou, V.N.Ivanov, J.Gillespie, C.R.Geard, S.A.Amundson, D.J.Brenner, Z.Yu, H.B.Lieberman, and T.K.Hei (2005).
Mechanism of radiation-induced bystander effect: role of the cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway.
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15700978 J.C.Wilson, G.Wu, A.L.Tsai, and G.J.Gerfen (2005).
Determination of the structural environment of the tyrosyl radical in prostaglandin H2 synthase-1: a high frequency ENDOR/EPR study.
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16211102 J.Lee, A.J.Chubb, E.Moman, B.M.McLoughlin, C.T.Sharkey, J.G.Kelly, K.B.Nolan, M.Devocelle, and D.J.Fitzgerald (2005).
Parallel synthesis and in vitro activity of novel anthranilic hydroxamate-based inhibitors of the prostaglandin H2 synthase peroxidase activity.
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15952893 M.K.McKinney, and B.F.Cravatt (2005).
Structure and function of fatty acid amide hydrolase.
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16231707 M.S.Bergh, and S.C.Budsberg (2005).
The coxib NSAIDs: potential clinical and pharmacologic importance in veterinary medicine.
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15850674 P.Patrignani, S.Tacconelli, M.G.Sciulli, and M.L.Capone (2005).
New insights into COX-2 biology and inhibition.
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16849185 P.V.Coveney, and P.W.Fowler (2005).
Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective.
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17191953 R.G.Huff, E.Bayram, H.Tan, S.T.Knutson, M.H.Knaggs, A.B.Richon, P.Santago, and J.S.Fetrow (2005).
Chemical and structural diversity in cyclooxygenase protein active sites.
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16335053 S.Prasanna, E.Manivannan, and S.C.Chaturvedi (2005).
Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of 2,3-diaryl indoles as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.
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17191960 S.Songarsa, S.Rajviroongit, D.Sae-Tang, S.Hannongbua, K.Kirtikara, and P.Kittakoop (2005).
New racemosol derivatives as potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors.
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15292194 C.A.Harman, C.J.Rieke, R.M.Garavito, and W.L.Smith (2004).
Crystal structure of arachidonic acid bound to a mutant of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1 that forms predominantly 11-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 42929-42935.
PDB code: 1u67
15181007 C.A.Rouzer, P.J.Kingsley, H.Wang, H.Zhang, J.D.Morrow, S.K.Dey, and L.J.Marnett (2004).
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10570255 R.M.Garavito, and D.L.DeWitt (1999).
The cyclooxygenase isoforms: structural insights into the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins.
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10611297 S.Arnould, M.Takahashi, and J.M.Camadro (1999).
Acylation stabilizes a protease-resistant conformation of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides.
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10410805 S.H.White, and W.C.Wimley (1999).
Membrane protein folding and stability: physical principles.
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10438506 S.W.Rowlinson, B.C.Crews, C.A.Lanzo, and L.J.Marnett (1999).
The binding of arachidonic acid in the cyclooxygenase active site of mouse prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX-2). A putative L-shaped binding conformation utilizing the top channel region.
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10357827 T.Ahola, A.Lampio, P.Auvinen, and L.Kääriäinen (1999).
Semliki Forest virus mRNA capping enzyme requires association with anionic membrane phospholipids for activity.
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10399316 T.Hla, D.Bishop-Bailey, C.H.Liu, H.J.Schaefers, and O.C.Trifan (1999).
Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 isoenzymes.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 31, 551-557.  
10336459 T.J.Smith, T.A.Jennings, D.Sciaky, and H.J.Cao (1999).
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2 expression in human thyroid epithelium. Evidence for constitutive expression in vivo and in cultured KAT-50 cells.
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10329674 U.Quitterer, E.Zaki, and S.AbdAlla (1999).
Investigation of the extracellular accessibility of the connecting loop between membrane domains I and II of the bradykinin B2 receptor.
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  10514410 U.Schönbeck, G.K.Sukhova, P.Graber, S.Coulter, and P.Libby (1999).
Augmented expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human atherosclerotic lesions.
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10082961 V.Koshkin, and H.B.Dunford (1999).
Coupling of the peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions of prostaglandin H synthase.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1430, 341-348.  
10400651 W.Chen, T.R.Pawelek, and R.J.Kulmacz (1999).
Hydroperoxide dependence and cooperative cyclooxygenase kinetics in prostaglandin H synthase-1 and -2.
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  9630831 A.B.Edmundson, and C.V.Manion (1998).
Treatment of osteoarthritis with aspartame.
  Clin Pharmacol Ther, 63, 580-593.
PDB code: 1a8j
9545330 A.G.Spencer, J.W.Woods, T.Arakawa, I.I.Singer, and W.L.Smith (1998).
Subcellular localization of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases-1 and -2 by immunoelectron microscopy.
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9596581 A.S.Kalgutkar, B.C.Crews, S.W.Rowlinson, C.Garner, K.Seibert, and L.J.Marnett (1998).
Aspirin-like molecules that covalently inactivate cyclooxygenase-2.
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9461572 A.Tsai, G.Palmer, G.Xiao, D.C.Swinney, and R.J.Kulmacz (1998).
Structural characterization of arachidonyl radicals formed by prostaglandin H synthase-2 and prostaglandin H synthase-1 reconstituted with mangano protoporphyrin IX.
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9626023 B.Cryer, and M.Feldman (1998).
Cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 selectivity of widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
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9620167 C.Miller, M.Zhang, Y.He, J.Zhao, J.P.Pelletier, J.Martel-Pelletier, and J.A.Di Battista (1998).
Transcriptional induction of cyclooxygenase-2 gene by okadaic acid inhibition of phosphatase activity in human chondrocytes: co-stimulation of AP-1 and CRE nuclear binding proteins.
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9694817 C.Su, M.Sahlin, and E.H.Oliw (1998).
A protein radical and ferryl intermediates are generated by linoleate diol synthase, a ferric hemeprotein with dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase activities.
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9653133 D.A.Proshlyakov, M.A.Pressler, and G.T.Babcock (1998).
Dioxygen activation and bond cleavage by mixed-valence cytochrome c oxidase.
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9535872 D.C.Goodwin, M.R.Gunther, L.C.Hsi, B.C.Crews, T.E.Eling, R.P.Mason, and L.J.Marnett (1998).
Nitric oxide trapping of tyrosyl radicals generated during prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase turnover. Detection of the radical derivative of tyrosine 385.
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9715829 D.J.Bjorkman (1998).
The effect of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prostaglandins.
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[New non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drugs: selective inhibitors of inducible cyclooxygenase]
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9506982 G.Xiao, W.Chen, and R.J.Kulmacz (1998).
Comparison of structural stabilities of prostaglandin H synthase-1 and -2.
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9649334 J.E.Johnson, N.M.Rao, S.W.Hui, and R.B.Cornell (1998).
Conformation and lipid binding properties of four peptides derived from the membrane-binding domain of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase.
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9597150 J.R.Vane, Y.S.Bakhle, and R.M.Botting (1998).
Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2.
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9871612 K.D.Stewart, S.Loren, L.Frey, E.Otis, V.Klinghofer, and K.I.Hulkower (1998).
Discovery of a new cyclooxygenase-2 lead compound through 3-D database searching and combinatorial chemistry.
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Biochemical pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
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9736921 L.J.Marnett, and A.S.Kalgutkar (1998).
Design of selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 as nonulcerogenic anti-inflammatory agents.
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9726967 L.P.Liu, and C.M.Deber (1998).
Uncoupling hydrophobicity and helicity in transmembrane segments. Alpha-helical propensities of the amino acids in non-polar environments.
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9761893 L.Song, and E.Gouaux (1998).
Crystallization of the alpha-hemolysin heptamer solubilized in decyldimethyl- and decyldiethylphosphine oxide.
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9790682 M.P.Patricelli, H.A.Lashuel, D.K.Giang, J.W.Kelly, and B.F.Cravatt (1998).
Comparative characterization of a wild type and transmembrane domain-deleted fatty acid amide hydrolase: identification of the transmembrane domain as a site for oligomerization.
  Biochemistry, 37, 15177-15187.  
  9663182 M.R.Panara, R.Padovano, M.G.Sciulli, G.Santini, G.Renda, M.T.Rotondo, A.Pace, C.Patrono, and P.Patrignani (1998).
Effects of nimesulide on constitutive and inducible prostanoid biosynthesis in human beings.
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9488715 O.Y.So, L.E.Scarafia, A.Y.Mak, O.H.Callan, and D.C.Swinney (1998).
The dynamics of prostaglandin H synthases. Studies with prostaglandin h synthase 2 Y355F unmask mechanisms of time-dependent inhibition and allosteric activation.
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9437421 P.C.Preusch, J.C.Norvell, J.C.Cassatt, and M.Cassman (1998).
Progress away from 'no crystals, no grant'.
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9751640 R.M.Garavito (1998).
Membrane protein structures: the known world expands.
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9724741 S.Arnould, and J.M.Camadro (1998).
The domain structure of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 10553-10558.  
9799507 S.L.Schwager, A.J.Chubb, R.R.Scholle, W.F.Brandt, C.Eckerskorn, E.D.Sturrock, and M.R.Ehlers (1998).
Phorbol ester-induced juxtamembrane cleavage of angiotensin-converting enzyme is not inhibited by a stalk containing intrachain disulfides.
  Biochemistry, 37, 15449-15456.  
9726937 S.Persson, J.A.Killian, and G.Lindblom (1998).
Molecular ordering of interfacially localized tryptophan analogs in ester- and ether-lipid bilayers studied by 2H-NMR.
  Biophys J, 75, 1365-1371.  
  9774958 T.L.Yaksh, D.M.Dirig, and A.B.Malmberg (1998).
Mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  Cancer Invest, 16, 509-527.  
9497320 V.Koshkin, and H.B.Dunford (1998).
Reaction of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase with cis,cis-eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid.
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9792699 Y.Li, T.Smith, S.Grabski, and D.L.DeWitt (1998).
The membrane association sequences of the prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases-1 and -2 isozymes.
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9335571 A.L.Tsai, G.Wu, and R.J.Kulmacz (1997).
Stoichiometry of the interaction of prostaglandin H synthase with substrates.
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9108338 B.Linder, and U.A.Heinlein (1997).
Decreased in vitro fertilization efficiencies in the presence of specific cyritestin peptides.
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9164466 B.Sha, and M.Luo (1997).
Structure of a bifunctional membrane-RNA binding protein, influenza virus matrix protein M1.
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PDB code: 1aa7
9406540 C.D.Funk, and P.J.Loll (1997).
A molecular dipstick?
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9029480 D.Bayle, D.Weeks, S.Hallen, K.Melchers, K.Bamberg, and G.Sachs (1997).
In vitro translation analysis of integral membrane proteins.
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8995366 Vet, A.W.Zomer, G.J.Lahaut, and H.van den Bosch (1997).
Polymerase chain reaction-based cloning of alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase complementary DNA from guinea pig liver.
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9167450 G.Dannhardt, A.Bauer, and U.Nowe (1997).
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, Part 24. Pyrrolidino enaminones as models to mimic arachidonic acid.
  Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 330, 74-82.  
9048568 G.Xiao, A.L.Tsai, G.Palmer, W.C.Boyar, P.J.Marshall, and R.J.Kulmacz (1997).
Analysis of hydroperoxide-induced tyrosyl radicals and lipoxygenase activity in aspirin-treated human prostaglandin H synthase-2.
  Biochemistry, 36, 1836-1845.  
9168030 H.S.Young, J.L.Rigaud, J.J.Lacapère, L.G.Reddy, and D.L.Stokes (1997).
How to make tubular crystals by reconstitution of detergent-solubilized Ca2(+)-ATPase.
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  17694360 J.Berg, H.Fellier, A.Bodenteich, T.Christoph, and R.Towart (1997).
Selective prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS)-2 inhibitors show greater inhibitory activities on human PGHS-2 than on murine PGHS-2 in intact cells.
  Inflammopharmacology, 5, 119-126.  
9219313 J.R.Vane, and R.M.Botting (1997).
Mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs.
  Semin Arthritis Rheum, 26, 2.  
15989624 J.van Ryn, and M.Pairet (1997).
Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: pharmacology, clinical effects and therapeutic potential.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 6, 609-614.  
9295270 K.U.Wendt, K.Poralla, and G.E.Schulz (1997).
Structure and function of a squalene cyclase.
  Science, 277, 1811-1815.
PDB code: 1sqc
9261177 L.M.Landino, B.C.Crews, J.K.Gierse, S.D.Hauser, and L.J.Marnett (1997).
Mutational analysis of the role of the distal histidine and glutamine residues of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 in peroxidase catalysis, hydroperoxide reduction, and cyclooxygenase activation.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 21565-21574.  
9233814 M.C.Schaad, P.E.Jensen, and J.C.Carrington (1997).
Formation of plant RNA virus replication complexes on membranes: role of an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted viral protein.
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9092813 M.Lohmeyer, P.M.Harrison, S.Kannan, M.DeSantis, N.J.O'Reilly, M.J.Sternberg, D.S.Salomon, and W.J.Gullick (1997).
Chemical synthesis, structural modeling, and biological activity of the epidermal growth factor-like domain of human cripto.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3837-3845.  
15989631 M.Schattenkirchner (1997).
Meloxicam: a selective COX-2 inhibitor non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 6, 321-334.  
9261124 M.Yu, D.Ives, and C.S.Ramesha (1997).
Synthesis of prostaglandin E2 ethanolamide from anandamide by cyclooxygenase-2.
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9378368 N.Hanna, K.G.Peri, D.Abran, P.Hardy, A.Doke, P.Lachapelle, M.S.Roy, J.Orquin, D.R.Varma, and S.Chemtob (1997).
Light induces peroxidation in retina by activating prostaglandin G/H synthase.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 23, 885-897.  
  9182072 P.Devillier, and G.Bessard (1997).
Thromboxane A2 and related prostaglandins in airways.
  Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 11, 2.  
9305956 R.A.Musah, and D.B.Goodin (1997).
Introduction of novel substrate oxidation into cytochrome c peroxidase by cavity complementation: oxidation of 2-aminothiazole and covalent modification of the enzyme.
  Biochemistry, 36, 11665-11674.
PDB code: 1aev
9266175 R.M.Garavito, and S.H.White (1997).
Membrane proteins. Structure, assembly, and function: a panoply of progress.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 533-536.  
9406550 S.A.Gillmor, A.Villaseñor, R.Fletterick, E.Sigal, and M.F.Browner (1997).
The structure of mammalian 15-lipoxygenase reveals similarity to the lipases and the determinants of substrate specificity.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 1003-1009.
PDB code: 1lox
  9203938 S.Somasundaram, S.Rafi, M.Jacob, G.Sigthorsson, T.Mahmud, R.Sherwood, A.B.Price, A.Macpherson, D.Scott, J.M.Wrigglesworth, and I.Bjarnason (1997).
Intestinal tolerability of nitroxybutyl-flurbiprofen in rats.
  Gut, 40, 608-613.  
9367957 U.Ermler, W.Grabarse, S.Shima, M.Goubeaud, and R.K.Thauer (1997).
Crystal structure of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: the key enzyme of biological methane formation.
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PDB code: 1mro
8703911 A.S.Kalgutkar, B.C.Crews, and L.J.Marnett (1996).
Kinetics of the interaction of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs with prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-1 studied by limited proteolysis.
  Biochemistry, 35, 9076-9082.  
8643612 B.A.Ballif, N.V.Mincek, J.T.Barratt, M.L.Wilson, and D.L.Simmons (1996).
Interaction of cyclooxygenases with an apoptosis- and autoimmunity-associated protein.
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8952502 B.Holton, X.Wu, A.I.Tsapin, D.M.Kramer, R.Malkin, and T.Kallas (1996).
Reconstitution of the 2Fe-2S center and g = 1.89 electron paramagnetic resonance signal into overproduced Nostoc sp. PCC 7906 Rieske protein.
  Biochemistry, 35, 15485-15493.  
  8745415 B.Persson, and P.Argos (1996).
Topology prediction of membrane proteins.
  Protein Sci, 5, 363-371.  
8901870 C.Luong, A.Miller, J.Barnett, J.Chow, C.Ramesha, and M.F.Browner (1996).
Flexibility of the NSAID binding site in the structure of human cyclooxygenase-2.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 927-933.  
8662736 C.Su, and E.H.Oliw (1996).
Purification and characterization of linoleate 8-dioxygenase from the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis as a novel hemoprotein.
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8567676 D.K.Bhattacharyya, M.Lecomte, C.J.Rieke, M.Garavito, and W.L.Smith (1996).
Involvement of arginine 120, glutamate 524, and tyrosine 355 in the binding of arachidonate and 2-phenylpropionic acid inhibitors to the cyclooxygenase active site of ovine prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 2179-2184.  
8805541 F.Mancia, N.H.Keep, A.Nakagawa, P.F.Leadlay, S.McSweeney, B.Rasmussen, P.Bösecke, O.Diat, and P.R.Evans (1996).
How coenzyme B12 radicals are generated: the crystal structure of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase at 2 A resolution.
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PDB code: 1req
8611540 I.E.Holzbaur, A.M.English, and A.A.Ismail (1996).
FTIR study of the thermal denaturation of horseradish and cytochrome c peroxidases in D2O.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5488-5494.  
  8771195 I.Shin, I.Silman, and L.M.Weiner (1996).
Interaction of partially unfolded forms of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase with liposomes.
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8626626 J.C.Otto, and W.L.Smith (1996).
Photolabeling of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1 with 3-trifluoro-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine as a probe of membrane association and the cyclooxygenase active site.
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8663121 J.K.Gierse, J.J.McDonald, S.D.Hauser, S.H.Rangwala, C.M.Koboldt, and K.Seibert (1996).
A single amino acid difference between cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2) reverses the selectivity of COX-2 specific inhibitors.
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Introduction: crystallization of membrane proteins--in need of a new focus?
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8550601 K.Melchers, T.Weitzenegger, A.Buhmann, W.Steinhilber, G.Sachs, and K.P.Schäfer (1996).
Cloning and membrane topology of a P type ATPase from Helicobacter pylori.
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8567658 M.Bakovic, and H.B.Dunford (1996).
Reactions of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and its compound I with hydroperoxides.
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  9035685 M.Bakovic, and H.B.Dunford (1996).
pH and temperature dependence of the rate of compound I formation from the reaction of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase with hydrogen peroxide.
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8673607 M.M.Fitzgerald, R.A.Musah, D.E.McRee, and D.B.Goodin (1996).
A ligand-gated, hinged loop rearrangement opens a channel to a buried artificial protein cavity.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 626-631.
PDB codes: 1aa4 1ac4 1ac8 1aes 1aet 1aeu 1cci 1ryc
  8900495 M.Pairet, and G.Engelhardt (1996).
Distinct isoforms (COX-1 and COX-2) of cyclooxygenase: possible physiological and therapeutic implications.
  Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 10, 1.  
8794734 M.Sunnerhagen, G.A.Olah, J.Stenflo, S.Forsén, T.Drakenberg, and J.Trewhella (1996).
The relative orientation of Gla and EGF domains in coagulation factor X is altered by Ca2+ binding to the first EGF domain. A combined NMR-small angle X-ray scattering study.
  Biochemistry, 35, 11547-11559.
PDB codes: 1whe 1whf
8631960 O.H.Callan, O.Y.So, and D.C.Swinney (1996).
The kinetic factors that determine the affinity and selectivity for slow binding inhibition of human prostaglandin H synthase 1 and 2 by indomethacin and flurbiprofen.
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8652509 P.J.Loll, D.Picot, O.Ekabo, and R.M.Garavito (1996).
Synthesis and use of iodinated nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug analogs as crystallographic probes of the prostaglandin H2 synthase cyclooxygenase active site.
  Biochemistry, 35, 7330-7340.
PDB codes: 1pge 1pgf 1pgg
8702589 Q.Guo, L.H.Wang, K.H.Ruan, and R.J.Kulmacz (1996).
Role of Val509 in time-dependent inhibition of human prostaglandin H synthase-2 cyclooxygenase activity by isoform-selective agents.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 19134-19139.  
  8745396 R.Hrabal, E.A.Komives, and F.Ni (1996).
Structural resiliency of an EGF-like subdomain bound to its target protein, thrombin.
  Protein Sci, 5, 195-203.
PDB codes: 1fgd 1fge
8901861 R.M.Garavito (1996).
The cyclooxygenase-2 structure: new drugs for an old target?
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 897-901.  
  8786233 R.M.Garavito, D.Picot, and P.J.Loll (1996).
Strategies for crystallizing membrane proteins.
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8681968 S.Gaspard, G.Chottard, J.P.Mahy, and D.Mansuy (1996).
Study of the coordination chemistry of prostaglandin G/H synthase by resonance Raman spectroscopy.
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8573195 T.Klein, R.M.Nüsing, I.Wiesenberg-Boettcher, and V.Ullrich (1996).
Mechanistic studies on the selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by indanone derivatives.
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8718891 V.Houtzager, M.Ouellet, J.P.Falgueyret, L.A.Passmore, C.Bayly, and M.D.Percival (1996).
Inhibitor-induced changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of human cyclooxygenase-2.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10974-10984.  
15012298 W.A.Cramer, G.M.Soriano, M.Ponomarev, D.Huang, H.Zhang, S.E.Martinez, and J.L.Smith (1996).
  Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol, 47, 477-508.  
  8786236 W.A.Hendrickson (1996).
Production of crystallizable fragments of membrane proteins.
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Cyclooxygenase-2 and its regulation in inflammation.
  Mediators Inflamm, 5, 305-323.  
7737984 A.Tsai, R.J.Kulmacz, and G.Palmer (1995).
Spectroscopic evidence for reaction of prostaglandin H synthase-1 tyrosyl radical with arachidonic acid.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 10503-10508.  
  8520624 A.Watts, A.S.Ulrich, and D.A.Middleton (1995).
Membrane protein structure: the contribution and potential of novel solid state NMR approaches.
  Mol Membr Biol, 12, 233-246.  
7746145 B.Heym, P.M.Alzari, N.Honoré, and S.T.Cole (1995).
Missense mutations in the catalase-peroxidase gene, katG, are associated with isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  Mol Microbiol, 15, 235-245.  
7552705 C.Ostermeier, S.Iwata, B.Ludwig, and H.Michel (1995).
Fv fragment-mediated crystallization of the membrane protein bacterial cytochrome c oxidase.
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7592746 D.Bayle, D.Weeks, and G.Sachs (1995).
The membrane topology of the rat sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases by in vitro translation scanning.
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9383435 D.G.Munroe, and C.Y.Lau (1995).
Turning down the heat: new routes to inhibition of inflammatory signaling by prostaglandin H2 synthases.
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7818572 D.R.Lichtenstein, S.Syngal, and M.M.Wolfe (1995).
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the gastrointestinal tract. The double-edged sword.
  Arthritis Rheum, 38, 5.  
7753846 F.A.Samatey, C.Xu, and J.L.Popot (1995).
On the distribution of amino acid residues in transmembrane alpha-helix bundles.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 4577-4581.  
  7587278 F.Eisenhaber, B.Persson, and P.Argos (1995).
Protein structure prediction: recognition of primary, secondary, and tertiary structural features from amino acid sequence.
  Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 30, 1.  
7610486 F.Milpetz, P.Argos, and B.Persson (1995).
TMAP: a new email and WWW service for membrane-protein structural predictions.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 20, 204-205.  
7781068 G.Zhang, M.G.Kazanietz, P.M.Blumberg, and J.H.Hurley (1995).
Crystal structure of the cys2 activator-binding domain of protein kinase C delta in complex with phorbol ester.
  Cell, 81, 917-924.
PDB codes: 1ptq 1ptr
7738031 I.Morita, M.Schindler, M.K.Regier, J.C.Otto, T.Hori, D.L.DeWitt, and W.L.Smith (1995).
Different intracellular locations for prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1 and -2.
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7493972 J.A.Mancini, D.Riendeau, J.P.Falgueyret, P.J.Vickers, and G.P.O'Neill (1995).
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7599212 J.E.Walker (1995).
Determination of the structures of respiratory enzyme complexes from mammalian mitochondria.
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8580335 J.H.Davis, M.Auger, and R.S.Hodges (1995).
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The structure of a 19-residue fragment from the C-loop of the fourth epidermal growth factor-like domain of thrombomodulin.
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PDB code: 1tmr
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PDB code: 1pth
8528765 R.A.Reithmeier (1995).
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7480624 R.Grisshammer, and C.G.Tate (1995).
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7642553 Y.Wang, and C.Kent (1995).
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7712592 L.J.Marnett (1994).
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7712291 M.J.Nelson, and S.P.Seitz (1994).
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