PDBsum entry 1ckp

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Hormone/growth factor PDB id
Protein chain
279 a.a. *
Waters ×91
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hormone/growth factor
Title: Human cyclin dependent kinase 2 complexed with the inhibitor purvalanol b
Structure: Protein (cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2). Chain: a. Synonym: cdk2. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Cell_line: sf9. Expressed in: spodoptera frugiperda. Expression_system_taxid: 7108. Expression_system_cell_line: sf9.
2.05Å     R-factor:   0.192     R-free:   0.260
Authors: N.S.Gray,A.M.W.H.Thunnissen,P.G.Schultz,S.H.Kim
Key ref:
N.S.Gray et al. (1998). Exploiting chemical libraries, structure, and genomics in the search for kinase inhibitors. Science, 281, 533-538. PubMed id: 9677190 DOI: 10.1126/science.281.5376.533
14-Jul-98     Release date:   13-Jan-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P24941  (CDK2_HUMAN) -  Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
298 a.a.
279 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Cyclin-dependent kinase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
+ protein
Bound ligand (Het Group name = PVB)
matches with 50.00% similarity
+ phosphoprotein
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex   15 terms 
  Biological process     regulation of gene silencing   28 terms 
  Biochemical function     nucleotide binding     12 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.281.5376.533 Science 281:533-538 (1998)
PubMed id: 9677190  
Exploiting chemical libraries, structure, and genomics in the search for kinase inhibitors.
N.S.Gray, L.Wodicka, A.M.Thunnissen, T.C.Norman, S.Kwon, F.H.Espinoza, D.O.Morgan, G.Barnes, S.LeClerc, L.Meijer, S.H.Kim, D.J.Lockhart, P.G.Schultz.
Selective protein kinase inhibitors were developed on the basis of the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of the human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). By iterating chemical library synthesis and biological screening, potent inhibitors of the human CDK2-cyclin A kinase complex and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p were identified. The structural basis for the binding affinity and selectivity was determined by analysis of a three-dimensional crystal structure of a CDK2-inhibitor complex. The cellular effects of these compounds were characterized in mammalian cells and yeast. In the latter case the effects were characterized on a genome-wide scale by monitoring changes in messenger RNA levels in treated cells with high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays. Purine libraries could provide useful tools for analyzing a variety of signaling and regulatory pathways and may lead to the development of new therapeutics.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 1.
Fig. 1. (A) Scheme for the combinatorial synthesis of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines from a 2-, 6-, or 9-linked purine scaffold^ with amination and alkylation chemistries. Chemical structures of CDK inhibitors (B) flavopiridol (C) olomoucine^ and roscovitine, and (D) purvalanol A and B and (E) 52 and 52Me.
Figure 2.
Fig. 2. (A) Purvalanol B bound to CDK2 (black sticks, principal conformation only) is compared with bound (1) olomoucine^ (white sticks) and bound roscovitine (orange sticks), (2) bound flavopiridol (green sticks), and (3) bound ATP (yellow sticks). The comparisons are based on superposition of the C atoms of CDK2. The ligands are shown in ball-and-stick representation with carbon atoms colored white, nitrogen atoms colored blue, oxygen atoms colored red, phosphorous atoms colored violet, and^ the chlorine atom of purvalanol colored green. (B) Schematic^ drawing of CDK2-purvalanol B interactions. Protein side chain contacts are indicated by lines connecting the respective residue^ box and interactions to main chain atoms are shown as lines to the specific main chain atoms. Van der Waals contacts are indicated^ by thin dotted lines, and H bonds by dashed lines. For H bonds the distances between the nonhydrogen atoms are indicated in angstroms. W, water.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from the AAAs: Science (1998, 281, 533-538) copyright 1998.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21440449 V.M.Yenugonda, T.B.Deb, S.C.Grindrod, S.Dakshanamurthy, Y.Yang, M.Paige, and M.L.Brown (2011).
Fluorescent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors block the proliferation of human breast cancer cells.
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20575139 K.Engels, C.Beyer, M.L.Suárez Fernández, F.Bender, M.Gassel, G.Unden, R.J.Marhöfer, J.C.Mottram, and P.M.Selzer (2010).
Inhibition of Eimeria tenella CDK-related kinase 2: From target identification to lead compounds.
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20711190 K.Maeshima, H.Iino, S.Hihara, T.Funakoshi, A.Watanabe, M.Nishimura, R.Nakatomi, K.Yahata, F.Imamoto, T.Hashikawa, H.Yokota, and N.Imamoto (2010).
Nuclear pore formation but not nuclear growth is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) during interphase.
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20303320 M.E.Welsch, S.A.Snyder, and B.R.Stockwell (2010).
Privileged scaffolds for library design and drug discovery.
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20609406 P.Workman, and I.Collins (2010).
Probing the probes: fitness factors for small molecule tools.
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19756377 R.Ningegowda, A.Grover, Basappa, S.Ranjith, K.S.Rangappa, B.S.Priya, and S.Nanjunda Swamy (2010).
Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anti-tumor activities of novel 9-ethyl-9H-purine derivatives.
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20639858 X.Dai, C.Huang, A.Bhusari, S.Sampathi, K.Schubert, and W.Chai (2010).
Molecular steps of G-overhang generation at human telomeres and its function in chromosome end protection.
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Staurosporine tethered peptide ligands that target cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA): optimization and selectivity profiling.
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19247434 D.Pyeon, S.M.Pearce, S.M.Lank, P.Ahlquist, and P.F.Lambert (2009).
Establishment of human papillomavirus infection requires cell cycle progression.
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19415659 D.Raffa, B.Maggio, S.Cascioferro, M.V.Raimondi, G.Daidone, S.Plescia, D.Schillaci, M.G.Cusimano, L.Titone, C.Colomba, and M.Tolomeo (2009).
N-(indazolyl)benzamido derivatives as CDK1 inhibitors: design, synthesis, biological activity, and molecular docking studies.
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19225668 M.Klecka, R.Pohl, B.Klepetárová, and M.Hocek (2009).
Direct C-H borylation and C-H arylation of pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines: synthesis of 6,8-disubstituted 7-deazapurines.
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19816553 N.Okimoto, N.Futatsugi, H.Fuji, A.Suenaga, G.Morimoto, R.Yanai, Y.Ohno, T.Narumi, and M.Taiji (2009).
High-performance drug discovery: computational screening by combining docking and molecular dynamics simulations.
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19028587 X.Huang, P.Finerty, J.R.Walker, C.Butler-Cole, M.Vedadi, M.Schapira, S.A.Parker, B.E.Turk, D.A.Thompson, and S.Dhe-Paganon (2009).
Structural insights into the inhibited states of the Mer receptor tyrosine kinase.
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PDB codes: 2p0c 3bpr 3brb
19048596 X.Lin, S.Liu, X.Luo, X.Ma, L.Guo, L.Li, Z.Li, Y.Tao, and Y.Cao (2009).
EBV-encoded LMP1 regulates Op18/stathmin signaling pathway by cdc2 mediation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
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18411311 C.K.Hu, M.Coughlin, C.M.Field, and T.J.Mitchison (2008).
Cell polarization during monopolar cytokinesis.
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Two specific drugs, BMS-345541 and purvalanol A induce apoptosis of HTLV-1 infected cells through inhibition of the NF-kappaB and cell cycle pathways.
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18691552 E.R.Zunder, Z.A.Knight, B.T.Houseman, B.Apsel, and K.M.Shokat (2008).
Discovery of drug-resistant and drug-sensitizing mutations in the oncogenic PI3K isoform p110 alpha.
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18400869 F.Yu, J.Megyesi, and P.M.Price (2008).
Cytoplasmic initiation of cisplatin cytotoxicity.
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18574471 K.Bettayeb, N.Oumata, A.Echalier, Y.Ferandin, J.A.Endicott, H.Galons, and L.Meijer (2008).
CR8, a potent and selective, roscovitine-derived inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases.
  Oncogene, 27, 5797-5807.
PDB codes: 3ddp 3ddq
17086477 M.H.Kim, B.T.Kim, Y.K.Min, and S.H.Kim (2008).
Profiling signalling pathways of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast formation in mouse monocyte cells, RAW264.7.
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18181150 M.K.Jones, O.R.Padilla, N.A.Webb, and M.Norng (2008).
The anti-apoptosis protein, survivin, mediates gastric epithelial cell cytoprotection against ethanol-induced injury via activation of the p34(cdc2) cyclin-dependent kinase.
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18408765 P.Liu, T.P.Kao, and H.Huang (2008).
CDK1 promotes cell proliferation and survival via phosphorylation and inhibition of FOXO1 transcription factor.
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19035345 R.C.Skirrow, N.Veldhoen, D.Domanski, and C.C.Helbing (2008).
Roscovitine inhibits thyroid hormone-induced tail regression of the frog tadpole and reveals a role for cyclin C/Cdk8 in the establishment of the metamorphic gene expression program.
  Dev Dyn, 237, 3787-3797.  
18094678 S.H.Obligado, O.Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya, A.Zuk, L.Meijer, and P.J.Nelson (2008).
CDK/GSK-3 inhibitors as therapeutic agents for parenchymal renal diseases.
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18179464 W.C.Shakespeare, Y.Wang, R.Bohacek, T.Keenan, R.Sundaramoorthi, C.Metcalf, A.Dilauro, S.Roeloffzen, S.Liu, J.Saltmarsh, G.Paramanathan, D.Dalgarno, S.Narula, S.Pradeepan, M.R.van Schravendijk, J.Keats, M.Ram, S.Liou, S.Adams, S.Wardwell, J.Bogus, J.Iuliucci, M.Weigele, L.Xing, B.Boyce, and T.K.Sawyer (2008).
SAR of carbon-linked, 2-substituted purines: synthesis and characterization of AP23451 as a novel bone-targeted inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase with in vivo anti-resorptive activity.
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17589519 A.Goga, D.Yang, A.D.Tward, D.O.Morgan, and J.M.Bishop (2007).
Inhibition of CDK1 as a potential therapy for tumors over-expressing MYC.
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17179992 C.Benson, J.White, J.De Bono, A.O'Donnell, F.Raynaud, C.Cruickshank, H.McGrath, M.Walton, P.Workman, S.Kaye, J.Cassidy, A.Gianella-Borradori, I.Judson, and C.Twelves (2007).
A phase I trial of the selective oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib (CYC202; R-Roscovitine), administered twice daily for 7 days every 21 days.
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17298288 C.Doerig, and L.Meijer (2007).
Antimalarial drug discovery: targeting protein kinases.
  Expert Opin Ther Targets, 11, 279-290.  
17474786 D.Iizuka, O.Inanami, I.Kashiwakura, and M.Kuwabara (2007).
Purvalanol A enhances cell killing by inhibiting up-regulation of CDC2 kinase activity in tumor cells irradiated with high doses of X rays.
  Radiat Res, 167, 563-571.  
  17211498 F.Castaneda, S.Rosin-Steiner, and K.Jung (2007).
Functional genomics analysis of low concentration of ethanol in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Role of genes involved in transcriptional and translational processes.
  Int J Med Sci, 4, 28-35.  
17238172 F.Daeyaert, M.De Jonge, L.Koymans, and M.Vinkers (2007).
An ant algorithm for the conformational analysis of flexible molecules.
  J Comput Chem, 28, 890-898.  
17917669 G.C.Terstappen, C.Schlüpen, R.Raggiaschi, and G.Gaviraghi (2007).
Target deconvolution strategies in drug discovery.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 6, 891-903.  
17085505 J.H.Alzate-Morales, R.Contreras, A.Soriano, I.Tuñon, and E.Silla (2007).
A computational study of the protein-ligand interactions in CDK2 inhibitors: using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics interaction energy as a predictor of the biological activity.
  Biophys J, 92, 430-439.  
17634158 K.Nakamura, N.Yokoyama, and I.Igarashi (2007).
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors block erythrocyte invasion and intraerythrocytic development of Babesia bovis in vitro.
  Parasitology, 134, 1347-1353.  
17043661 L.Bagella, A.Sun, T.Tonini, G.Abbadessa, G.Cottone, M.G.Paggi, A.De Luca, P.P.Claudio, and A.Giordano (2007).
A small molecule based on the pRb2/p130 spacer domain leads to inhibition of cdk2 activity, cell cycle arrest and tumor growth reduction in vivo.
  Oncogene, 26, 1829-1839.  
17965187 M.Ikuta, M.Kornienko, N.Byrne, J.C.Reid, S.Mizuarai, H.Kotani, and S.K.Munshi (2007).
Crystal structures of the N-terminal kinase domain of human RSK1 bound to three different ligands: Implications for the design of RSK1 specific inhibitors.
  Protein Sci, 16, 2626-2635.
PDB codes: 2z7q 2z7r 2z7s
17541419 M.P.Mazanetz, and P.M.Fischer (2007).
Untangling tau hyperphosphorylation in drug design for neurodegenerative diseases.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 6, 464-479.  
17998400 O.K.Wong, and G.Fang (2007).
Cdk1 phosphorylation of BubR1 controls spindle checkpoint arrest and Plk1-mediated formation of the 3F3/2 epitope.
  J Cell Biol, 179, 611-617.  
18000561 T.Sakata, and E.A.Winzeler (2007).
Genomics, systems biology and drug development for infectious diseases.
  Mol Biosyst, 3, 841-848.  
17123821 Y.M.Ahn, L.Vogeti, C.J.Liu, H.K.Santhapuram, J.M.White, V.Vasandani, L.A.Mitscher, G.H.Lushington, P.R.Hanson, D.R.Powell, R.H.Himes, K.F.Roby, Q.Ye, and G.I.Georg (2007).
Design, synthesis, and antiproliferative and CDK2-cyclin a inhibitory activity of novel flavopiridol analogues.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 15, 702-713.  
17936297 Z.G.Liu, L.N.Zhao, Y.W.Liu, T.T.Li, D.M.Fan, and J.J.Chen (2007).
Activation of Cdc2 contributes to apoptosis in HPV E6 expressing human keratinocytes in response to therapeutic agents.
  J Mol Biol, 374, 334-345.  
16951685 A.G.Rossi, D.A.Sawatzky, A.Walker, C.Ward, T.A.Sheldrake, N.A.Riley, A.Caldicott, M.Martinez-Losa, T.R.Walker, R.Duffin, M.Gray, E.Crescenzi, M.C.Martin, H.J.Brady, J.S.Savill, I.Dransfield, and C.Haslett (2006).
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors enhance the resolution of inflammation by promoting inflammatory cell apoptosis.
  Nat Med, 12, 1056-1064.  
16374623 A.T.García-Sosa, and R.L.Mancera (2006).
The effect of a tightly bound water molecule on scaffold diversity in the computer-aided de novo ligand design of CDK2 inhibitors.
  J Mol Model, 12, 422-431.  
16492148 D.Dalgarno, T.Stehle, S.Narula, P.Schelling, M.R.van Schravendijk, S.Adams, L.Andrade, J.Keats, M.Ram, L.Jin, T.Grossman, I.MacNeil, C.Metcalf, W.Shakespeare, Y.Wang, T.Keenan, R.Sundaramoorthi, R.Bohacek, M.Weigele, and T.Sawyer (2006).
Structural basis of Src tyrosine kinase inhibition with a new class of potent and selective trisubstituted purine-based compounds.
  Chem Biol Drug Des, 67, 46-57.
PDB codes: 2bdf 2bdj
16680785 D.Dirnberger, G.Unsin, S.Schlenker, and C.Reichel (2006).
A small-molecule-protein interaction system with split-ubiquitin as sensor.
  Chembiochem, 7, 936-942.  
16880939 E.Jacoby (2006).
Chemogenomics: drug discovery's panacea?
  Mol Biosyst, 2, 218-220.  
16378099 J.Lüders, U.K.Patel, and T.Stearns (2006).
GCP-WD is a gamma-tubulin targeting factor required for centrosomal and chromatin-mediated microtubule nucleation.
  Nat Cell Biol, 8, 137-147.  
16369091 J.Newman (2006).
A review of techniques for maximizing diffraction from a protein crystal in stilla.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 62, 27-31.  
16584130 J.Sridhar, N.Akula, and N.Pattabiraman (2006).
Selectivity and potency of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
  AAPS J, 8, E204-E221.  
16464125 K.M.McDermott, J.Zhang, C.R.Holst, B.K.Kozakiewicz, V.Singla, and T.D.Tlsty (2006).
p16(INK4a) prevents centrosome dysfunction and genomic instability in primary cells.
  PLoS Biol, 4, e51.  
16729034 L.Anastasia, M.Sampaolesi, N.Papini, D.Oleari, G.Lamorte, C.Tringali, E.Monti, D.Galli, G.Tettamanti, G.Cossu, and B.Venerando (2006).
Reversine-treated fibroblasts acquire myogenic competence in vitro and in regenerating skeletal muscle.
  Cell Death Differ, 13, 2042-2051.  
16892371 M.D.Kelly, and R.L.Mancera (2006).
Comparative analysis of the surface interaction properties of the binding sites of CDK2, CDK4, and ERK2.
  ChemMedChem, 1, 366-375.  
16575928 P.Dobes, M.Otyepka, M.Strnad, and P.Hobza (2006).
Interaction energies for the purine inhibitor roscovitine with cyclin-dependent kinase 2: correlated ab initio quantum-chemical, DFT and empirical calculations.
  Chemistry, 12, 4297-4304.  
16914540 P.M.Price, F.Yu, P.Kaldis, E.Aleem, G.Nowak, R.L.Safirstein, and J.Megyesi (2006).
Dependence of cisplatin-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo on cyclin-dependent kinase 2.
  J Am Soc Nephrol, 17, 2434-2442.  
16512784 R.H.Liu, K.Dill, H.S.Fuji, and A.McShea (2006).
Integrated microfluidic biochips for DNA microarray analysis.
  Expert Rev Mol Diagn, 6, 253-261.  
16783341 Y.Liu, and N.S.Gray (2006).
Rational design of inhibitors that bind to inactive kinase conformations.
  Nat Chem Biol, 2, 358-364.  
16619031 Y.S.Tak, Y.Tanaka, S.Endo, Y.Kamimura, and H.Araki (2006).
A CDK-catalysed regulatory phosphorylation for formation of the DNA replication complex Sld2-Dpb11.
  EMBO J, 25, 1987-1996.  
15738404 C.Kung, D.M.Kenski, S.H.Dickerson, R.W.Howson, L.F.Kuyper, H.D.Madhani, and K.M.Shokat (2005).
Chemical genomic profiling to identify intracellular targets of a multiplex kinase inhibitor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 3587-3592.  
15696508 C.Kung, and K.M.Shokat (2005).
Small-molecule kinase-inhibitor target assessment.
  Chembiochem, 6, 523-526.  
15993080 L.Havlicek, K.Fuksova, V.Krystof, M.Orsag, B.Vojtesek, and M.Strnad (2005).
8-Azapurines as new inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 13, 5399-5407.  
15711537 M.A.Fabian, W.H.Biggs, D.K.Treiber, C.E.Atteridge, M.D.Azimioara, M.G.Benedetti, T.A.Carter, P.Ciceri, P.T.Edeen, M.Floyd, J.M.Ford, M.Galvin, J.L.Gerlach, R.M.Grotzfeld, S.Herrgard, D.E.Insko, M.A.Insko, A.G.Lai, J.M.Lélias, S.A.Mehta, Z.V.Milanov, A.M.Velasco, L.M.Wodicka, H.K.Patel, P.P.Zarrinkar, and D.J.Lockhart (2005).
A small molecule-kinase interaction map for clinical kinase inhibitors.
  Nat Biotechnol, 23, 329-336.  
16213417 M.D.Brazas, and R.E.Hancock (2005).
Using microarray gene signatures to elucidate mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance.
  Drug Discov Today, 10, 1245-1252.  
16292968 M.Gösch, H.Blom, S.Anderegg, K.Korn, P.Thyberg, M.Wells, T.Lasser, R.Rigler, A.Magnusson, and S.Hård (2005).
Parallel dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy using diffractive optical elements.
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16138084 M.Papi, E.Berdougo, C.L.Randall, S.Ganguly, and P.V.Jallepalli (2005).
Multiple roles for separase auto-cleavage during the G2/M transition.
  Nat Cell Biol, 7, 1029-1035.  
15754318 M.Zhang, N.Mukherjee, R.S.Bermudez, D.E.Latham, M.A.Delaney, A.L.Zietman, W.U.Shipley, and A.Chakravarti (2005).
Adenovirus-mediated inhibition of survivin expression sensitizes human prostate cancer cells to paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo.
  Prostate, 64, 293-302.  
15608048 N.Bolshakova, F.Azuaje, and P.Cunningham (2005).
An integrated tool for microarray data clustering and cluster validity assessment.
  Bioinformatics, 21, 451-455.  
15821735 N.Van Driessche, J.Demsar, E.O.Booth, P.Hill, P.Juvan, B.Zupan, A.Kuspa, and G.Shaulsky (2005).
Epistasis analysis with global transcriptional phenotypes.
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15742385 O.Prien (2005).
Target-family-oriented focused libraries for kinases--conceptual design aspects and commercial availability.
  Chembiochem, 6, 500-505.  
15701449 R.A.Butcher, and S.L.Schreiber (2005).
Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling to elucidate small-molecule mechanism.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 9, 25-30.  
15698436 S.V.Griffin, R.D.Krofft, J.W.Pippin, and S.J.Shankland (2005).
Limitation of podocyte proliferation improves renal function in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis.
  Kidney Int, 67, 977-986.  
15386591 T.Tsurumi, M.Fujita, and A.Kudoh (2005).
Latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus replication strategies.
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16278933 Lichtenberg, R.Wernersson, T.S.Jensen, H.B.Nielsen, A.Fausbøll, P.Schmidt, F.B.Hansen, S.Knudsen, and S.Brunak (2005).
New weakly expressed cell cycle-regulated genes in yeast.
  Yeast, 22, 1191-1201.  
15951378 Z.Buraei, M.Anghelescu, and K.S.Elmslie (2005).
Slowed N-type calcium channel (CaV2.2) deactivation by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine.
  Biophys J, 89, 1681-1691.  
14671092 A.Kudoh, T.Daikoku, Y.Sugaya, H.Isomura, M.Fujita, T.Kiyono, Y.Nishiyama, and T.Tsurumi (2004).
Inhibition of S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase activity blocks expression of Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early and early genes, preventing viral lytic replication.
  J Virol, 78, 104-115.  
15326593 A.M.Aronov, and G.W.Bemis (2004).
A minimalist approach to fragment-based ligand design using common rings and linkers: application to kinase inhibitors.
  Proteins, 57, 36-50.  
15602550 B.R.Stockwell (2004).
Exploring biology with small organic molecules.
  Nature, 432, 846-854.  
  15279579 D.G.Nagle, Y.D.Zhou, F.D.Mora, K.A.Mohammed, and Y.P.Kim (2004).
Mechanism targeted discovery of antitumor marine natural products.
  Curr Med Chem, 11, 1725-1756.  
15123283 F.Becker, K.Murthi, C.Smith, J.Come, N.Costa-Roldán, C.Kaufmann, U.Hanke, C.Degenhart, S.Baumann, W.Wallner, A.Huber, S.Dedier, S.Dill, D.Kinsman, M.Hediger, N.Bockovich, S.Meier-Ewert, A.F.Kluge, and N.Kley (2004).
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The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.