PDBsum entry 1c9q

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Apoptosis PDB id
Protein chain
117 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Apoptosis
Title: Average nmr solution structure of the bir-2 domain of xiap
Structure: Apoptosis inhibitor iap homolog. Chain: a. Fragment: bir-2 domain (residues 124-240) of human xiap. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
NMR struc: 1 models
Authors: R.P.Meadows,S.W.Fesik
Key ref:
C.Sun et al. (1999). NMR structure and mutagenesis of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein XIAP. Nature, 401, 818-822. PubMed id: 10548111 DOI: 10.1038/44617
03-Aug-99     Release date:   09-Aug-00    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P98170  (XIAP_HUMAN) -  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase XIAP
497 a.a.
117 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)


DOI no: 10.1038/44617 Nature 401:818-822 (1999)
PubMed id: 10548111  
NMR structure and mutagenesis of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein XIAP.
C.Sun, M.Cai, A.H.Gunasekera, R.P.Meadows, H.Wang, J.Chen, H.Zhang, W.Wu, N.Xu, S.C.Ng, S.W.Fesik.
The inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins, originally identified in baculoviruses, regulate programmed cell death in a variety of organisms. IAPs inhibit specific enzymes (caspases) in the death cascade and contain one to three modules of a common 70-amino-acid motif called the BIR domain. Here we describe the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of a region encompassing the second BIR domain (BIR2) of a human IAP family member, XIAP (also called hILP or MIHA). The structure of the BIR domain consists of a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices and resembles a classical zinc finger. Unexpectedly, conserved amino acids within the linker region between the BIR1 and BIR2 domains were found to be critical for inhibiting caspase-3. The absence or presence of these residues may explain the differences in caspase inhibition observed for different truncated and full-length IAPs. Our data further indicate that these residues may bind to the active site and that the BIR domain may interact with an adjacent site on the enzyme.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 2.
Figure 2 Surface of the BIR2 domain of XIAP. a, Two views of the surface of the averaged minimized NMR structure of (C202A/C213G)XIAP (residues 147-240). Lys and Arg side-chain atoms are blue; Asp and Glu side-chain atoms are red; Phe, Val, Leu, and Ile side-chain atoms are yellow. b, c, Surface representations of the averaged minimized NMR structure of (C202A/C213G)XIAP (residues 124-240). The residues with well resolved amide resonances and significant chemical-shift changes upon binding to the caspase-8-cleaved (b) or pro-form (c) of C285A mutant caspase-3 are red.
Figure 3.
Figure 3 Binding of (C202A/C213G)XIAP (residues 124-240) to His-tagged caspase-3 in the presence and absence of the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD aldehyde. The band corresponding to XIAP in the presence (+) of the DEVD aldehyde (DEVD-CHO) was reduced to 20% 3% (n = 3) of that in the absence (-) of the caspase-3 inhibitor. Far right lane, a control peptide (GQVGRQAAIIGDDINR) that does not bind to caspase-3.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (1999, 401, 818-822) copyright 1999.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21264751 K.Miura, W.Fujibuchi, K.Ishida, T.Naitoh, H.Ogawa, T.Ando, N.Yazaki, K.Watanabe, S.Haneda, C.Shibata, and I.Sasaki (2011).
Inhibitor of apoptosis protein family as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets of colorectal cancer.
  Surg Today, 41, 175-182.  
21340509 M.Orzáez, A.Gortat, M.Sancho, R.J.Carbajo, A.Pineda-Lucena, Y.Palacios-Rodríguez, and E.Pérez-Payá (2011).
Characterization of dequalinium as a XIAP antagonist that targets the BIR2 domain.
  Apoptosis, 16, 460-467.  
20651737 M.Gyrd-Hansen, and P.Meier (2010).
IAPs: from caspase inhibitors to modulators of NF-kappaB, inflammation and cancer.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 10, 561-574.  
19373243 P.D.Mace, S.Shirley, and C.L.Day (2010).
Assembling the building blocks: structure and function of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins.
  Cell Death Differ, 17, 46-53.  
19590513 S.Galbán, and C.S.Duckett (2010).
XIAP as a ubiquitin ligase in cellular signaling.
  Cell Death Differ, 17, 54-60.  
  20957035 S.P.Burke, and J.B.Smith (2010).
Monomerization of cytosolic mature smac attenuates interaction with IAPs and potentiation of caspase activation.
  PLoS One, 5, 0.  
19956646 A.Kotevski, W.D.Cook, D.L.Vaux, and B.A.Callus (2009).
Identification of an Xiap-like pseudogene on mouse chromosome 7.
  PLoS One, 4, e8078.  
19667203 A.Krieg, R.G.Correa, J.B.Garrison, G.Le Negrate, K.Welsh, Z.Huang, W.T.Knoefel, and J.C.Reed (2009).
XIAP mediates NOD signaling via interaction with RIP2.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 14524-14529.  
19336448 K.Y.Song, C.K.Jung, W.S.Park, and C.H.Park (2009).
Expression of the antiapoptosis gene Survivin predicts poor prognosis of stage III gastric adenocarcinoma.
  Jpn J Clin Oncol, 39, 290-296.  
19418469 L.Kleinberg, and B.Davidson (2009).
Cell survival and apoptosis-related molecules in cancer cells in effusions: a comprehensive review.
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19877056 M.Ferretti, M.Gattorno, A.Chiocchetti, R.Mesturini, E.Orilieri, T.Bensi, M.P.Sormani, G.Cappellano, E.Cerutti, S.Nicola, A.Biava, C.Bardelli, S.Federici, I.Ceccherini, M.Baldi, C.Santoro, I.Dianzani, A.Martini, and U.Dianzani (2009).
The 423Q polymorphism of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis gene influences monocyte function and is associated with periodic fever.
  Arthritis Rheum, 60, 3476-3484.  
19698783 M.Sun, G.Meares, L.Song, and R.S.Jope (2009).
XIAP associates with GSK3 and inhibits the promotion of intrinsic apoptotic signaling by GSK3.
  Cell Signal, 21, 1857-1865.  
19506082 R.A.Csomos, G.F.Brady, and C.S.Duckett (2009).
Enhanced cytoprotective effects of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein cellular IAP1 through stabilization with TRAF2.
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18708583 A.J.Schile, M.García-Fernández, and H.Steller (2008).
Regulation of apoptosis by XIAP ubiquitin-ligase activity.
  Genes Dev, 22, 2256-2266.  
18931692 E.C.LaCasse, D.J.Mahoney, H.H.Cheung, S.Plenchette, S.Baird, and R.G.Korneluk (2008).
IAP-targeted therapies for cancer.
  Oncogene, 27, 6252-6275.  
19010913 J.Lu, L.Bai, H.Sun, Z.Nikolovska-Coleska, D.McEachern, S.Qiu, R.S.Miller, H.Yi, S.Shangary, Y.Sun, J.L.Meagher, J.A.Stuckey, and S.Wang (2008).
SM-164: a novel, bivalent Smac mimetic that induces apoptosis and tumor regression by concurrent removal of the blockade of cIAP-1/2 and XIAP.
  Cancer Res, 68, 9384-9393.  
18769721 L.D.Bauler, C.S.Duckett, and M.X.O'Riordan (2008).
XIAP regulates cytosol-specific innate immunity to Listeria infection.
  PLoS Pathog, 4, e1000142.  
18525316 Q.S.Tong, G.S.Jiang, L.D.Zheng, S.T.Tang, J.B.Cai, Y.Liu, F.Q.Zeng, and J.H.Dong (2008).
Methyl jasmonate downregulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell lines.
  Anticancer Drugs, 19, 573-581.  
18620520 S.M.Langemeijer, Graaf, and J.H.Jansen (2008).
IAPs as therapeutic targets in haematological malignancies.
  Expert Opin Ther Targets, 12, 981-993.  
18439892 S.M.Srinivasula, and J.D.Ashwell (2008).
IAPs: what's in a name?
  Mol Cell, 30, 123-135.  
19016849 Y.Sasaki, M.Minamizawa, A.Ambo, S.Sugawara, Y.Ogawa, and K.Nitta (2008).
Cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated XIAP-inhibitory cyclic hexapeptides enter into Jurkat cells and inhibit cell proliferation.
  FEBS J, 275, 6011-6021.  
17382285 A.R.Mufti, E.Burstein, and C.S.Duckett (2007).
XIAP: cell death regulation meets copper homeostasis.
  Arch Biochem Biophys, 463, 168-174.  
16946729 B.A.Callus, and D.L.Vaux (2007).
Caspase inhibitors: viral, cellular and chemical.
  Cell Death Differ, 14, 73-78.  
18028010 E.J.Dean, M.Ranson, F.Blackhall, and C.Dive (2007).
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein as a therapeutic target.
  Expert Opin Ther Targets, 11, 1459-1471.  
17450518 J.Y.Liou, N.Matijevic-Aleksic, S.Lee, and K.K.Wu (2007).
Prostacyclin inhibits endothelial cell XIAP ubiquitination and degradation.
  J Cell Physiol, 212, 840-848.  
17167759 L.Kleinberg, V.A.Flørenes, I.Silins, K.Haug, C.G.Trope, J.M.Nesland, and B.Davidson (2007).
Nuclear expression of survivin is associated with improved survival in metastatic ovarian carcinoma.
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Expression and prognostic significance of survivin in the progression of bladder transitional cell cancer.
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17724022 Z.Gao, Y.Tian, J.Wang, Q.Yin, H.Wu, Y.M.Li, and X.Jiang (2007).
A dimeric Smac/diablo peptide directly relieves caspase-3 inhibition by XIAP. Dynamic and cooperative regulation of XIAP by Smac/Diablo.
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16322751 A.D.Schimmer, S.Dalili, R.A.Batey, and S.J.Riedl (2006).
Targeting XIAP for the treatment of malignancy.
  Cell Death Differ, 13, 179-188.  
17040621 A.D.Schimmer (2006).
Induction of apoptosis in lymphoid and myeloid leukemia.
  Curr Oncol Rep, 8, 430-436.  
16543147 A.R.Mufti, E.Burstein, R.A.Csomos, P.C.Graf, J.C.Wilkinson, R.D.Dick, M.Challa, J.K.Son, S.B.Bratton, G.L.Su, G.J.Brewer, U.Jakob, and C.S.Duckett (2006).
XIAP Is a copper binding protein deregulated in Wilson's disease and other copper toxicosis disorders.
  Mol Cell, 21, 775-785.  
17016456 B.P.Eckelman, G.S.Salvesen, and F.L.Scott (2006).
Human inhibitor of apoptosis proteins: why XIAP is the black sheep of the family.
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16339151 B.P.Eckelman, and G.S.Salvesen (2006).
The human anti-apoptotic proteins cIAP1 and cIAP2 bind but do not inhibit caspases.
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16869888 E.Dudich, L.Semenkova, I.Dudich, A.Denesyuk, E.Tatulov, and T.Korpela (2006).
Alpha-fetoprotein antagonizes X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein anticaspase activity and disrupts XIAP-caspase interaction.
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16575541 K.Mizukawa, A.Kawamura, T.Sasayama, K.Tanaka, M.Kamei, M.Sasaki, and E.Kohmura (2006).
Synthetic Smac peptide enhances the effect of etoposide-induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma cell lines.
  J Neurooncol, 77, 247-255.  
16729033 L.Ma, Y.Huang, Z.Song, S.Feng, X.Tian, W.Du, X.Qiu, K.Heese, and M.Wu (2006).
Livin promotes Smac/DIABLO degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
  Cell Death Differ, 13, 2079-2088.  
16909101 M.G.Lee, J.S.Huh, S.K.Chung, J.H.Lee, D.S.Byun, B.K.Ryu, M.J.Kang, K.S.Chae, S.J.Lee, C.H.Lee, J.I.Kim, S.G.Chang, and S.G.Chi (2006).
Promoter CpG hypermethylation and downregulation of XAF1 expression in human urogenital malignancies: implication for attenuated p53 response to apoptotic stresses.
  Oncogene, 25, 5807-5822.  
15803136 D.L.Vaux, and J.Silke (2005).
IAPs, RINGs and ubiquitylation.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6, 287-297.  
15650747 F.L.Scott, J.B.Denault, S.J.Riedl, H.Shin, M.Renatus, and G.S.Salvesen (2005).
XIAP inhibits caspase-3 and -7 using two binding sites: evolutionarily conserved mechanism of IAPs.
  EMBO J, 24, 645-655.  
16044155 K.M.Bockbrader, M.Tan, and Y.Sun (2005).
A small molecule Smac-mimic compound induces apoptosis and sensitizes TRAIL- and etoposide-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
  Oncogene, 24, 7381-7388.  
16212486 N.Yan, and Y.Shi (2005).
Mechanisms of apoptosis through structural biology.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 21, 35-56.  
15752357 P.K.Ho, A.M.Jabbour, P.G.Ekert, and C.J.Hawkins (2005).
Caspase-2 is resistant to inhibition by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and can activate caspase-7.
  FEBS J, 272, 1401-1414.  
16262685 P.K.Ho, and C.J.Hawkins (2005).
Mammalian initiator apoptotic caspases.
  FEBS J, 272, 5436-5453.  
16239906 S.W.Fesik (2005).
Promoting apoptosis as a strategy for cancer drug discovery.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 5, 876-885.  
14749124 A.D.Schimmer, K.Welsh, C.Pinilla, Z.Wang, M.Krajewska, M.J.Bonneau, I.M.Pedersen, S.Kitada, F.L.Scott, B.Bailly-Maitre, G.Glinsky, D.Scudiero, E.Sausville, G.Salvesen, A.Nefzi, J.M.Ostresh, R.A.Houghten, and J.C.Reed (2004).
Small-molecule antagonists of apoptosis suppressor XIAP exhibit broad antitumor activity.
  Cancer Cell, 5, 25-35.  
15020707 A.Kozaki, S.Hake, and J.Colasanti (2004).
The maize ID1 flowering time regulator is a zinc finger protein with novel DNA binding properties.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 1710-1720.  
15371430 J.C.Wilkinson, B.W.Richter, A.S.Wilkinson, E.Burstein, J.M.Rumble, B.Balliu, and C.S.Duckett (2004).
VIAF, a conserved inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)-interacting factor that modulates caspase activation.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 51091-51099.  
14701799 J.Lewis, E.Burstein, S.B.Reffey, S.B.Bratton, A.B.Roberts, and C.S.Duckett (2004).
Uncoupling of the signaling and caspase-inhibitory properties of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 9023-9029.  
15520809 S.J.Riedl, and Y.Shi (2004).
Molecular mechanisms of caspase regulation during apoptosis.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 5, 897-907.  
15029247 Y.Gottfried, A.Rotem, R.Lotan, H.Steller, and S.Larisch (2004).
The mitochondrial ARTS protein promotes apoptosis through targeting XIAP.
  EMBO J, 23, 1627-1635.  
15300255 Y.Hao, K.Sekine, A.Kawabata, H.Nakamura, T.Ishioka, H.Ohata, R.Katayama, C.Hashimoto, X.Zhang, T.Noda, T.Tsuruo, and M.Naito (2004).
Apollon ubiquitinates SMAC and caspase-9, and has an essential cytoprotection function.
  Nat Cell Biol, 6, 849-860.  
15273300 Y.Shi (2004).
Caspase activation, inhibition, and reactivation: a mechanistic view.
  Protein Sci, 13, 1979-1987.  
15337764 Z.Wang, M.Cuddy, T.Samuel, K.Welsh, A.Schimmer, F.Hanaii, R.Houghten, C.Pinilla, and J.C.Reed (2004).
Cellular, biochemical, and genetic analysis of mechanism of small molecule IAP inhibitors.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 48168-48176.  
14657035 A.Zachariou, T.Tenev, L.Goyal, J.Agapite, H.Steller, and P.Meier (2003).
IAP-antagonists exhibit non-redundant modes of action through differential DIAP1 binding.
  EMBO J, 22, 6642-6652.  
12815069 Q.H.Yang, R.Church-Hajduk, J.Ren, M.L.Newton, and C.Du (2003).
Omi/HtrA2 catalytic cleavage of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) irreversibly inactivates IAPs and facilitates caspase activity in apoptosis.
  Genes Dev, 17, 1487-1496.  
12959752 T.E.Clarke, and R.J.Clem (2003).
Insect defenses against virus infection: the role of apoptosis.
  Int Rev Immunol, 22, 401-424.  
12474256 T.M.Sauerwald, G.A.Oyler, and M.J.Betenbaugh (2003).
Study of caspase inhibitors for limiting death in mammalian cell culture.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 81, 329-340.  
14512414 Y.Huang, R.L.Rich, D.G.Myszka, and H.Wu (2003).
Requirement of both the second and third BIR domains for the relief of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP)-mediated caspase inhibition by Smac.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 49517-49522.  
12218061 C.R.Arnt, M.V.Chiorean, M.P.Heldebrant, G.J.Gores, and S.H.Kaufmann (2002).
Synthetic Smac/DIABLO peptides enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic agents by binding XIAP and cIAP1 in situ.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 44236-44243.  
12044157 D.A.Lindhout, M.X.Li, D.Schieve, and B.D.Sykes (2002).
Effects of T142 phosphorylation and mutation R145G on the interaction of the inhibitory region of human cardiac troponin I with the C-domain of human cardiac troponin C.
  Biochemistry, 41, 7267-7274.  
11801603 D.Vucic, K.Deshayes, H.Ackerly, M.T.Pisabarro, S.Kadkhodayan, W.J.Fairbrother, and V.M.Dixit (2002).
SMAC negatively regulates the anti-apoptotic activity of melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis (ML-IAP).
  J Biol Chem, 277, 12275-12279.  
12042762 G.S.Salvesen, and C.S.Duckett (2002).
IAP proteins: blocking the road to death's door.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 3, 401-410.  
11852247 H.R.Stennicke, C.A.Ryan, and G.S.Salvesen (2002).
Reprieval from execution: the molecular basis of caspase inhibition.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 27, 94.  
12450324 J.Salgado, A.J.García-Sáez, G.Malet, I.Mingarro, and E.Pérez-Payá (2002).
Peptides in apoptosis research.
  J Pept Sci, 8, 543-560.  
11927604 J.Silke, C.J.Hawkins, P.G.Ekert, J.Chew, C.L.Day, M.Pakusch, A.M.Verhagen, and D.L.Vaux (2002).
The anti-apoptotic activity of XIAP is retained upon mutation of both the caspase 3- and caspase 9-interacting sites.
  J Cell Biol, 157, 115-124.  
12427028 L.E.Luque, K.P.Grape, and M.Junker (2002).
A highly conserved arginine is critical for the functional folding of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) BIR domains.
  Biochemistry, 41, 13663-13671.  
12011074 S.Li, Y.Zhao, X.He, T.H.Kim, D.K.Kuharsky, H.Rabinowich, J.Chen, C.Du, and X.M.Yin (2002).
Relief of extrinsic pathway inhibition by the Bid-dependent mitochondrial release of Smac in Fas-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis.
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11801595 X.M.Sun, S.B.Bratton, M.Butterworth, M.MacFarlane, and G.M.Cohen (2002).
Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL inhibit CD95-mediated apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial release of Smac/DIABLO and subsequent inactivation of X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein.
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11931755 Y.Shi (2002).
Mechanisms of caspase activation and inhibition during apoptosis.
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12401491 Z.Huang (2002).
The chemical biology of apoptosis. Exploring protein-protein interactions and the life and death of cells with small molecules.
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11673685 B.M.Mow, A.L.Blajeski, J.Chandra, and S.H.Kaufmann (2001).
Apoptosis and the response to anticancer therapy.
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11390657 B.W.Richter, S.S.Mir, L.J.Eiben, J.Lewis, S.B.Reffey, A.Frattini, L.Tian, S.Frank, R.J.Youle, D.L.Nelson, L.D.Notarangelo, P.Vezzoni, H.O.Fearnhead, and C.S.Duckett (2001).
Molecular cloning of ILP-2, a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family.
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  11581300 D.Grossman, P.J.Kim, O.P.Blanc-Brude, D.E.Brash, S.Tognin, P.C.Marchisio, and D.C.Altieri (2001).
Transgenic expression of survivin in keratinocytes counteracts UVB-induced apoptosis and cooperates with loss of p53.
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11313486 H.Harlin, S.B.Reffey, C.S.Duckett, T.Lindsten, and C.B.Thompson (2001).
Characterization of XIAP-deficient mice.
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11581297 J.C.Reed (2001).
The Survivin saga goes in vivo.
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11257230 J.Chai, E.Shiozaki, S.M.Srinivasula, Q.Wu, P.Datta, E.S.Alnemri, Y.Shi, and P.Dataa (2001).
Structural basis of caspase-7 inhibition by XIAP.
  Cell, 104, 769-780.
PDB code: 1i51
11179890 J.H.Laity, B.M.Lee, and P.E.Wright (2001).
Zinc finger proteins: new insights into structural and functional diversity.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 11, 39-46.  
11406588 J.Silke, P.G.Ekert, C.L.Day, C.J.Hawkins, M.Baca, J.Chew, M.Pakusch, A.M.Verhagen, and D.L.Vaux (2001).
Direct inhibition of caspase 3 is dispensable for the anti-apoptotic activity of XIAP.
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11511363 J.W.Wu, A.E.Cocina, J.Chai, B.A.Hay, and Y.Shi (2001).
Structural analysis of a functional DIAP1 fragment bound to grim and hid peptides.
  Mol Cell, 8, 95.
PDB codes: 1jd4 1jd5 1jd6
11290317 L.Goyal (2001).
Cell death inhibition: keeping caspases in check.
  Cell, 104, 805-808.  
11341966 Q.Huang, Q.L.Deveraux, S.Maeda, H.R.Stennicke, B.D.Hammock, and J.C.Reed (2001).
Cloning and characterization of an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) from Bombyx mori.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1499, 191-198.  
11395159 S.B.Bratton, and G.M.Cohen (2001).
Apoptotic death sensor: an organelle's alter ego?
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11230124 S.B.Bratton, G.Walker, S.M.Srinivasula, X.M.Sun, M.Butterworth, E.S.Alnemri, and G.M.Cohen (2001).
Recruitment, activation and retention of caspases-9 and -3 by Apaf-1 apoptosome and associated XIAP complexes.
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11257232 S.J.Riedl, M.Renatus, R.Schwarzenbacher, Q.Zhou, C.Sun, S.W.Fesik, R.C.Liddington, and G.S.Salvesen (2001).
Structural basis for the inhibition of caspase-3 by XIAP.
  Cell, 104, 791-800.
PDB code: 1i3o
11711663 S.W.Fesik, and Y.Shi (2001).
Structural biology. Controlling the caspases.
  Science, 294, 1477-1478.  
11479120 T.Diercks, M.Coles, and H.Kessler (2001).
Applications of NMR in drug discovery.
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  11257231 Y.Huang, Y.C.Park, R.L.Rich, D.Segal, D.G.Myszka, and H.Wu (2001).
Structural basis of caspase inhibition by XIAP: differential roles of the linker versus the BIR domain.
  Cell, 104, 781-790.
PDB code: 1i4o
11447297 Y.Suzuki, Y.Nakabayashi, and R.Takahashi (2001).
Ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein promotes proteasomal degradation of caspase-3 and enhances its anti-apoptotic effect in Fas-induced cell death.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 8662-8667.  
11084335 D.Vucic, H.R.Stennicke, M.T.Pisabarro, G.S.Salvesen, and V.M.Dixit (2000).
ML-IAP, a novel inhibitor of apoptosis that is preferentially expressed in human melanomas.
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10899114 E.A.Mercer, L.Korhonen, Y.Skoglösa, P.A.Olsson, J.P.Kukkonen, and D.Lindholm (2000).
NAIP interacts with hippocalcin and protects neurons against calcium-induced cell death through caspase-3-dependent and -independent pathways.
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Mechanisms of apoptosis.
  Am J Pathol, 157, 1415-1430.  
11007472 J.C.Reed, and J.R.Bischoff (2000).
BIRinging chromosomes through cell division--and survivin' the experience.
  Cell, 102, 545-548.  
10949039 L.Chantalat, D.A.Skoufias, J.P.Kleman, B.Jung, O.Dideberg, and R.L.Margolis (2000).
Crystal structure of human survivin reveals a bow tie-shaped dimer with two unusual alpha-helical extensions.
  Mol Cell, 6, 183-189.
PDB code: 1e31
10913289 M.X.Li, L.Spyracopoulos, N.Beier, J.A.Putkey, and B.D.Sykes (2000).
Interaction of cardiac troponin C with Ca(2+) sensitizer EMD 57033 and cardiac troponin I inhibitory peptide.
  Biochemistry, 39, 8782-8790.  
10669762 R.R.Hozak, G.A.Manji, and P.D.Friesen (2000).
The BIR motifs mediate dominant interference and oligomerization of inhibitor of apoptosis Op-IAP.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 1877-1885.  
11057900 S.W.Fesik (2000).
Insights into programmed cell death through structural biology.
  Cell, 103, 273-282.  
10949038 S.W.Muchmore, J.Chen, C.Jakob, D.Zakula, E.D.Matayoshi, W.Wu, H.Zhang, F.Li, S.C.Ng, and D.C.Altieri (2000).
Crystal structure and mutagenic analysis of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein survivin.
  Mol Cell, 6, 173-182.
PDB code: 1m4m
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.