PDBsum entry 1cfd

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Calcium-binding protein PDB id
Protein chain
148 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Calcium-binding protein
Title: Calcium-free calmodulin
Structure: Calmodulin. Chain: a
Source: Xenopus laevis. African clawed frog. Organism_taxid: 8355
NMR struc: 1 models
Authors: H.Kuboniwa,N.Tjandra,S.Grzesiek,H.Ren,C.B.Klee,A.Bax
Key ref: H.Kuboniwa et al. (1995). Solution structure of calcium-free calmodulin. Nat Struct Biol, 2, 768-776. PubMed id: 7552748
18-Oct-95     Release date:   07-Dec-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P62155  (CALM_XENLA) -  Calmodulin
149 a.a.
148 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biochemical function     protein binding     4 terms  


Nat Struct Biol 2:768-776 (1995)
PubMed id: 7552748  
Solution structure of calcium-free calmodulin.
H.Kuboniwa, N.Tjandra, S.Grzesiek, H.Ren, C.B.Klee, A.Bax.
The three-dimensional structure of calmodulin in the absence of Ca2+ has been determined by three- and four-dimensional heteronuclear NMR experiments, including ROE, isotope-filtering combined with reverse labelling, and measurement of more than 700 three-bond J-couplings. In analogy with the Ca(2+)-ligated state of this protein, it consists of two small globular domains separated by a flexible linker, with no stable, direct contacts between the two domains. In the absence of Ca2+, the four helices in each of the two globular domains form a highly twisted bundle, capped by a short anti-parallel beta-sheet. This arrangement is qualitatively similar to that observed in the crystal structure of the Ca(2+)-free N-terminal domain of troponin C.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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How useful is ion mobility mass spectrometry for structural biology? The relationship between protein crystal structures and their collision cross sections in the gas phase.
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21364983 E.Project, E.Nachliel, and M.Gutman (2011).
The Dynamics of Ca Ions within the Solvation Shell of Calbindin D9k.
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21156208 J.Snijder, R.J.Rose, R.Raijmakers, and A.J.Heck (2011).
Site-specific methionine oxidation in calmodulin affects structural integrity and interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.
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21456702 K.Itoh, and M.Sasai (2011).
Statistical mechanics of protein allostery: roles of backbone and side-chain structural fluctuations.
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21312310 W.Ohashi, H.Hirota, and T.Yamazaki (2011).
Solution structure and fluctuation of the Mg(2+)-bound form of calmodulin C-terminal domain.
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PDB code: 2rrt
21262274 Z.Grabarek (2011).
Insights into modulation of calcium signaling by magnesium in calmodulin, troponin C and related EF-hand proteins.
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20848551 A.Ahmed, S.Villinger, and H.Gohlke (2010).
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20010694 F.Rodríguez-Castañeda, M.Maestre-Martínez, N.Coudevylle, K.Dimova, H.Junge, N.Lipstein, D.Lee, S.Becker, N.Brose, O.Jahn, T.Carlomagno, and C.Griesinger (2010).
Modular architecture of Munc13/calmodulin complexes: dual regulation by Ca2+ and possible function in short-term synaptic plasticity.
  EMBO J, 29, 680-691.
PDB code: 2kdu
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The solution structure of the Mg2+ form of soybean calmodulin isoform 4 reveals unique features of plant calmodulins in resting cells.
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PDB code: 2ksz
20048169 L.W.Xiong, Q.K.Kleerekoper, X.Wang, and J.A.Putkey (2010).
Intra- and interdomain effects due to mutation of calcium-binding sites in calmodulin.
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Allosteric effects of the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine on the energetics of calcium binding by calmodulin.
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20707607 M.Maestre-Martínez, K.Haupt, F.Edlich, G.Jahreis, F.Jarczowski, F.Erdmann, G.Fischer, and C.Lücke (2010).
New structural aspects of FKBP38 activation.
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20594332 M.Mechelke, and M.Habeck (2010).
Robust probabilistic superposition and comparison of protein structures.
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20947014 S.Bromberg, W.Chiu, and T.E.Ferrin (2010).
Workshop on molecular animation.
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18831040 C.A.Laughton, M.Orozco, and W.Vranken (2009).
COCO: a simple tool to enrich the representation of conformational variability in NMR structures.
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19008222 C.Li, J.Chan, F.Haeseleer, K.Mikoshiba, K.Palczewski, M.Ikura, and J.B.Ames (2009).
Structural Insights into Ca2+-dependent Regulation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors by CaBP1.
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19305019 D.A.Macdougall, S.Wachten, A.Ciruela, A.Sinz, and D.M.Cooper (2009).
Separate elements within a single IQ-like motif in adenylyl cyclase type 8 impart ca2+/calmodulin binding and autoinhibition.
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19577574 D.Homouz, H.Sanabria, M.N.Waxham, and M.S.Cheung (2009).
Modulation of calmodulin plasticity by the effect of macromolecular crowding.
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19536568 I.Bertini, S.Das Gupta, X.Hu, T.Karavelas, C.Luchinat, G.Parigi, and J.Yuan (2009).
Solution structure and dynamics of S100A5 in the apo and Ca2+-bound states.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 14, 1097-1107.
PDB codes: 2kax 2kay
19098007 J.Akerboom, J.D.Rivera, M.M.Guilbe, E.C.Malavé, H.H.Hernandez, L.Tian, S.A.Hires, J.S.Marvin, L.L.Looger, and E.R.Schreiter (2009).
Crystal Structures of the GCaMP Calcium Sensor Reveal the Mechanism of Fluorescence Signal Change and Aid Rational Design.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 6455-6464.
PDB codes: 3ek4 3ek7 3ek8 3ekh 3ekj 3fg0
19180449 K.S.Keating, S.C.Flores, M.B.Gerstein, and L.A.Kuhn (2009).
StoneHinge: hinge prediction by network analysis of individual protein structures.
  Protein Sci, 18, 359-371.  
19106096 Q.K.Kleerekoper, and J.A.Putkey (2009).
PEP-19, an Intrinsically Disordered Regulator of Calmodulin Signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 7455-7464.  
19297189 S.L.Shirran, and P.E.Barran (2009).
The use of ESI-MS to probe the binding of divalent cations to calmodulin.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 20, 1159-1171.  
19190183 S.Tripathi, and J.J.Portman (2009).
Inherent flexibility determines the transition mechanisms of the EF-hands of calmodulin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 2104-2109.  
19751682 V.Borsi, C.Luchinat, and G.Parigi (2009).
Global and local mobility of apocalmodulin monitored through fast-field cycling relaxometry.
  Biophys J, 97, 1765-1771.  
19129176 V.Z.Miloushev, J.A.Levine, M.A.Arbing, J.F.Hunt, G.S.Pitt, and A.G.Palmer (2009).
Solution Structure of the NaV1.2 C-terminal EF-hand Domain.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 6446-6454.
PDB code: 2kav
19055326 B.Kim, and A.Chilkoti (2008).
Allosteric actuation of inverse phase transition of a stimulus-responsive fusion polypeptide by ligand binding.
  J Am Chem Soc, 130, 17867-17873.  
18280495 E.Johnson, L.Bruschweiler-Li, S.A.Showalter, G.W.Vuister, F.Zhang, and R.Brüschweiler (2008).
Structure and dynamics of Ca2+-binding domain 1 of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the presence and in the absence of Ca2+.
  J Mol Biol, 377, 945-955.  
18175311 E.Laine, J.D.Yoneda, A.Blondel, and T.E.Malliavin (2008).
The conformational plasticity of calmodulin upon calcium complexation gives a model of its interaction with the oedema factor of Bacillus anthracis.
  Proteins, 71, 1813-1829.  
18723592 E.M.Jones, T.C.Squier, and C.A.Sacksteder (2008).
An altered mode of calcium coordination in methionine-oxidized calmodulin.
  Biophys J, 95, 5268-5280.  
18239852 K.M.Trybus (2008).
Myosin V from head to tail.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 65, 1378-1389.  
18662925 M.Hirsch, and M.Habeck (2008).
Mixture models for protein structure ensembles.
  Bioinformatics, 24, 2184-2192.  
18669651 M.I.Stefan, S.J.Edelstein, and N.Le Novère (2008).
An allosteric model of calmodulin explains differential activation of PP2B and CaMKII.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 10768-10773.  
18305196 N.Juranić, J.J.Dannenberg, G.Cornilescu, P.Salvador, E.Atanasova, H.C.Ahn, S.Macura, J.L.Markley, and F.G.Prendergast (2008).
Structural dependencies of protein backbone 2JNC' couplings.
  Protein Sci, 17, 768-776.  
18583346 Q.Guo, J.E.Jureller, J.T.Warren, E.Solomaha, J.Florián, and W.J.Tang (2008).
Protein-protein docking and analysis reveal that two homologous bacterial adenylyl cyclase toxins interact with calmodulin differently.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 23836-23845.  
18175310 R.A.Newman, W.S.Van Scyoc, B.R.Sorensen, O.R.Jaren, and M.A.Shea (2008).
Interdomain cooperativity of calmodulin bound to melittin preferentially increases calcium affinity of sites I and II.
  Proteins, 71, 1792-1812.  
18513047 S.Tripathi, and J.J.Portman (2008).
Inherent flexibility and protein function: The open/closed conformational transition in the N-terminal domain of calmodulin.
  J Chem Phys, 128, 205104.  
18691903 T.Ly, and R.R.Julian (2008).
Protein-metal interactions of calmodulin and alpha-synuclein monitored by selective noncovalent adduct protein probing mass spectrometry.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 19, 1663-1672.  
17597380 Y.Li, T.D.Williams, and E.M.Topp (2008).
Effects of excipients on protein conformation in lyophilized solids by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.
  Pharm Res, 25, 259-267.  
18461636 Y.Zhang, H.Tan, Z.Jia, and G.Chen (2008).
Ligand-induced dimer formation of calmodulin.
  J Mol Recognit, 21, 267-274.  
17285296 A.Isvoran, C.T.Craescu, and E.Alexov (2007).
Electrostatic control of the overall shape of calmodulin: numerical calculations.
  Eur Biophys J, 36, 225-237.  
17325016 A.J.Tanskanen, J.L.Greenstein, A.Chen, S.X.Sun, and R.L.Winslow (2007).
Protein geometry and placement in the cardiac dyad influence macroscopic properties of calcium-induced calcium release.
  Biophys J, 92, 3379-3396.  
17079729 A.Uttenweiler, H.Schwarz, H.Neumann, and A.Mayer (2007).
The vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex is required for microautophagy.
  Mol Biol Cell, 18, 166-175.  
17935314 E.Lyman, and D.M.Zuckerman (2007).
On the structural convergence of biomolecular simulations by determination of the effective sample size.
  J Phys Chem B, 111, 12876-12882.  
17502097 E.Pham, J.Chiang, I.Li, W.Shum, and K.Truong (2007).
A computational tool for designing FRET protein biosensors by rigid-body sampling of their conformational space.
  Structure, 15, 515-523.  
17942410 F.Edlich, M.Maestre-Martínez, F.Jarczowski, M.Weiwad, M.C.Moutty, M.Malesević, G.Jahreis, G.Fischer, and C.Lücke (2007).
A novel calmodulin-Ca2+ target recognition activates the Bcl-2 regulator FKBP38.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 36496-36504.  
17158574 J.S.Sharp, and K.B.Tomer (2007).
Analysis of the oxidative damage-induced conformational changes of apo- and holocalmodulin by dose-dependent protein oxidative surface mapping.
  Biophys J, 92, 1682-1692.  
17942116 J.T.Warren, Q.Guo, and W.J.Tang (2007).
A 1.3-A structure of zinc-bound N-terminal domain of calmodulin elucidates potential early ion-binding step.
  J Mol Biol, 374, 517-527.
PDB code: 2pq3
18075575 K.Henzler-Wildman, and D.Kern (2007).
Dynamic personalities of proteins.
  Nature, 450, 964-972.  
17562702 K.M.Trybus, M.I.Gushchin, H.Lui, L.Hazelwood, E.B.Krementsova, N.Volkmann, and D.Hanein (2007).
Effect of calcium on calmodulin bound to the IQ motifs of myosin V.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 23316-23325.  
17173306 L.Settimo, S.Donnini, A.H.Juffer, R.W.Woody, and O.Marin (2007).
Conformational changes upon calcium binding and phosphorylation in a synthetic fragment of calmodulin.
  Biopolymers, 88, 373-385.  
17074768 M.Pennestri, S.Melino, G.M.Contessa, E.C.Casavola, M.Paci, A.Ragnini-Wilson, and D.O.Cicero (2007).
Structural basis for the interaction of the myosin light chain Mlc1p with the myosin V Myo2p IQ motifs.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 667-679.
PDB codes: 2fcd 2fce
17202149 M.Rainaldi, A.P.Yamniuk, T.Murase, and H.J.Vogel (2007).
Calcium-dependent and -independent binding of soybean calmodulin isoforms to the calmodulin binding domain of tobacco MAPK phosphatase-1.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 6031-6042.  
17567747 N.Juranić, E.Atanasova, J.H.Streiff, S.Macura, and F.G.Prendergast (2007).
Solvent-induced differentiation of protein backbone hydrogen bonds in calmodulin.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1329-1337.  
17554780 S.Kumar, N.Padhan, N.Alam, and S.Gourinath (2007).
Crystal structure of calcium binding protein-1 from Entamoeba histolytica: a novel arrangement of EF hand motifs.
  Proteins, 68, 990-998.
PDB code: 2nxq
17552906 S.L.Russell, N.V.McFerran, E.M.Hoey, A.Trudgett, and D.J.Timson (2007).
Characterisation of two calmodulin-like proteins from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.
  Biol Chem, 388, 593-599.  
17473011 T.M.Lakowski, G.M.Lee, M.Okon, R.E.Reid, and L.P.McIntosh (2007).
Calcium-induced folding of a fragment of calmodulin composed of EF-hands 2 and 3.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1119-1132.
PDB code: 2hf5
17525461 T.S.Priddy, E.S.Price, C.K.Johnson, and G.M.Carlson (2007).
Single molecule analyses of the conformational substates of calmodulin bound to the phosphorylase kinase complex.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1017-1023.  
16568447 A.Ganoth, E.Nachliel, R.Friedman, and M.Gutman (2006).
Molecular dynamics study of a calmodulin-like protein with an IQ peptide: spontaneous refolding of the protein around the peptide.
  Proteins, 64, 133-146.  
16844751 A.Ganoth, R.Friedman, E.Nachliel, and M.Gutman (2006).
A molecular dynamics study and free energy analysis of complexes between the Mlc1p protein and two IQ motif peptides.
  Biophys J, 91, 2436-2450.  
17151196 A.Houdusse, J.F.Gaucher, E.Krementsova, S.Mui, K.M.Trybus, and C.Cohen (2006).
Crystal structure of apo-calmodulin bound to the first two IQ motifs of myosin V reveals essential recognition features.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 19326-19331.
PDB code: 2ix7
17128963 C.K.Johnson (2006).
Calmodulin, conformational states, and calcium signaling. A single-molecule perspective.
  Biochemistry, 45, 14233-14246.  
16765896 E.Babini, I.Bertini, F.Capozzi, E.Chirivino, and C.Luchinat (2006).
A structural and dynamic characterization of the EF-hand protein CLSP.
  Structure, 14, 1029-1038.
PDB code: 2b1u
16533845 E.Project, R.Friedman, E.Nachliel, and M.Gutman (2006).
A molecular dynamics study of the effect of Ca2+ removal on calmodulin structure.
  Biophys J, 90, 3842-3850.  
16966599 J.M.Shifman, M.H.Choi, S.Mihalas, S.L.Mayo, and M.B.Kennedy (2006).
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by calmodulin with two bound calciums.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 13968-13973.  
16721661 K.Chen, J.Ruan, and L.A.Kurgan (2006).
Prediction of three dimensional structure of calmodulin.
  Protein J, 25, 57-70.  
16240315 L.Milanesi, C.A.Hunter, S.E.Sedelnikova, and J.P.Waltho (2006).
Amplification of bifunctional ligands for calmodulin from a dynamic combinatorial library.
  Chemistry, 12, 1081-1087.  
16269411 M.T.Naik, N.Suree, U.Ilangovan, C.K.Liew, W.Thieu, D.O.Campbell, J.J.Clemens, M.E.Jung, and R.T.Clubb (2006).
Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A transpeptidase. Calcium promotes sorting signal binding by altering the mobility and structure of an active site loop.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 1817-1826.  
17132795 R.L.Winslow, A.Tanskanen, M.Chen, and J.L.Greenstein (2006).
Multiscale modeling of calcium signaling in the cardiac dyad.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1080, 362-375.  
16880936 X.Wang, J.S.Ellis, E.L.Lyle, P.Sundaram, and M.Thompson (2006).
Conformational chemistry of surface-attached calmodulin detected by acoustic shear wave propagation.
  Mol Biosyst, 2, 184-192.  
16013055 A.A.Pandyra, A.P.Yamniuk, V.V.Andrushchenko, H.Wieser, and H.J.Vogel (2005).
Isotope-labeled vibrational circular dichroism studies of calmodulin and its interactions with ligands.
  Biopolymers, 79, 231-237.  
  16511158 C.L.Chyan, P.C.Huang, T.H.Lin, J.W.Huang, S.S.Lin, H.B.Huang, and Y.C.Chen (2005).
Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a calmodulin-OLFp hybrid molecule.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 61, 785-787.  
16193483 G.Fiorin, R.R.Biekofsky, A.Pastore, and P.Carloni (2005).
Unwinding the helical linker of calcium-loaded calmodulin: a molecular dynamics study.
  Proteins, 61, 829-839.  
15596444 I.Horváth, V.Harmat, A.Perczel, V.Pálfi, L.Nyitray, A.Nagy, E.Hlavanda, G.Náray-Szabó, and J.Ovádi (2005).
The structure of the complex of calmodulin with KAR-2: a novel mode of binding explains the unique pharmacology of the drug.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 8266-8274.
PDB code: 1xa5
15746172 K.A.Young, and J.H.Caldwell (2005).
Modulation of skeletal and cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels by calmodulin.
  J Physiol, 565, 349-370.  
16028301 P.Lundström, and M.Akke (2005).
Microsecond protein dynamics measured by 13Calpha rotating-frame spin relaxation.
  Chembiochem, 6, 1685-1692.  
16034667 P.Lundström, and M.Akke (2005).
Off-resonance rotating-frame amide proton spin relaxation experiments measuring microsecond chemical exchange in proteins.
  J Biomol NMR, 32, 163-173.  
15988725 S.J.Watt, A.Oakley, M.M.Sheil, and J.L.Beck (2005).
Comparison of negative and positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectra of calmodulin and its complex with trifluoperazine.
  Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 19, 2123-2130.  
16849206 S.Shirran, P.Garnaud, S.Daff, D.McMillan, and P.Barran (2005).
The formation of a complex between calmodulin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase is determined by ESI-MS.
  J R Soc Interface, 2, 465-476.  
15632284 S.Toma, K.T.Chong, A.Nakagawa, K.Teranishi, S.Inouye, and O.Shimomura (2005).
The crystal structures of semi-synthetic aequorins.
  Protein Sci, 14, 409-416.
PDB codes: 1uhh 1uhi 1uhj 1uhk
15155727 A.M.Weljie, and H.J.Vogel (2004).
Unexpected structure of the Ca2+-regulatory region from soybean calcium-dependent protein kinase-alpha.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 35494-35502.
PDB code: 1s6i
14670974 A.P.Yamniuk, and H.J.Vogel (2004).
Structurally homologous binding of plant calmodulin isoforms to the calmodulin-binding domain of vacuolar calcium-ATPase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 7698-7707.  
15557269 B.Wang, S.R.Martin, R.A.Newman, S.L.Hamilton, M.A.Shea, P.M.Bayley, and K.M.Beckingham (2004).
Biochemical properties of V91G calmodulin: A calmodulin point mutation that deregulates muscle contraction in Drosophila.
  Protein Sci, 13, 3285-3297.  
15281134 D.B.Sherman, S.Zhang, J.B.Pitner, and A.Tropsha (2004).
Evaluation of the relative stability of liganded versus ligand-free protein conformations using Simplicial Neighborhood Analysis of Protein Packing (SNAPP) method.
  Proteins, 56, 828-838.  
15452116 H.Hu, J.H.Sheehan, and W.J.Chazin (2004).
The mode of action of centrin. Binding of Ca2+ and a peptide fragment of Kar1p to the C-terminal domain.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 50895-50903.  
15489172 J.S.Shim, J.Lee, H.J.Park, S.J.Park, and H.J.Kwon (2004).
A new curcumin derivative, HBC, interferes with the cell cycle progression of colon cancer cells via antagonization of the Ca2+/calmodulin function.
  Chem Biol, 11, 1455-1463.  
15630565 J.Song, Q.Zhao, S.Thao, R.O.Frederick, and J.L.Markley (2004).
Solution structure of a calmodulin-like calcium-binding domain from Arabidopsis thaliana.
  J Biomol NMR, 30, 451-456.
PDB code: 1tiz
15130477 M.A.Schumacher, M.Crum, and M.C.Miller (2004).
Crystal structures of apocalmodulin and an apocalmodulin/SK potassium channel gating domain complex.
  Structure, 12, 849-860.
PDB codes: 1qx5 1qx7
14980206 W.Zhou, Y.Qian, K.Kunjilwar, P.J.Pfaffinger, and S.Choe (2004).
Structural insights into the functional interaction of KChIP1 with Shal-type K(+) channels.
  Neuron, 41, 573-586.
PDB code: 1s6c
14530275 Z.Akyol, J.A.Bartos, M.A.Merrill, L.A.Faga, O.R.Jaren, M.A.Shea, and J.W.Hell (2004).
Apo-calmodulin binds with its C-terminal domain to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 C0 region.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 2166-2175.  
12538886 A.M.Weljie, A.P.Yamniuk, H.Yoshino, Y.Izumi, and H.J.Vogel (2003).
Protein conformational changes studied by diffusion NMR spectroscopy: application to helix-loop-helix calcium binding proteins.
  Protein Sci, 12, 228-236.  
12755706 H.Tossavainen, P.Permi, A.Annila, I.Kilpeläinen, and T.Drakenberg (2003).
NMR solution structure of calerythrin, an EF-hand calcium-binding protein from Saccharopolyspora erythraea.
  Eur J Biochem, 270, 2505-2512.
PDB code: 1nya
12577271 J.Kleinjung, F.Fraternali, S.R.Martin, and P.M.Bayley (2003).
Thermal unfolding simulations of apo-calmodulin using leap-dynamics.
  Proteins, 50, 648-656.  
12557181 L.A.Faga, B.R.Sorensen, W.S.VanScyoc, and M.A.Shea (2003).
Basic interdomain boundary residues in calmodulin decrease calcium affinity of sites I and II by stabilizing helix-helix interactions.
  Proteins, 50, 381-391.  
12574113 M.Aoyagi, A.S.Arvai, J.A.Tainer, and E.D.Getzoff (2003).
Structural basis for endothelial nitric oxide synthase binding to calmodulin.
  EMBO J, 22, 766-775.
PDB code: 1niw
14690449 M.M.Zhu, D.L.Rempel, J.Zhao, D.E.Giblin, and M.L.Gross (2003).
Probing Ca2+-induced conformational changes in porcine calmodulin by H/D exchange and ESI-MS: effect of cations and ionic strength.
  Biochemistry, 42, 15388-15397.  
12871972 M.Nagae, A.Nozawa, N.Koizumi, H.Sano, H.Hashimoto, M.Sato, and T.Shimizu (2003).
The crystal structure of the novel calcium-binding protein AtCBL2 from Arabidopsis thaliana.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 42240-42246.
PDB code: 1uhn
12542690 S.W.Vetter, and E.Leclerc (2003).
Novel aspects of calmodulin target recognition and activation.
  Eur J Biochem, 270, 404-414.  
14500879 V.A.Likić, E.E.Strehler, and P.R.Gooley (2003).
Dynamics of Ca2+-saturated calmodulin D129N mutant studied by multiple molecular dynamics simulations.
  Protein Sci, 12, 2215-2229.  
12202371 A.L.Papish, L.W.Tari, and H.J.Vogel (2002).
Dynamic light scattering study of calmodulin-target peptide complexes.
  Biophys J, 83, 1455-1464.  
12414680 G.Li, and Q.Cui (2002).
A coarse-grained normal mode approach for macromolecules: an efficient implementation and application to Ca(2+)-ATPase.
  Biophys J, 83, 2457-2474.  
12112694 G.S.Jas, and K.Kuczera (2002).
Free-energy simulations of the oxidation of c-terminal methionines in calmodulin.
  Proteins, 48, 257-268.  
11980481 J.B.Ames, N.Hamasaki, and T.Molchanova (2002).
Structure and calcium-binding studies of a recoverin mutant (E85Q) in an allosteric intermediate state.
  Biochemistry, 41, 5776-5787.
PDB code: 1la3
11748245 J.E.Van Lierop, D.P.Wilson, J.P.Davis, S.Tikunova, C.Sutherland, M.P.Walsh, and J.D.Johnson (2002).
Activation of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase by calmodulin. Role of LYS(30) and GLY(40).
  J Biol Chem, 277, 6550-6558.  
12366153 J.Elezgaray, G.Marcou, and Y.H.Sanejouand (2002).
Exploring the natural conformational changes of the C-terminal domain of calmodulin.
  Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 66, 031908.  
11904288 J.K.Kranz, E.K.Lee, A.C.Nairn, and A.J.Wand (2002).
A direct test of the reductionist approach to structural studies of calmodulin activity: relevance of peptide models of target proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 16351-16354.  
12163068 L.S.Mizoue, and W.J.Chazin (2002).
Engineering and design of ligand-induced conformational change in proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 12, 459-463.  
11790829 M.R.Nelson, E.Thulin, P.A.Fagan, S.Forsén, and W.J.Chazin (2002).
The EF-hand domain: a globally cooperative structural unit.
  Protein Sci, 11, 198-205.
PDB code: 1kcy
12022890 R.R.Biekofsky, S.R.Martin, J.E.McCormick, L.Masino, S.Fefeu, P.M.Bayley, and J.Feeney (2002).
Thermal stability of calmodulin and mutants studied by (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR measurements of selectively labeled [(15)N]Ile proteins.
  Biochemistry, 41, 6850-6859.  
12022873 S.B.Tikunova, J.A.Rall, and J.P.Davis (2002).
Effect of hydrophobic residue substitutions with glutamine on Ca(2+) binding and exchange with the N-domain of troponin C.
  Biochemistry, 41, 6697-6705.  
12441389 S.R.Martin, and P.M.Bayley (2002).
Regulatory implications of a novel mode of interaction of calmodulin with a double IQ-motif target sequence from murine dilute myosin V.
  Protein Sci, 11, 2909-2923.  
12414709 W.S.VanScyoc, B.R.Sorensen, E.Rusinova, W.R.Laws, J.B.Ross, and M.A.Shea (2002).
Calcium binding to calmodulin mutants monitored by domain-specific intrinsic phenylalanine and tyrosine fluorescence.
  Biophys J, 83, 2767-2780.  
11266616 A.Ababou, and J.R.Desjarlais (2001).
Solvation energetics and conformational change in EF-hand proteins.
  Protein Sci, 10, 301-312.  
11325712 D.Vigil, S.C.Gallagher, J.Trewhella, and A.E.García (2001).
Functional dynamics of the hydrophobic cleft in the N-domain of calmodulin.
  Biophys J, 80, 2082-2092.  
11266605 G.Larsson, J.Schleucher, J.Onions, S.Hermann, T.Grundström, and S.S.Wijmenga (2001).
A novel target recognition revealed by calmodulin in complex with the basic helix--loop--helix transcription factor SEF2-1/E2-2.
  Protein Sci, 10, 169-186.  
  11156974 I.Ivanovska, and M.D.Rose (2001).
Fine structure analysis of the yeast centrin, Cdc31p, identifies residues specific for cell morphology and spindle pole body duplication.
  Genetics, 157, 503-518.  
11685248 J.J.Chou, S.Li, C.B.Klee, and A.Bax (2001).
Solution structure of Ca(2+)-calmodulin reveals flexible hand-like properties of its domains.
  Nat Struct Biol, 8, 990-997.
PDB codes: 1j7o 1j7p
11264466 S.S.Hook, and A.R.Means (2001).
Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinases: from activation to function.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 41, 471-505.  
11514666 W.S.VanScyoc, and M.A.Shea (2001).
Phenylalanine fluorescence studies of calcium binding to N-domain fragments of Paramecium calmodulin mutants show increased calcium affinity correlates with increased disorder.
  Protein Sci, 10, 1758-1768.  
11606301 Z.Qin, and T.C.Squier (2001).
Calcium-dependent stabilization of the central sequence between Met(76) and Ser(81) in vertebrate calmodulin.
  Biophys J, 81, 2908-2918.  
10792048 A.Ulrich, A.A.Schmitz, T.Braun, T.Yuan, H.J.Vogel, and G.Vergères (2000).
Mapping the interface between calmodulin and MARCKS-related protein by fluorescence spectroscopy.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 5191-5196.  
10956015 D.Yin, H.Sun, D.A.Ferrington, and T.C.Squier (2000).
Closer proximity between opposing domains of vertebrate calmodulin following deletion of Met(145)-Lys(148).
  Biochemistry, 39, 10255-10268.  
11076504 H.Ishida, K.Takahashi, K.Nakashima, Y.Kumaki, M.Nakata, K.Hikichi, and M.Yazawa (2000).
Solution structures of the N-terminal domain of yeast calmodulin: Ca2+-dependent conformational change and its functional implication.
  Biochemistry, 39, 13660-13668.
PDB codes: 1f54 1f55
10636869 H.Sun, and T.C.Squier (2000).
Ordered and cooperative binding of opposing globular domains of calmodulin to the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 1731-1738.  
  10975573 L.Masino, S.R.Martin, and P.M.Bayley (2000).
Ligand binding and thermodynamic stability of a multidomain protein, calmodulin.
  Protein Sci, 9, 1519-1529.  
10684611 M.Mori, T.Konno, T.Ozawa, M.Murata, K.Imoto, and K.Nagayama (2000).
Novel interaction of the voltage-dependent sodium channel (VDSC) with calmodulin: does VDSC acquire calmodulin-mediated Ca2+-sensitivity?
  Biochemistry, 39, 1316-1323.  
  10850806 R.D.Brokx, and H.J.Vogel (2000).
Peptide and metal ion-dependent association of isolated helix-loop-helix calcium binding domains: studies of thrombic fragments of calmodulin.
  Protein Sci, 9, 964-975.  
10766953 R.Oliva, L.Falcigno, G.D'Auria, M.Saviano, L.Paolillo, G.Ansanelli, and G.Zanotti (2000).
Bicyclic peptides as models of calcium binding sites: synthesis and conformation of a homodetic undecapeptide.
  Biopolymers, 53, 581-595.  
11123919 S.Fefeu, R.R.Biekofsky, J.E.McCormick, S.R.Martin, P.M.Bayley, and J.Feeney (2000).
Calcium-induced refolding of the calmodulin V136G mutant studied by NMR spectroscopy: evidence for interaction between the two globular domains.
  Biochemistry, 39, 15920-15931.  
  11206069 S.R.Martin, L.Masino, and P.M.Bayley (2000).
Enhancement by Mg2+ of domain specificity in Ca2+-dependent interactions of calmodulin with target sequences.
  Protein Sci, 9, 2477-2488.  
10757969 S.Y.Lee, and R.E.Klevit (2000).
The whole is not the simple sum of its parts in calmodulin from S. cerevisiae.
  Biochemistry, 39, 4225-4230.  
10841767 T.Berggård, M.Silow, E.Thulin, and S.Linse (2000).
Ca(2+)- and H(+)-dependent conformational changes of calbindin D(28k).
  Biochemistry, 39, 6864-6873.  
11087403 T.Ozawa, M.Fukuda, M.Nara, A.Nakamura, Y.Komine, K.Kohama, and Y.Umezawa (2000).
How can Ca2+ selectively activate recoverin in the presence of Mg2+? Surface plasmon resonance and FT-IR spectroscopic studies.
  Biochemistry, 39, 14495-14503.  
10465773 A.Wallqvist, T.A.Lavoie, J.A.Chanatry, D.G.Covell, and J.Carey (1999).
Cooperative folding units of escherichia coli tryptophan repressor.
  Biophys J, 77, 1619-1626.  
10103067 D.Lafitte, A.J.Heck, T.J.Hill, K.Jumel, S.E.Harding, and P.J.Derrick (1999).
Evidence of noncovalent dimerization of calmodulin.
  Eur J Biochem, 261, 337-344.  
10591109 K.L.Yap, J.B.Ames, M.B.Swindells, and M.Ikura (1999).
Diversity of conformational states and changes within the EF-hand protein superfamily.
  Proteins, 37, 499-507.  
9890887 K.Nakashima, H.Ishida, S.Y.Ohki, K.Hikichi, and M.Yazawa (1999).
Calcium binding induces interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains of yeast calmodulin and modulates its overall conformation.
  Biochemistry, 38, 98.  
10360947 K.W.Lo, Q.Zhang, M.Li, and M.Zhang (1999).
Apoptosis-linked gene product ALG-2 is a new member of the calpain small subunit subfamily of Ca2+-binding proteins.
  Biochemistry, 38, 7498-7508.  
10364176 M.C.Moncrieffe, S.Eaton, Z.Bajzer, C.Haydock, J.D.Potter, T.M.Laue, and F.G.Prendergast (1999).
Rotational and translational motion of troponin C.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 17464-17470.  
10439509 O.Nemirovskiy, D.E.Giblin, and M.L.Gross (1999).
Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and hydrogen/deuterium exchange for probing the interaction of calmodulin with calcium.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 10, 711-718.  
10395934 R.Donato (1999).
Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1450, 191-231.  
10355629 S.Rentschler, H.Linn, K.Deininger, M.T.Bedford, X.Espanel, and M.Sudol (1999).
The WW domain of dystrophin requires EF-hands region to interact with beta-dystroglycan.
  Biol Chem, 380, 431-442.  
  10210190 T.Yuan, and H.J.Vogel (1999).
Substitution of the methionine residues of calmodulin with the unnatural amino acid analogs ethionine and norleucine: biochemical and spectroscopic studies.
  Protein Sci, 8, 113-121.  
10085072 T.Yuan, H.Ouyang, and H.J.Vogel (1999).
Surface exposure of the methionine side chains of calmodulin in solution. A nitroxide spin label and two-dimensional NMR study.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 8411-8420.  
9931009 T.Yuan, M.P.Walsh, C.Sutherland, H.Fabian, and H.J.Vogel (1999).
Calcium-dependent and -independent interactions of the calmodulin-binding domain of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 38, 1446-1455.  
9442059 A.Barth, S.R.Martin, and P.M.Bayley (1998).
Specificity and symmetry in the interaction of calmodulin domains with the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase target sequence.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 2174-2183.  
9485423 A.C.Drohat, D.M.Baldisseri, R.R.Rustandi, and D.J.Weber (1998).
Solution structure of calcium-bound rat S100B(betabeta) as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,.
  Biochemistry, 37, 2729-2740.
PDB code: 1qlk
  9828012 A.L.Hazard, S.C.Kohout, N.L.Stricker, J.A.Putkey, and J.J.Falke (1998).
The kinetic cycle of cardiac troponin C: calcium binding and dissociation at site II trigger slow conformational rearrangements.
  Protein Sci, 7, 2451-2459.  
9485409 A.Malmendal, G.Carlstrom, C.Hambraeus, T.Drakenberg, S.Forsen, and M.Akke (1998).
Sequence and context dependence of EF-hand loop dynamics. An 15N relaxation study of a calcium-binding site mutant of calbindin D9k.
  Biochemistry, 37, 2586-2595.  
9786904 A.Malmendal, J.Evenäs, E.Thulin, G.P.Gippert, T.Drakenberg, and S.Forsén (1998).
When size is important. Accommodation of magnesium in a calcium binding regulatory domain.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 28994-29001.  
9519413 H.Matsumura, T.Shiba, T.Inoue, S.Harada, and Y.Kai (1998).
A novel mode of target recognition suggested by the 2.0 A structure of holo S100B from bovine brain.
  Structure, 6, 233-241.
PDB code: 1mho
9667926 J.Evenäs, A.Malmendal, and S.Forsén (1998).
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 2, 293-302.  
9649337 J.Gao, D.Yin, Y.Yao, T.D.Williams, and T.C.Squier (1998).
Progressive decline in the ability of calmodulin isolated from aged brain to activate the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase.
  Biochemistry, 37, 9536-9548.  
9922147 J.K.Krueger, N.A.Bishop, D.K.Blumenthal, G.Zhi, K.Beckingham, J.T.Stull, and J.Trewhella (1998).
Calmodulin binding to myosin light chain kinase begins at substoichiometric Ca2+ concentrations: a small-angle scattering study of binding and conformational transitions.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17810-17817.  
9551551 M.Machius, N.Declerck, R.Huber, and G.Wiegand (1998).
Activation of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase through a disorder-->order transition of the substrate-binding site mediated by a calcium-sodium-calcium metal triad.
  Structure, 6, 281-292.
PDB code: 1bli
  9521102 M.R.Nelson, and W.J.Chazin (1998).
An interaction-based analysis of calcium-induced conformational changes in Ca2+ sensor proteins.
  Protein Sci, 7, 270-282.  
9519412 M.Sastry, R.R.Ketchem, O.Crescenzi, C.Weber, M.J.Lubienski, H.Hidaka, and W.J.Chazin (1998).
The three-dimensional structure of Ca(2+)-bound calcyclin: implications for Ca(2+)-signal transduction by S100 proteins.
  Structure, 6, 223-231.
PDB code: 1a03
15012251 R.E.Zielinski (1998).
  Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol, 49, 697-725.  
9548926 R.Gilli, D.Lafitte, C.Lopez, M.Kilhoffer, A.Makarov, C.Briand, and J.Haiech (1998).
Thermodynamic analysis of calcium and magnesium binding to calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 37, 5450-5456.  
9585577 R.R.Biekofsky, S.R.Martin, J.P.Browne, P.M.Bayley, and J.Feeney (1998).
Ca2+ coordination to backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms in calmodulin and other EF-hand proteins: 15N chemical shifts as probes for monitoring individual-site Ca2+ coordination.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7617-7629.  
9519411 S.P.Smith, and G.S.Shaw (1998).
A novel calcium-sensitive switch revealed by the structure of human S100B in the calcium-bound form.
  Structure, 6, 211-222.
PDB code: 1uwo
9485473 T.Yuan, A.M.Weljie, and H.J.Vogel (1998).
Tryptophan fluorescence quenching by methionine and selenomethionine residues of calmodulin: orientation of peptide and protein binding.
  Biochemistry, 37, 3187-3195.  
9804795 T.Yuan, and H.J.Vogel (1998).
Calcium-calmodulin-induced dimerization of the carboxyl-terminal domain from petunia glutamate decarboxylase. A novel calmodulin-peptide interaction motif.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 30328-30335.  
9545028 W.Wriggers, E.Mehler, F.Pitici, H.Weinstein, and K.Schulten (1998).
Structure and dynamics of calmodulin in solution.
  Biophys J, 74, 1622-1639.  
9819203 X.Shao, I.Fernandez, T.C.Südhof, and J.Rizo (1998).
Solution structures of the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound C2A domain of synaptotagmin I: does Ca2+ induce a conformational change?
  Biochemistry, 37, 16106-16115.
PDB code: 1byn
9283081 B.Gopal, C.P.Swaminathan, S.Bhattacharya, A.Bhattacharya, M.R.Murthy, and A.Surolia (1997).
Thermodynamics of metal ion binding and denaturation of a calcium binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.
  Biochemistry, 36, 10910-10916.  
9108264 C.H.Han, and D.M.Roberts (1997).
Altered methylation substrate kinetics and calcium binding of a calmodulin with a Val136-->Thr substitution.
  Eur J Biochem, 244, 904-912.  
9047299 I.Protasevich, B.Ranjbar, V.Lobachov, A.Makarov, R.Gilli, C.Briand, D.Lafitte, and J.Haiech (1997).
Conformation and thermal denaturation of apocalmodulin: role of electrostatic mutations.
  Biochemistry, 36, 2017-2024.  
9131994 J.Evenäs, E.Thulin, A.Malmendal, S.Forsén, and G.Carlström (1997).
NMR studies of the E140Q mutant of the carboxy-terminal domain of calmodulin reveal global conformational exchange in the Ca2+-saturated state.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3448-3457.  
9166772 J.K.Krueger, G.A.Olah, S.E.Rokop, G.Zhi, J.T.Stull, and J.Trewhella (1997).
Structures of calmodulin and a functional myosin light chain kinase in the activated complex: a neutron scattering study.
  Biochemistry, 36, 6017-6023.  
9241423 J.M.Berg, and H.A.Godwin (1997).
Lessons from zinc-binding peptides.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 26, 357-371.  
9236001 J.P.Browne, M.Strom, S.R.Martin, and P.M.Bayley (1997).
The role of beta-sheet interactions in domain stability, folding, and target recognition reactions of calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9550-9561.  
9315850 L.Spyracopoulos, M.X.Li, S.K.Sia, S.M.Gagné, M.Chandra, R.J.Solaro, and B.D.Sykes (1997).
Calcium-induced structural transition in the regulatory domain of human cardiac troponin C.
  Biochemistry, 36, 12138-12146.
PDB codes: 1ap4 1spy
  9098889 O.B.Peersen, T.S.Madsen, and J.J.Falke (1997).
Intermolecular tuning of calmodulin by target peptides and proteins: differential effects on Ca2+ binding and implications for kinase activation.
  Protein Sci, 6, 794-807.  
  9194185 S.Grzesiek, A.Bax, J.S.Hu, J.Kaufman, I.Palmer, S.J.Stahl, N.Tjandra, and P.T.Wingfield (1997).
Refined solution structure and backbone dynamics of HIV-1 Nef.
  Protein Sci, 6, 1248-1263.
PDB code: 2nef
9245425 S.K.Drake, M.A.Zimmer, C.L.Miller, and J.J.Falke (1997).
Optimizing the metal binding parameters of an EF-hand-like calcium chelation loop: coordinating side chains play a more important tuning role than chelation loop flexibility.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9917-9926.  
  9385641 S.Linse, E.Thulin, L.K.Gifford, D.Radzewsky, J.Hagan, R.R.Wilk, and K.S.Akerfeldt (1997).
Domain organization of calbindin D28k as determined from the association of six synthetic EF-hand fragments.
  Protein Sci, 6, 2385-2396.  
9109645 S.M.Gagné, M.X.Li, and B.D.Sykes (1997).
Mechanism of direct coupling between binding and induced structural change in regulatory calcium binding proteins.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4386-4392.
PDB code: 1smg
9100027 S.Ohki, M.Ikura, and M.Zhang (1997).
Identification of Mg2+-binding sites and the role of Mg2+ on target recognition by calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4309-4316.  
9053397 W.D.Kohn, C.T.Mant, and R.S.Hodges (1997).
Alpha-helical protein assembly motifs.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 2583-2586.  
9132012 X.Wu, and R.E.Reid (1997).
Conservative D133E mutation of calmodulin site IV drastically alters calcium binding and phosphodiesterase regulation.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3608-3616.  
8794737 A.C.Drohat, J.C.Amburgey, F.Abildgaard, M.R.Starich, D.Baldisseri, and D.J.Weber (1996).
Solution structure of rat apo-S100B(beta beta) as determined by NMR spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 35, 11577-11588.
PDB code: 1sym
8994973 A.Houdusse, M.Silver, and C.Cohen (1996).
A model of Ca(2+)-free calmodulin binding to unconventional myosins reveals how calmodulin acts as a regulatory switch.
  Structure, 4, 1475-1490.
PDB code: 1aji
8768898 A.J.Wand, and S.W.Englander (1996).
Protein complexes studied by NMR spectroscopy.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 7, 403-408.  
  8880922 A.T.Alexandrescu, S.A.Dames, and R.Wiltscheck (1996).
A fragment of staphylococcal nuclease with an OB-fold structure shows hydrogen-exchange protection factors in the range reported for "molten globules".
  Protein Sci, 5, 1942-1946.  
  8931135 B.C.Potts, G.Carlström, K.Okazaki, H.Hidaka, and W.J.Chazin (1996).
1H NMR assignments of apo calcyclin and comparative structural analysis with calbindin D9k and S100 beta.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2162-2174.  
8968610 B.R.Sorensen, and M.A.Shea (1996).
Calcium binding decreases the stokes radius of calmodulin and mutants R74A, R90A, and R90G.
  Biophys J, 71, 3407-3420.  
8626680 D.F.Meyer, Y.Mabuchi, and Z.Grabarek (1996).
The role of Phe-92 in the Ca(2+)-induced conformational transition in the C-terminal domain of calmodulin.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 11284-11290.  
  8897605 D.van der Spoel, Groot, S.Hayward, H.J.Berendsen, and H.J.Vogel (1996).
Bending of the calmodulin central helix: a theoretical study.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2044-2053.  
8672464 E.J.Beatty, M.C.Cox, T.A.Frenkiel, B.M.Tam, A.B.Mason, R.T.MacGillivray, P.J.Sadler, and R.C.Woodworth (1996).
Interlobe communication in 13C-methionine-labeled human transferrin.
  Biochemistry, 35, 7635-7642.  
8619985 K.S.Akerfeldt, A.N.Coyne, R.R.Wilk, E.Thulin, and S.Linse (1996).
Ca2+-binding stoichiometry of calbindin D28k as assessed by spectroscopic analyses of synthetic peptide fragments.
  Biochemistry, 35, 3662-3669.  
8848832 M.Ikura (1996).
Calcium binding and conformational response in EF-hand proteins.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 14-17.  
  8819155 P.M.Bayley, W.A.Findlay, and S.R.Martin (1996).
Target recognition by calmodulin: dissecting the kinetics and affinity of interaction using short peptide sequences.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1215-1228.  
  8868483 P.Mukherjea, J.F.Maune, and K.Beckingham (1996).
Interlobe communication in multiple calcium-binding site mutants of Drosophila calmodulin.
  Protein Sci, 5, 468-477.  
8688416 S.P.Smith, K.R.Barber, S.D.Dunn, and G.S.Shaw (1996).
Structural influence of cation binding to recombinant human brain S100b: evidence for calcium-induced exposure of a hydrophobic surface.
  Biochemistry, 35, 8805-8814.  
8639501 S.R.Martin, P.M.Bayley, S.E.Brown, T.Porumb, M.Zhang, and M.Ikura (1996).
Spectroscopic characterization of a high-affinity calmodulin-target peptide hybrid molecule.
  Biochemistry, 35, 3508-3517.  
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