PDBsum entry 1chw

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protein ligands links
Transferase PDB id
Protein chains
389 a.a. *
HXC ×2
Waters ×440
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transferase
Title: Chalcone synthase from alfalfa complexed with hexanoyl-coa
Structure: Protein (chalcone synthase). Chain: a, b. Synonym: chs. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Medicago sativa. Organism_taxid: 3879
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PDB file)
1.90Å     R-factor:   0.213     R-free:   0.290
Authors: J.-L.Ferrer,J.Jez,M.E.Bowman,R.Dixon,J.P.Noel
Key ref:
J.L.Ferrer et al. (1999). Structure of chalcone synthase and the molecular basis of plant polyketide biosynthesis. Nat Struct Biol, 6, 775-784. PubMed id: 10426957 DOI: 10.1038/11553
30-Mar-99     Release date:   18-Aug-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P30074  (CHS2_MEDSA) -  Chalcone synthase 2
389 a.a.
389 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Naringenin-chalcone synthase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]

Chalcone and Stilbene Biosynthesis
      Reaction: 3 malonyl-CoA + 4-coumaroyl-CoA = 4 CoA + naringenin chalcone + 3 CO2
3 × malonyl-CoA
Bound ligand (Het Group name = HXC)
matches with 93.22% similarity
= 4 × CoA
+ naringenin chalcone
+ 3 × CO(2)
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     metabolic process   4 terms 
  Biochemical function     catalytic activity     5 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/11553 Nat Struct Biol 6:775-784 (1999)
PubMed id: 10426957  
Structure of chalcone synthase and the molecular basis of plant polyketide biosynthesis.
J.L.Ferrer, J.M.Jez, M.E.Bowman, R.A.Dixon, J.P.Noel.
Chalcone synthase (CHS) is pivotal for the biosynthesis of flavonoid antimicrobial phytoalexins and anthocyanin pigments in plants. It produces chalcone by condensing one p-coumaroyl- and three malonyl-coenzyme A thioesters into a polyketide reaction intermediate that cyclizes. The crystal structures of CHS alone and complexed with substrate and product analogs reveal the active site architecture that defines the sequence and chemistry of multiple decarboxylation and condensation reactions and provides a molecular understanding of the cyclization reaction leading to chalcone synthesis. The structure of CHS complexed with resveratrol also suggests how stilbene synthase, a related enzyme, uses the same substrates and an alternate cyclization pathway to form resveratrol. By using the three-dimensional structure and the large database of CHS-like sequences, we can identify proteins likely to possess novel substrate and product specificity. The structure elucidates the chemical basis of plant polyketide biosynthesis and provides a framework for engineering CHS-like enzymes to produce new products.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 1.
Figure 1. Products, product analogs and inhibitors. a, Chemical structures of chalcone, naringenin, resveratrol and cerulenin. b, Stereoview of the final SIGMAA-weighted 2F[o] - F[c] electron density map of the CHS−resveratrol complex in the vicinity of the resveratrol binding site. The map is contoured at 1 .
Figure 2.
Figure 2. a, Ribbon representation of the CHS homodimer. Monomer A is gold, monomer B is blue, and naringenin is shown as a CPK molecule. The approximate C positions of Met 137 are shown as yellow ellipses and labeled accordingly. Naringenin completely fills the coumaroyl-binding and cyclization pockets, while the CoA binding tunnels are highlighted by black arrows. Produced with MOLSCRIPT^46 and rendered with POV-Ray^47. b, Stereoview of the gold monomer's C backbone. The orientation of the gold monomer is exactly the same as in (a). Every 20 residues are numbered, starting with residue 3 and including the C-terminal residue, 389.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nat Struct Biol (1999, 6, 775-784) copyright 1999.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21484163 B.Orlikova, D.Tasdemir, F.Golais, M.Dicato, and M.Diederich (2011).
Dietary chalcones with chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential.
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21117241 K.Miyazono, J.Um, F.L.Imai, Y.Katsuyama, Y.Ohnishi, S.Horinouchi, and M.Tanokura (2011).
Crystal structure of curcuminoid synthase CUS from Oryza sativa.
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PDB code: 3oit
21052759 X.Wang (2011).
Structure, function, and engineering of enzymes in isoflavonoid biosynthesis.
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20348430 D.Cook, A.M.Rimando, T.E.Clemente, J.Schröder, F.E.Dayan, N.P.Nanayakkara, Z.Pan, B.P.Noonan, M.Fishbein, I.Abe, S.O.Duke, and S.R.Baerson (2010).
Alkylresorcinol synthases expressed in Sorghum bicolor root hairs play an essential role in the biosynthesis of the allelopathic benzoquinone sorgoleone.
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20309543 H.Du, Y.Huang, and Y.Tang (2010).
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21041675 H.Morita, K.Wanibuchi, H.Nii, R.Kato, S.Sugio, and I.Abe (2010).
Structural basis for the one-pot formation of the diarylheptanoid scaffold by curcuminoid synthase from Oryza sativa.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 19778-19783.
PDB code: 3ale
20080733 H.Morita, Y.Shimokawa, M.Tanio, R.Kato, H.Noguchi, S.Sugio, T.Kohno, and I.Abe (2010).
A structure-based mechanism for benzalacetone synthase from Rheum palmatum.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 669-673.
PDB codes: 3a5q 3a5r 3a5s
20358127 I.Abe, and H.Morita (2010).
Structure and function of the chalcone synthase superfamily of plant type III polyketide synthases.
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20512483 M.Ogura, K.Tsukahara, and T.Tanaka (2010).
Identification of the sequences recognized by the Bacillus subtilis response regulator YclJ.
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19876746 P.K.Koduri, G.S.Gordon, E.I.Barker, C.C.Colpitts, N.W.Ashton, and D.Y.Suh (2010).
Genome-wide analysis of the chalcone synthase superfamily genes of Physcomitrella patens.
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19694421 A.K.Bera, V.Atanasova, H.Robinson, E.Eisenstein, J.P.Coleman, E.C.Pesci, and J.F.Parsons (2009).
Structure of PqsD, a Pseudomonas quinolone signal biosynthetic enzyme, in complex with anthranilate.
  Biochemistry, 48, 8644-8655.
PDB codes: 3h76 3h77 3h78
18998157 L.Q.Ma, X.B.Pang, H.Y.Shen, G.B.Pu, H.H.Wang, C.Y.Lei, H.Wang, G.F.Li, B.Y.Liu, and H.C.Ye (2009).
A novel type III polyketide synthase encoded by a three-intron gene from Polygonum cuspidatum.
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19225805 L.Q.Ma, Y.W.Guo, D.Y.Gao, D.M.Ma, Y.N.Wang, G.F.Li, B.Y.Liu, H.Wang, and H.C.Ye (2009).
Identification of a Polygonum cuspidatum three-intron gene encoding a type III polyketide synthase producing both naringenin and p-hydroxybenzalacetone.
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19653678 M.I.Kim, S.J.Kwon, and J.S.Dordick (2009).
In vitro precursor-directed synthesis of polyketide analogues with coenzyme a regeneration for the development of antiangiogenic agents.
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Detection of covalent and noncovalent intermediates in the polymerization reaction catalyzed by a C149S class III polyhydroxybutyrate synthase.
  Biochemistry, 48, 9202-9211.  
19710020 T.Klundt, M.Bocola, M.Lütge, T.Beuerle, B.Liu, and L.Beerhues (2009).
A single amino acid substitution converts benzophenone synthase into phenylpyrone synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 30957-30964.  
19005777 X.Lu, W.Zhou, and F.Gao (2009).
Cloning, characterization and localization of CHS gene from blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Ruby.
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19258320 Y.Katsuyama, T.Kita, N.Funa, and S.Horinouchi (2009).
Curcuminoid Biosynthesis by Two Type III Polyketide Synthases in the Herb Curcuma longa.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 11160-11170.  
19348024 Y.Mizuuchi, S.P.Shi, K.Wanibuchi, A.Kojima, H.Morita, H.Noguchi, and I.Abe (2009).
Novel type III polyketide synthases from Aloe arborescens.
  FEBS J, 276, 2391-2401.  
  18323613 C.Taguchi, F.Taura, T.Tamada, Y.Shoyama, Y.Shoyama, H.Tanaka, R.Kuroki, and S.Morimoto (2008).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 64, 217-220.  
18523684 D.M.Soanes, I.Alam, M.Cornell, H.M.Wong, C.Hedeler, N.W.Paton, M.Rattray, S.J.Hubbard, S.G.Oliver, and N.J.Talbot (2008).
Comparative genome analysis of filamentous fungi reveals gene family expansions associated with fungal pathogenesis.
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18075728 G.Wu, Y.Wu, L.Xiao, X.Li, and C.Lu (2008).
Zero erucic acid trait of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) results from a deletion of four base pairs in the fatty acid elongase 1 gene.
  Theor Appl Genet, 116, 491-499.  
  18391433 H.Morita, M.Tanio, S.Kondo, R.Kato, K.Wanibuchi, H.Noguchi, S.Sugio, I.Abe, and T.Kohno (2008).
Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a plant type III polyketide synthase that produces benzalacetone.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 64, 304-306.  
18981598 I.Abe (2008).
Engineering of plant polyketide biosynthesis.
  Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 56, 1505-1514.  
18347585 M.B.Austin, P.E.O'Maille, and J.P.Noel (2008).
Evolving biosynthetic tangos negotiate mechanistic landscapes.
  Nat Chem Biol, 4, 217-222.  
18645237 N.Trabelsi, P.Petit, C.Manigand, B.Langlois d'Estaintot, T.Granier, J.Chaudière, and B.Gallois (2008).
Structural evidence for the inhibition of grape dihydroflavonol 4-reductase by flavonols.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 64, 883-891.
PDB codes: 3bxx 3c1t
18476876 O.Yu, and J.M.Jez (2008).
Nature's assembly line: biosynthesis of simple phenylpropanoids and polyketides.
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18940668 S.B.Rubin-Pitel, H.Zhang, T.Vu, J.S.Brunzelle, H.Zhao, and S.K.Nair (2008).
Distinct structural elements dictate the specificity of the type III pentaketide synthase from Neurospora crassa.
  Chem Biol, 15, 1079-1090.
PDB codes: 3euo 3euq 3eut
19043200 Y.Mizuuchi, Y.Shimokawa, K.Wanibuchi, H.Noguchi, and I.Abe (2008).
Structure function analysis of novel type III polyketide synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana.
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17935118 F.Ververidis, E.Trantas, C.Douglas, G.Vollmer, G.Kretzschmar, and N.Panopoulos (2007).
Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes.
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  17620714 H.Morita, S.Kondo, R.Kato, K.Wanibuchi, H.Noguchi, S.Sugio, I.Abe, and T.Kohno (2007).
Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 63, 576-578.  
17462571 H.Morita, S.Kondo, S.Oguro, H.Noguchi, S.Sugio, I.Abe, and T.Kohno (2007).
Structural insight into chain-length control and product specificity of pentaketide chromone synthase from Aloe arborescens.
  Chem Biol, 14, 359-369.
PDB codes: 2d3m 2d51 2d52
17722151 J.Beekwilder, I.M.van der Meer, O.Sibbesen, M.Broekgaarden, I.Qvist, J.D.Mikkelsen, and R.D.Hall (2007).
Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone.
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17701137 J.Lättig, M.Böhl, P.Fischer, S.Tischer, C.Tietböhl, M.Menschikowski, H.O.Gutzeit, P.Metz, and M.T.Pisabarro (2007).
Mechanism of inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2 by flavonoids: rationale for lead design.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 21, 473-483.  
17698806 J.R.Gledhill, M.G.Montgomery, A.G.Leslie, and J.E.Walker (2007).
Mechanism of inhibition of bovine F1-ATPase by resveratrol and related polyphenols.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 13632-13637.
PDB codes: 2jiz 2jj1 2jj2
17229146 K.Springob, S.Samappito, A.Jindaprasert, J.Schmidt, J.E.Page, W.De-Eknamkul, and T.M.Kutchan (2007).
A polyketide synthase of Plumbago indica that catalyzes the formation of hexaketide pyrones.
  FEBS J, 274, 406-417.  
17250741 K.Wanibuchi, P.Zhang, T.Abe, H.Morita, T.Kohno, G.Chen, H.Noguchi, and I.Abe (2007).
An acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata.
  FEBS J, 274, 1073-1082.  
17482864 K.Watanabe, A.P.Praseuth, and C.C.Wang (2007).
A comprehensive and engaging overview of the type III family of polyketide synthases.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 11, 279-286.  
17935970 R.S.Gokhale, R.Sankaranarayanan, and D.Mohanty (2007).
Versatility of polyketide synthases in generating metabolic diversity.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 17, 736-743.  
17719544 V.Denic, and J.S.Weissman (2007).
A molecular caliper mechanism for determining very long-chain fatty acid length.
  Cell, 130, 663-677.  
17932040 Y.Katsuyama, M.Matsuzawa, N.Funa, and S.Horinouchi (2007).
In vitro synthesis of curcuminoids by type III polyketide synthase from Oryza sativa.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 37702-37709.  
16356722 A.M.Haapalainen, G.Meriläinen, and R.K.Wierenga (2006).
The thiolase superfamily: condensing enzymes with diverse reaction specificities.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 31, 64-71.  
16575575 C.D.Dana, D.R.Bevan, and B.S.Winkel (2006).
Molecular modeling of the effects of mutant alleles on chalcone synthase protein structure.
  J Mol Model, 12, 905-914.  
16669781 E.Grotewold (2006).
The genetics and biochemistry of floral pigments.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 57, 761-780.  
16623883 H.Coiner, G.Schröder, E.Wehinger, C.J.Liu, J.P.Noel, W.Schwab, and J.Schröder (2006).
Methylation of sulfhydryl groups: a new function for a family of small molecule plant O-methyltransferases.
  Plant J, 46, 193-205.  
  16946474 H.Morita, S.Kondo, T.Abe, H.Noguchi, S.Sugio, I.Abe, and T.Kohno (2006).
Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a novel plant type III polyketide synthase that produces pentaketide chromone.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 62, 899-901.  
16367761 I.Abe, T.Watanabe, W.Lou, and H.Noguchi (2006).
Active site residues governing substrate selectivity and polyketide chain length in aloesone synthase.
  FEBS J, 273, 208-218.  
16906151 M.B.Austin, T.Saito, M.E.Bowman, S.Haydock, A.Kato, B.S.Moore, R.R.Kay, and J.P.Noel (2006).
Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase.
  Nat Chem Biol, 2, 494-502.
PDB code: 2h84
16597676 N.Funa, H.Ozawa, A.Hirata, and S.Horinouchi (2006).
Phenolic lipid synthesis by type III polyketide synthases is essential for cyst formation in Azotobacter vinelandii.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 6356-6361.  
16496097 S.Brand, D.Hölscher, A.Schierhorn, A.Svatos, J.Schröder, and B.Schneider (2006).
A type III polyketide synthase from Wachendorfia thyrsiflora and its role in diarylheptanoid and phenylphenalenone biosynthesis.
  Planta, 224, 413-428.  
16850408 T.H.Teeri, P.Elomaa, M.Kotilainen, and V.A.Albert (2006).
Mining plant diversity: Gerbera as a model system for plant developmental and biosynthetic research.
  Bioessays, 28, 756-767.  
16931521 W.Zha, S.B.Rubin-Pitel, and H.Zhao (2006).
Characterization of the substrate specificity of PhlD, a type III polyketide synthase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 32036-32047.  
17086560 Y.Ma, L.H.Smith, R.J.Cox, P.Beltran-Alvarez, C.J.Arthur, and T.J.Simpson F R S (2006).
Catalytic relationships between type I and type II iterative polyketide synthases: The Aspergillus parasiticus norsolorinic acid synthase.
  Chembiochem, 7, 1951-1958.  
17028970 Y.Y.Han, F.Ming, W.Wang, J.W.Wang, M.M.Ye, and D.L.Shen (2006).
Molecular evolution and functional specialization of chalcone synthase superfamily from Phalaenopsis orchid.
  Genetica, 128, 429-438.  
15970585 E.K.Bomati, M.B.Austin, M.E.Bowman, R.A.Dixon, and J.P.Noel (2005).
Structural elucidation of chalcone reductase and implications for deoxychalcone biosynthesis.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 30496-30503.
PDB code: 1zgd
15809979 F.Commodari, A.Khiat, S.Ibrahimi, A.R.Brizius, and N.Kalkstein (2005).
Comparison of the phytoestrogen trans-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) structures from x-ray diffraction and solution NMR.
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15952903 S.W.White, J.Zheng, Y.M.Zhang, and Rock (2005).
The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 74, 791-831.  
15930622 X.Ma, J.Koepke, A.Bayer, G.Fritzsch, H.Michel, and J.Stöckigt (2005).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of native and selenomethionyl vinorine synthase from Rauvolfia serpentina.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 61, 694-696.  
16028220 Y.Shomura, I.Torayama, D.Y.Suh, T.Xiang, A.Kita, U.Sankawa, and K.Miki (2005).
Crystal structure of stilbene synthase from Arachis hypogaea.
  Proteins, 60, 803-806.
PDB codes: 1z1e 1z1f
15286722 A.T.Keatinge-Clay, D.A.Maltby, K.F.Medzihradszky, C.Khosla, and R.M.Stroud (2004).
An antibiotic factory caught in action.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 888-893.
PDB code: 1tqy
15324811 A.Watanabe, and Y.Ebizuka (2004).
Unprecedented mechanism of chain length determination in fungal aromatic polyketide synthases.
  Chem Biol, 11, 1101-1106.  
15725058 B.S.Winkel (2004).
Metabolic channeling in plants.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 55, 85.  
14570878 J.J.Turnbull, J.Nakajima, R.W.Welford, M.Yamazaki, K.Saito, and C.J.Schofield (2004).
Mechanistic studies on three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases of flavonoid biosynthesis: anthocyanidin synthase, flavonol synthase, and flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase.
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15103134 L.Jacquamet, J.Ohana, J.Joly, P.Legrand, R.Kahn, F.Borel, M.Pirocchi, P.Charrault, P.Carpentier, and J.L.Ferrer (2004).
A new highly integrated sample environment for protein crystallography.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 888-894.  
15265863 M.B.Austin, M.Izumikawa, M.E.Bowman, D.W.Udwary, J.L.Ferrer, B.S.Moore, and J.P.Noel (2004).
Crystal structure of a bacterial type III polyketide synthase and enzymatic control of reactive polyketide intermediates.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 45162-45174.
PDB code: 1u0m
  15215420 M.Z.Ansari, G.Yadav, R.S.Gokhale, and D.Mohanty (2004).
NRPS-PKS: a knowledge-based resource for analysis of NRPS/PKS megasynthases.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, W405-W413.  
15292254 N.Campobasso, M.Patel, I.E.Wilding, H.Kallender, M.Rosenberg, and M.N.Gwynn (2004).
Staphylococcus aureus 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase: crystal structure and mechanism.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 44883-44888.
PDB codes: 1tvz 1txt
15377220 R.A.Dixon (2004).
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 55, 225-261.  
15286723 R.Sankaranarayanan, P.Saxena, U.B.Marathe, R.S.Gokhale, V.M.Shanmugam, and R.Rukmini (2004).
A novel tunnel in mycobacterial type III polyketide synthase reveals the structural basis for generating diverse metabolites.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 894-900.
PDB codes: 1ted 1tee
15491859 R.V.Vadali, G.N.Bennett, and K.Y.San (2004).
Applicability of CoA/acetyl-CoA manipulation system to enhance isoamyl acetate production in Escherichia coli.
  Metab Eng, 6, 294-299.  
15604692 V.Hemleben, A.Dressel, B.Epping, R.Lukacin, S.Martens, and M.Austin (2004).
Characterization and structural features of a chalcone synthase mutation in a white-flowering line of Matthiola incana R. Br. (Brassicaceae).
  Plant Mol Biol, 55, 455-465.  
12837788 A.C.Price, C.O.Rock, and S.W.White (2003).
The 1.3-Angstrom-resolution crystal structure of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II from Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  J Bacteriol, 185, 4136-4143.
PDB codes: 1ox0 1oxh
12795704 B.Liu, H.Falkenstein-Paul, W.Schmidt, and L.Beerhues (2003).
Benzophenone synthase and chalcone synthase from Hypericum androsaemum cell cultures: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and site-directed mutagenesis of two polyketide synthases.
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  12889743 C.D.Reeves (2003).
The enzymology of combinatorial biosynthesis.
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12514126 G.Sciara, S.G.Kendrew, A.E.Miele, N.G.Marsh, L.Federici, F.Malatesta, G.Schimperna, C.Savino, and B.Vallone (2003).
The structure of ActVA-Orf6, a novel type of monooxygenase involved in actinorhodin biosynthesis.
  EMBO J, 22, 205-215.
PDB codes: 1lq9 1n5q 1n5s 1n5t 1n5v
12724310 I.Abe, Y.Sano, Y.Takahashi, and H.Noguchi (2003).
Site-directed mutagenesis of benzalacetone synthase. The role of the Phe215 in plant type III polyketide synthases.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 25218-25226.  
12941968 P.Saxena, G.Yadav, D.Mohanty, and R.S.Gokhale (2003).
A new family of type III polyketide synthases in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 44780-44790.  
12557186 S.C.Lovell, I.W.Davis, W.B.Arendall, Bakker, J.M.Word, M.G.Prisant, J.S.Richardson, and D.C.Richardson (2003).
Structure validation by Calpha geometry: phi,psi and Cbeta deviation.
  Proteins, 50, 437-450.  
11880657 A.Kodan, H.Kuroda, and F.Sakai (2002).
A stilbene synthase from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora): implications for phytoalexin accumulation and down-regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 3335-3339.  
12354110 B.J.Blacklock, and J.G.Jaworski (2002).
Studies into factors contributing to substrate specificity of membrane-bound 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 4789-4798.  
11960739 B.Winkel-Shirley (2002).
Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress.
  Curr Opin Plant Biol, 5, 218-223.  
12234835 G.Tegos, F.R.Stermitz, O.Lomovskaya, and K.Lewis (2002).
Multidrug pump inhibitors uncover remarkable activity of plant antimicrobials.
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12429097 H.Pan, S.Tsai, E.S.Meadows, L.J.Miercke, A.T.Keatinge-Clay, J.O'Connell, C.Khosla, and R.M.Stroud (2002).
Crystal structure of the priming beta-ketosynthase from the R1128 polyketide biosynthetic pathway.
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PDB code: 1mzj
11959984 J.M.Jez, M.E.Bowman, and J.P.Noel (2002).
Expanding the biosynthetic repertoire of plant type III polyketide synthases by altering starter molecule specificity.
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PDB code: 1jwx
11723138 N.Funa, Y.Ohnishi, Y.Ebizuka, and S.Horinouchi (2002).
Properties and substrate specificity of RppA, a chalcone synthase-related polyketide synthase in Streptomyces griseus.
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11238987 B.A.Pfeifer, and C.Khosla (2001).
Biosynthesis of polyketides in heterologous hosts.
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11828424 B.S.Moore, and J.N.Hopke (2001).
Discovery of a new bacterial polyketide biosynthetic pathway.
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Alteration of a single amino acid changes the substrate specificity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase.
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Glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis: enzymatic assembly of the dedicated amino acid monomer (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine.
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Novel polyketides synthesized with a higher plant stilbene synthase.
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Structures of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I complexed with fatty acids elucidate its catalytic machinery.
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PDB codes: 1ek4 1f91
11341960 M.Ghanevati, and J.G.Jaworski (2001).
Active-site residues of a plant membrane-bound fatty acid elongase beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, FAE1 KCS.
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The 1.8 A crystal structure and active-site architecture of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH) from escherichia coli.
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PDB code: 1ebl
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Structural control of polyketide formation in plant-specific polyketide synthases.
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PDB code: 1ee0
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Specificities of functionally expressed chalcone and acridone synthases from Ruta graveolens.
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Lipases provide a new mechanistic model for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthases: characterization of the functional residues in Chromatium vinosum PHB synthase.
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Flavonoids and isoflavonoids - a gold mine for metabolic engineering.
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