PDBsum entry 1bgl

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Hydrolase (o-glycosyl) PDB id
Protein chains
(+ 2 more) 1021 a.a. *
_MG ×16
Waters ×744
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hydrolase (o-glycosyl)
Title: Beta-galactosidase (chains a-h)
Structure: Beta-galactosidase. Chain: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h. Ec:
Source: Escherichia coli. Organism_taxid: 562
Biol. unit: Tetramer (from PQS)
2.50Å     R-factor:   0.174    
Authors: R.H.Jacobson,X.Zhang,R.F.Dubose,B.W.Matthews
Key ref: R.H.Jacobson et al. (1994). Three-dimensional structure of beta-galactosidase from E. coli. Nature, 369, 761-766. PubMed id: 8008071
18-Jul-94     Release date:   07-Dec-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00722  (BGAL_ECOLI) -  Beta-galactosidase
1024 a.a.
1021 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Beta-galactosidase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides.
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     beta-galactosidase complex   2 terms 
  Biological process     metabolic process   3 terms 
  Biochemical function     catalytic activity     9 terms  


Nature 369:761-766 (1994)
PubMed id: 8008071  
Three-dimensional structure of beta-galactosidase from E. coli.
R.H.Jacobson, X.J.Zhang, R.F.DuBose, B.W.Matthews.
The beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli was instrumental in the development of the operon model, and today is one of the most commonly used enzymes in molecular biology. Here we report the structure of this protein and show that it is a tetramer with 222-point symmetry. The 1,023-amino-acid polypeptide chain folds into five sequential domains, with an extended segment at the amino terminus. The participation of this amino-terminal segment in a subunit interface, coupled with the observation that each active site is made up of elements from two different subunits, provides a structural rationale for the phenomenon of alpha-complementation. The structure represents the longest polypeptide chain for which an atomic structure has been determined. Our results show that it is possible successfully to study non-viral protein crystals with unit cell dimensions in excess of 500 A and with relative molecular masses in the region of 2,000K per asymmetric unit. Non-crystallographic symmetry averaging proved to be a very powerful tool in the structure determination, as has been shown in other contexts.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21178167 H.Liao, F.Zhang, X.Hu, and X.Liao (2011).
Effects of high-pressure carbon dioxide on proteins and DNA in Escherichia coli.
  Microbiology, 157, 709-720.  
21130883 M.Maksimainen, N.Hakulinen, J.M.Kallio, T.Timoharju, O.Turunen, and J.Rouvinen (2011).
Crystal structures of Trichoderma reesei β-galactosidase reveal conformational changes in the active site.
  J Struct Biol, 174, 156-163.
PDB codes: 3og2 3ogr 3ogs 3ogv
20213119 A.Fujimoto, A.Hirano, and K.Shiraki (2010).
Ternary system of solution additives with arginine and salt for refolding of beta-galactosidase.
  Protein J, 29, 161-166.  
19899815 A.M.Broome, N.Bhavsar, G.Ramamurthy, G.Newton, and J.P.Basilion (2010).
Expanding the utility of beta-galactosidase complementation: piece by piece.
  Mol Pharm, 7, 60-74.  
21051639 B.D.Wallace, H.Wang, K.T.Lane, J.E.Scott, J.Orans, J.S.Koo, M.Venkatesh, C.Jobin, L.A.Yeh, S.Mani, and M.R.Redinbo (2010).
Alleviating cancer drug toxicity by inhibiting a bacterial enzyme.
  Science, 330, 831-835.
PDB codes: 3k46 3k4a 3k4d 3lpf 3lpg
20607374 D.B.Craig, A.M.Haslam, H.J.Silverstein, M.Chikamatsu, E.Shadabi, and E.R.Nichols (2010).
Effect of size, quaternary structure and translational error on the static and dynamic heterogeneity of beta-galactosidase and measurement of electrophoretic dynamic heterogeneity.
  Protein J, 29, 398-406.  
20555387 D.B.Craig, A.M.Haslam, J.M.Coombs, and E.R.Nichols (2010).
Kinetic studies of unmodified individual Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase molecules in free solution.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 88, 451-458.  
20662765 E.Yoshida, M.Hidaka, S.Fushinobu, T.Koyanagi, H.Minami, H.Tamaki, M.Kitaoka, T.Katayama, and H.Kumagai (2010).
Role of a PA14 domain in determining substrate specificity of a glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-glucosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus.
  Biochem J, 431, 39-49.
PDB codes: 3abz 3ac0
21102659 M.L.Dugdale, M.L.Vance, R.W.Wheatley, M.R.Driedger, A.Nibber, A.Tran, and R.E.Huber (2010).
Importance of Arg-599 of β-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) as an anchor for the open conformations of Phe-601 and the active-site loop.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 88, 969-979.
PDB code: 3muy
20329726 O.R.Miranda, H.T.Chen, C.C.You, D.E.Mortenson, X.C.Yang, U.H.Bunz, and V.M.Rotello (2010).
Enzyme-amplified array sensing of proteins in solution and in biofluids.
  J Am Chem Soc, 132, 5285-5289.  
19936901 S.Lo, M.L.Dugdale, N.Jeerh, T.Ku, N.J.Roth, and R.E.Huber (2010).
Studies of Glu-416 variants of beta-galactosidase (E. coli) show that the active site Mg(2+) is not important for structure and indicate that the main role of Mg (2+) is to mediate optimization of active site chemistry.
  Protein J, 29, 26-31.
PDB codes: 3iap 3iaq
19472413 D.H.Juers, B.Rob, M.L.Dugdale, N.Rahimzadeh, C.Giang, M.Lee, B.W.Matthews, and R.E.Huber (2009).
Direct and indirect roles of His-418 in metal binding and in the activity of beta-galactosidase (E. coli).
  Protein Sci, 18, 1281-1292.
PDB codes: 3dym 3dyo 3dyp 3e1f
19448745 E.R.Nichols, E.Shadabi, and D.B.Craig (2009).
Effect of alteration of translation error rate on enzyme microheterogeneity as assessed by variation in single molecule electrophoretic mobility and catalytic activity.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 87, 517-529.  
19682383 R.F.De Souza, L.M.Iyer, and L.Aravind (2009).
The Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer defines a novel superfamily of prokaryotic small-molecule binding domains.
  Biol Direct, 4, 25; discussion 25.  
18682899 Y.Li, H.Wang, L.Lu, Z.Li, X.Xu, and M.Xiao (2009).
Purification and characterization of a novel beta-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity from Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1.
  Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 158, 192-199.  
18093969 D.C.Oliver, and M.Paetzel (2008).
Crystal structure of the major periplasmic domain of the bacterial membrane protein assembly facilitator YidC.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 5208-5216.
PDB code: 3blc
17626303 L.Betancor, H.R.Luckarift, J.H.Seo, O.Brand, and J.C.Spain (2008).
Three-dimensional immobilization of beta-galactosidase on a silicon surface.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 99, 261-267.  
18020945 A.S.Xiong, R.H.Peng, J.Zhuang, J.G.Liu, F.Gao, F.Xu, B.Cai, and Q.H.Yao (2007).
A semi-rational design strategy of directed evolution combined with chemical synthesis of DNA sequences.
  Biol Chem, 388, 1291-1300.  
17876575 A.S.Xiong, R.H.Peng, J.Zhuang, X.Li, Y.Xue, J.G.Liu, F.Gao, B.Cai, J.M.Chen, and Q.H.Yao (2007).
Directed evolution of a beta-galactosidase from Pyrococcus woesei resulting in increased thermostable beta-glucuronidase activity.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 77, 569-578.  
17256769 D.O.Cicero, G.M.Contessa, T.A.Pertinhez, M.Gallo, A.M.Katsuyama, M.Paci, C.S.Farah, and A.Spisni (2007).
Solution structure of ApaG from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri reveals a fibronectin-3 fold.
  Proteins, 67, 490-500.
PDB code: 2f1e
17253128 E.R.Nichols, J.M.Gavina, R.G.McLeod, and D.B.Craig (2007).
Single molecule assays of beta-galactosidase from two wild-type strains of E. coli: effects of protease inhibitors on microheterogeneity and different relative activities with differing substrates.
  Protein J, 26, 95.  
17287210 L.E.Tailford, V.A.Money, N.L.Smith, C.Dumon, G.J.Davies, and H.J.Gilbert (2007).
Mannose foraging by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron: structure and specificity of the beta-mannosidase, BtMan2A.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 11291-11299.
PDB code: 2je8
17879332 S.Rana, B.Kundu, and S.Durani (2007).
A mixed-alpha,beta miniprotein stereochemically reprogrammed to high-binding affinity for acetylcholine.
  Biopolymers, 87, 231-243.  
16436060 A.G.Bobrov, and R.D.Perry (2006).
Yersinia pestis lacZ expresses a beta-galactosidase with low enzymatic activity.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 255, 43-51.  
17176477 A.P.Rodríguez, R.F.Leiro, M.C.Trillo, M.E.Cerdán, M.I.Siso, and M.Becerra (2006).
Secretion and properties of a hybrid Kluyveromyces lactis-Aspergillus niger beta-galactosidase.
  Microb Cell Fact, 5, 41.  
16415859 B.P.English, W.Min, A.M.van Oijen, K.T.Lee, G.Luo, H.Sun, B.J.Cherayil, S.C.Kou, and X.S.Xie (2006).
Ever-fluctuating single enzyme molecules: Michaelis-Menten equation revisited.
  Nat Chem Biol, 2, 87-94.  
16240096 E.Papaleo, P.Fantucci, M.Vai, and L.De Gioia (2006).
Three-dimensional structure of the catalytic domain of the yeast beta-(1,3)-glucan transferase Gas1: a molecular modeling investigation.
  J Mol Model, 12, 237-248.  
16857670 M.Graille, J.P.Baltaze, N.Leulliot, D.Liger, S.Quevillon-Cheruel, and H.van Tilbeurgh (2006).
Structure-based functional annotation: yeast ymr099c codes for a D-hexose-6-phosphate mutarotase.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 30175-30185.
PDB codes: 2ciq 2cir 2cis
16636831 M.Ike, K.Isami, Y.Tanabe, M.Nogawa, W.Ogasawara, H.Okada, and Y.Morikawa (2006).
Cloning and heterologous expression of the exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase-encoding gene (gls93) from a filamentous fungus, Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 72, 687-695.  
16980392 S.G.Tringe, J.Willis, K.L.Liberatore, and S.W.Ruby (2006).
The WTM genes in budding yeast amplify expression of the stress-inducible gene RNR3.
  Genetics, 174, 1215-1228.  
16607530 T.Nakagawa, Y.Fujimoto, R.Ikehata, T.Miyaji, and N.Tomizuka (2006).
Purification and molecular characterization of cold-active beta-galactosidase from Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus strain F2.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 72, 720-725.  
17023655 X.Han, M.Jin, K.Breuker, and F.W.McLafferty (2006).
Extending top-down mass spectrometry to proteins with masses greater than 200 kilodaltons.
  Science, 314, 109-112.  
17038332 Y.Shao, Y.Wu, C.Y.Chan, K.McDonough, and Y.Ding (2006).
Rational design and rapid screening of antisense oligonucleotides for prokaryotic gene modulation.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 5660-5669.  
16219108 A.Ino, Y.Naito, H.Mizuguchi, N.Handa, T.Hayakawa, and I.Kobayashi (2005).
A trial of somatic gene targeting in vivo with an adenovirus vector.
  Genet Vaccines Ther, 3, 8.  
15849697 E.García-Fruitós, M.M.Carrió, A.Arís, and A.Villaverde (2005).
Folding of a misfolding-prone beta-galactosidase in absence of DnaK.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 90, 869-875.  
15857786 I.Matsumura, and L.A.Rowe (2005).
Whole plasmid mutagenic PCR for directed protein evolution.
  Biomol Eng, 22, 73-79.  
15795221 J.B.Thoden, and H.M.Holden (2005).
The molecular architecture of galactose mutarotase/UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 21900-21907.
PDB code: 1z45
16105754 M.Eguchi, M.Eguchi-Ishimae, and M.Greaves (2005).
Molecular pathogenesis of MLL-associated leukemias.
  Int J Hematol, 82, 9.  
15459966 A.Ino, S.Yamamoto, Y.Kaneda, and I.Kobayashi (2004).
Somatic gene targeting with RNA/DNA chimeric oligonucleotides: an analysis with a sensitive reporter mouse system.
  J Gene Med, 6, 1272-1280.  
14997564 E.Poussu, M.Vihinen, L.Paulin, and H.Savilahti (2004).
Probing the alpha-complementing domain of E. coli beta-galactosidase with use of an insertional pentapeptide mutagenesis strategy based on Mu in vitro DNA transposition.
  Proteins, 54, 681-692.  
15026423 J.B.Thoden, D.J.Timson, R.J.Reece, and H.M.Holden (2004).
Molecular structure of human galactose mutarotase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 23431-23437.
PDB codes: 1snz 1so0
15274915 M.Hidaka, Y.Honda, M.Kitaoka, S.Nirasawa, K.Hayashi, T.Wakagi, H.Shoun, and S.Fushinobu (2004).
Chitobiose phosphorylase from Vibrio proteolyticus, a member of glycosyl transferase family 36, has a clan GH-L-like (alpha/alpha)(6) barrel fold.
  Structure, 12, 937-947.
PDB codes: 1v7v 1v7w 1v7x
15308675 M.Kurogochi, S.Nishimura, and Y.C.Lee (2004).
Mechanism-based fluorescent labeling of beta-galactosidases. An efficient method in proteomics for glycoside hydrolases.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 44704-44712.  
14660574 M.Mizuno, T.Tonozuka, S.Suzuki, R.Uotsu-Tomita, S.Kamitori, A.Nishikawa, and Y.Sakano (2004).
Structural insights into substrate specificity and function of glucodextranase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 10575-10583.
PDB codes: 1ug9 1ulv
15262929 Y.Kang, T.Durfee, J.D.Glasner, Y.Qiu, D.Frisch, K.M.Winterberg, and F.R.Blattner (2004).
Systematic mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli genome.
  J Bacteriol, 186, 4921-4930.  
12910536 C.Valkova, O.Georgiev, L.Karagyozov, and G.Milchev (2003).
Silencing of retroviral vector transduced LacZ reporter gene by frameshift mutation.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 84, 1-6.  
14621996 D.H.Juers, S.Hakda, B.W.Matthews, and R.E.Huber (2003).
Structural basis for the altered activity of Gly794 variants of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase.
  Biochemistry, 42, 13505-13511.
PDB codes: 1px3 1px4
12717783 H.Ikehata, T.Masuda, H.Sakata, and T.Ono (2003).
Analysis of mutation spectra in UVB-exposed mouse skin epidermis and dermis: frequent occurrence of C-->T transition at methylated CpG-associated dipyrimidine sites.
  Environ Mol Mutagen, 41, 280-292.  
12923184 H.M.Holden, I.Rayment, and J.B.Thoden (2003).
Structure and function of enzymes of the Leloir pathway for galactose metabolism.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 43885-43888.  
12533453 I.N.Wang, J.Deaton, and R.Young (2003).
Sizing the holin lesion with an endolysin-beta-galactosidase fusion.
  J Bacteriol, 185, 779-787.  
12949099 J.A.Coker, P.P.Sheridan, J.Loveland-Curtze, K.R.Gutshall, A.J.Auman, and J.E.Brenchley (2003).
Biochemical characterization of a beta-galactosidase with a low temperature optimum obtained from an Antarctic arthrobacter isolate.
  J Bacteriol, 185, 5473-5482.  
12577262 J.B.Mitchell, and J.Smith (2003).
D-amino acid residues in peptides and proteins.
  Proteins, 50, 563-571.  
12717027 J.B.Thoden, J.Kim, F.M.Raushel, and H.M.Holden (2003).
The catalytic mechanism of galactose mutarotase.
  Protein Sci, 12, 1051-1059.
PDB codes: 1ns0 1ns2 1ns4 1ns7 1ns8 1nsm 1nsr 1nss 1nsu 1nsv 1nsx 1nsz
14522254 M.E.Martin, T.A.Milne, S.Bloyer, K.Galoian, W.Shen, D.Gibbs, H.W.Brock, R.Slany, and J.L.Hess (2003).
Dimerization of MLL fusion proteins immortalizes hematopoietic cells.
  Cancer Cell, 4, 197-207.  
14704031 M.Eguchi, M.Eguchi-Ishimae, and M.Greaves (2003).
The role of the MLL gene in infant leukemia.
  Int J Hematol, 78, 390-401.  
12914674 V.Anantharaman, and L.Aravind (2003).
Application of comparative genomics in the identification and analysis of novel families of membrane-associated receptors in bacteria.
  BMC Genomics, 4, 34.  
12021449 D.Legendre, B.Vucic, V.Hougardy, A.L.Girboux, C.Henrioul, J.Van Haute, P.Soumillion, and J.Fastrez (2002).
TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a scaffold for protein recognition and assay.
  Protein Sci, 11, 1506-1518.  
12073936 E.Bismuto, P.L.Martelli, A.De Maio, D.G.Mita, G.Irace, and R.Casadio (2002).
Effect of molecular confinement on internal enzyme dynamics: frequency domain fluorometry and molecular dynamics simulation studies.
  Biopolymers, 67, 85-95.  
  11973303 F.Mongelard, M.Labrador, E.M.Baxter, T.I.Gerasimova, and V.G.Corces (2002).
Trans-splicing as a novel mechanism to explain interallelic complementation in Drosophila.
  Genetics, 160, 1481-1487.  
11907040 J.B.Thoden, and H.M.Holden (2002).
High resolution X-ray structure of galactose mutarotase from Lactococcus lactis.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 20854-20861.
PDB codes: 1l7j 1l7k
12218067 J.B.Thoden, J.Kim, F.M.Raushel, and H.M.Holden (2002).
Structural and kinetic studies of sugar binding to galactose mutarotase from Lactococcus lactis.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 45458-45465.
PDB codes: 1mmu 1mmx 1mmy 1mmz 1mn0
  16233252 M.Inohara-Ochiai, S.Hasegawa, S.Iguchi, T.Ashikari, Y.Shibano, H.Hemmi, T.Nakayama, and T.Nishino (2002).
Deletion and insertion of a 192-residue peptide in the active-site domain of glycosyl hydrolase family-2 beta-galactosidases.
  J Biosci Bioeng, 93, 575-583.  
11282601 A.Hoyoux, I.Jennes, P.Dubois, S.Genicot, F.Dubail, J.M.François, E.Baise, G.Feller, and C.Gerday (2001).
Cold-adapted beta-galactosidase from the Antarctic psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 67, 1529-1535.  
11731297 C.Saotome, C.H.Wong, and O.Kanie (2001).
Combinatorial library of five-membered iminocyclitol and the inhibitory activities against glyco-enzymes.
  Chem Biol, 8, 1061-1070.  
11135194 D.Cazorla, J.X.Feliu, and A.Villaverde (2001).
Variable specific activity of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase in bacterial cells.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 72, 255-260.  
11747604 G.V.Tolstonog, R.L.Shoeman, U.Traub, and P.Traub (2001).
Role of the intermediate filament protein vimentin in delaying senescence and in the spontaneous immortalization of mouse embryo fibroblasts.
  DNA Cell Biol, 20, 509-529.  
11370005 J.Caubín, H.Martín, A.Roa, I.Cosano, M.Pozuelo, La Fuente, J.M.Sánchez-Puelles, M.Molina, and C.Nombela (2001).
Choline-binding domain as a novel affinity tag for purification of fusion proteins produced in Pichia pastoris.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 74, 164-171.  
11828466 J.N.Greul, M.Kleban, B.Schneider, S.Picasso, and V.Jäger (2001).
Amino(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentanetriols, an emerging class of potent glycosidase inhibitors--Part II: Synthesis, evaluation, and optimization of beta-D-galactopyranoside analogues.
  Chembiochem, 2, 368-370.  
11745778 K.A.Pikal-Cleland, and J.F.Carpenter (2001).
Lyophilization-induced protein denaturation in phosphate buffer systems: monomeric and tetrameric beta-galactosidase.
  J Pharm Sci, 90, 1255-1268.  
11479300 N.Ferrer-Miralles, J.X.Feliu, S.Vandevuer, A.Müller, J.Cabrera-Crespo, I.Ortmans, F.Hoffmann, D.Cazorla, U.Rinas, M.Prévost, and A.Villaverde (2001).
Engineering regulable Escherichia coli beta-galactosidases as biosensors for anti-HIV antibody detection in human sera.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 40087-40095.  
11358516 P.Ademark, Vries, P.Hägglund, H.Stålbrand, and J.Visser (2001).
Cloning and characterization of Aspergillus niger genes encoding an alpha-galactosidase and a beta-mannosidase involved in galactomannan degradation.
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 2982-2990.  
11310566 R.E.Huber, I.Y.Hlede, N.J.Roth, K.C.McKenzie, and K.K.Ghumman (2001).
His-391 of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) promotes catalyses by strong interactions with the transition state.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 79, 183-193.  
11371468 T.Kues, R.Peters, and U.Kubitscheck (2001).
Visualization and tracking of single protein molecules in the cell nucleus.
  Biophys J, 80, 2954-2967.  
11151005 U.Dengler, A.S.Siddiqui, and G.J.Barton (2001).
Protein structural domains: analysis of the 3Dee domains database.
  Proteins, 42, 332-344.  
10698926 C.L.Dobson, A.J.Warren, R.Pannell, A.Forster, and T.H.Rabbitts (2000).
Tumorigenesis in mice with a fusion of the leukaemia oncogene Mll and the bacterial lacZ gene.
  EMBO J, 19, 843-851.  
  11045615 D.H.Juers, R.H.Jacobson, D.Wigley, X.J.Zhang, R.E.Huber, D.E.Tronrud, and B.W.Matthews (2000).
High resolution refinement of beta-galactosidase in a new crystal form reveals multiple metal-binding sites and provides a structural basis for alpha-complementation.
  Protein Sci, 9, 1685-1699.
PDB codes: 1dp0 1f49 1f4a 1f4h 1gho
11050246 E.Tse, and T.H.Rabbitts (2000).
Intracellular antibody-caspase-mediated cell killing: an approach for application in cancer therapy.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 12266-12271.  
11152563 H.Ikehata, M.Takatsu, Y.Saito, and T.Ono (2000).
Distribution of spontaneous CpG-associated G:C --> A:T mutations in the lacZ gene of Muta mice: effects of CpG methylation, the sequence context of CpG sites, and severity of mutations on the activity of the lacZ gene product.
  Environ Mol Mutagen, 36, 301-311.  
10745007 H.Zhang, M.C.Seabra, and J.Deisenhofer (2000).
Crystal structure of Rab geranylgeranyltransferase at 2.0 A resolution.
  Structure, 8, 241-251.
PDB code: 1dce
10619848 J.S.Thrower, L.Hoffman, M.Rechsteiner, and C.M.Pickart (2000).
Recognition of the polyubiquitin proteolytic signal.
  EMBO J, 19, 94.  
  16232905 T.Nakayama, Y.Goto, S.Hasegawa, M.Inohara-Ochiai, Y.Shibano, T.Ashikari, and T.Nishino (2000).
Mutational analysis of the role of His452 of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula beta-galactosidase.
  J Biosci Bioeng, 90, 535-539.  
10966577 X.Zhou, F.Alber, G.Folkers, G.H.Gonnet, and G.Chelvanayagam (2000).
An analysis of the helix-to-strand transition between peptides with identical sequence.
  Proteins, 41, 248-256.  
10234816 B.G.Hall (1999).
Experimental evolution of Ebg enzyme provides clues about the evolution of catalysis and to evolutionary potential.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 174, 1-8.  
10438145 C.N.Gallagher, and R.E.Huber (1999).
Stabilities of uncomplemented and complemented M15 beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) and the relationship to alpha-complementation.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 77, 109-118.  
10209738 D.E.Higgins, N.Shastri, and D.A.Portnoy (1999).
Delivery of protein to the cytosol of macrophages using Escherichia coli K-12.
  Mol Microbiol, 31, 1631-1641.  
  10210191 D.H.Juers, R.E.Huber, and B.W.Matthews (1999).
Structural comparisons of TIM barrel proteins suggest functional and evolutionary relationships between beta-galactosidase and other glycohydrolases.
  Protein Sci, 8, 122-136.  
10223289 E.Bismuto, R.Nucci, M.Rossi, and G.Irace (1999).
Structural and dynamic aspects of beta-glycosidase from mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria by multitryptophanyl emission decay studies.
  Proteins, 35, 163-172.  
10872458 H.D.Ly, and S.G.Withers (1999).
Mutagenesis of glycosidases.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 68, 487-522.  
10417212 J.L.Corchero, and A.Villaverde (1999).
Tolerance of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase C-terminus to different-sized fusions.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 64, 644-649.  
10438523 M.R.Islam, S.Tomatsu, G.N.Shah, J.H.Grubb, S.Jain, and W.S.Sly (1999).
Active site residues of human beta-glucuronidase. Evidence for Glu(540) as the nucleophile and Glu(451) as the acid-base residue.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 23451-23455.  
10505794 R.M.Penner, N.J.Roth, B.Rob, H.Lay, and R.E.Huber (1999).
Tyr-503 of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) plays an important role in degalactosylation.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 77, 229-236.  
10561593 T.Abbas-Terki, and D.Picard (1999).
Alpha-complemented beta-galactosidase. An in vivo model substrate for the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 in yeast.
  Eur J Biochem, 266, 517-523.  
10364269 Y.T.Kwon, F.Lévy, and A.Varshavsky (1999).
Bivalent inhibitor of the N-end rule pathway.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 18135-18139.  
9789037 A.R.Godwin, H.S.Stadler, K.Nakamura, and M.R.Capecchi (1998).
Detection of targeted GFP-Hox gene fusions during mouse embryogenesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 13042-13047.  
10099340 A.Villaverde, J.X.Feliu, A.Arís, R.P.Harbottle, A.Benito, and C.Coutelle (1998).
A cell adhesion peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus can direct cell targeted delivery of a functional enzyme.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 59, 294-301.  
9852062 A.W.Wong, S.He, J.H.Grubb, W.S.Sly, and S.G.Withers (1998).
Identification of Glu-540 as the catalytic nucleophile of human beta-glucuronidase using electrospray mass spectrometry.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 34057-34062.  
9857483 F.J.Meyer-Almes, K.Wyzgol, and M.J.Powell (1998).
Mechanism of the alpha-complementation reaction of E. coli beta-galactosidase deduced from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements.
  Biophys Chem, 75, 151-160.  
9660831 F.Messageot, D.Carlier, and J.M.Rossignol (1998).
The C terminus of the hepatitis B virus e antigen precursor is required for a tunicamycin-sensitive step that promotes efficient secretion of the antigen.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 18594-18598.  
9718293 G.J.Davies, L.Mackenzie, A.Varrot, M.Dauter, A.M.Brzozowski, M.Schülein, and S.G.Withers (1998).
Snapshots along an enzymatic reaction coordinate: analysis of a retaining beta-glycoside hydrolase.
  Biochemistry, 37, 11707-11713.
PDB codes: 3a3h 4a3h 5a3h 6a3h 7a3h
9485319 G.J.Davies, M.Dauter, A.M.Brzozowski, M.E.Bjørnvad, K.V.Andersen, and M.Schülein (1998).
Structure of the Bacillus agaradherans family 5 endoglucanase at 1.6 A and its cellobiose complex at 2.0 A resolution.
  Biochemistry, 37, 1926-1932.
PDB codes: 1a3h 2a3h
9685252 I.Nitta, Y.Kamada, H.Noda, T.Ueda, and K.Watanabe (1998).
Reconstitution of peptide bond formation with Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA domains.
  Science, 281, 666-669.  
  9573174 J.Bassias, and R.Brückner (1998).
Regulation of lactose utilization genes in Staphylococcus xylosus.
  J Bacteriol, 180, 2273-2279.  
9556344 J.P.Richard (1998).
The enhancement of enzymatic rate accelerations by Brønsted acid-base catalysis.
  Biochemistry, 37, 4305-4309.  
9674429 J.R.Glover, and S.Lindquist (1998).
Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40: a novel chaperone system that rescues previously aggregated proteins.
  Cell, 94, 73-82.  
9774708 M.Inohara-Ochiai, T.Nakayama, M.Nakao, T.Fujita, T.Ueda, T.Ashikari, T.Nishino, and Y.Shibano (1998).
Unique primary structure of a thermostable multimetal beta-galactosidase from Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1388, 77-83.  
9665715 N.J.Roth, B.Rob, and R.E.Huber (1998).
His-357 of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) interacts with the C3 hydroxyl in the transition state and helps to mediate catalysis.
  Biochemistry, 37, 10099-10107.  
9268357 A.Efthymiadis, H.Shao, S.Hübner, and D.A.Jans (1997).
Kinetic characterization of the human retinoblastoma protein bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in vivo and in vitro. A comparison with the SV40 large T-antigen NLS.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 22134-22139.  
9255062 A.Marchler-Bauer, and S.H.Bryant (1997).
A measure of success in fold recognition.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 22, 236-240.  
9407040 A.N.Fedorov, and T.O.Baldwin (1997).
Cotranslational protein folding.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 32715-32718.  
9345621 B.Henrissat, and G.Davies (1997).
Structural and sequence-based classification of glycoside hydrolases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 637-644.  
9063875 C.N.Gallagher, and R.E.Huber (1997).
Monomer-dimer equilibrium of uncomplemented M15 beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli.
  Biochemistry, 36, 1281-1286.  
9371781 D.F.Nathan, M.H.Vos, and S.Lindquist (1997).
In vivo functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp90 chaperone.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 12949-12956.  
9182587 F.Lenouvel, I.Nikolaev, and B.Felenbok (1997).
In vitro recognition of specific DNA targets by AlcR, a zinc binuclear cluster activator different from the other proteins of this class.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 15521-15526.  
9237989 F.Rossi, C.A.Charlton, and H.M.Blau (1997).
Monitoring protein-protein interactions in intact eukaryotic cells by beta-galactosidase complementation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 8405-8410.  
9368608 F.S.Buckner, B.T.Wipke, and W.C.Van Voorhis (1997).
Trypanosoma cruzi infection does not impair major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of antigen to cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
  Eur J Immunol, 27, 2541-2548.  
9116020 H.Duewel, E.Daub, V.Robinson, and J.F.Honek (1997).
Incorporation of trifluoromethionine into a phage lysozyme: implications and a new marker for use in protein 19F NMR.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3404-3416.  
9130698 I.Lasa, E.Gouin, M.Goethals, K.Vancompernolle, V.David, J.Vandekerckhove, and P.Cossart (1997).
Identification of two regions in the N-terminal domain of ActA involved in the actin comet tail formation by Listeria monocytogenes.
  EMBO J, 16, 1531-1540.  
9114019 J.H.Zhang, G.Dawes, and W.P.Stemmer (1997).
Directed evolution of a fucosidase from a galactosidase by DNA shuffling and screening.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 4504-4509.  
  9308970 J.Lee, and M.Jayaram (1997).
A tetramer of the Flp recombinase silences the trimers within it during resolution of a Holliday junction substrate.
  Genes Dev, 11, 2438-2447.  
8702899 A.Benito, J.X.Feliu, and A.Villaverde (1996).
Beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity as a molecular probe to detect specific antibodies.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 21251-21256.  
  8670798 B.C.Freeman, and R.I.Morimoto (1996).
The human cytosolic molecular chaperones hsp90, hsp70 (hsc70) and hdj-1 have distinct roles in recognition of a non-native protein and protein refolding.
  EMBO J, 15, 2969-2979.  
9022702 I.S.Dunn (1996).
In vitro alpha-complementation of beta-galactosidase on a bacteriophage surface.
  Eur J Biochem, 242, 720-726.  
8931330 J.L.Corchero, and A.Villaverde (1996).
Antigenicity of a viral peptide displayed on beta-galactosidase fusion proteins is influenced by the presence of the homologous partner protein.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 145, 77-82.  
8823174 J.P.Richard, R.E.Huber, C.Heo, T.L.Amyes, and S.Lin (1996).
Structure-reactivity relationships for beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli, lac Z). 4. Mechanism for reaction of nucleophiles with the galactosyl-enzyme intermediates of E461G and E461Q beta-galactosidases.
  Biochemistry, 35, 12387-12401.  
8823173 J.P.Richard, R.E.Huber, S.Lin, C.Heo, and T.L.Amyes (1996).
Structure-reactivity relationships for beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli, lac Z). 3. Evidence that Glu-461 participates in Brønsted acid-base catalysis of beta-D-galactopyranosyl group transfer.
  Biochemistry, 35, 12377-12386.  
8718854 J.Sakon, W.S.Adney, M.E.Himmel, S.R.Thomas, and P.A.Karplus (1996).
Crystal structure of thermostable family 5 endocellulase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in complex with cellotetraose.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10648-10660.
PDB code: 1ece
  8763960 K.M.Doiron, S.Viau, M.Koutroumanis, and C.G.Cupples (1996).
Overexpression of vsr in Escherichia coli is mutagenic.
  J Bacteriol, 178, 4294-4296.  
  9213440 M.Martinez-Bilbao, and R.E.Huber (1996).
The activation of beta-galactosidase (E. coli) by Mg(2+) at lower pH values.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 74, 295-298.  
8662937 N.J.Roth, and R.E.Huber (1996).
The beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) reaction is partly facilitated by interactions of His-540 with the C6 hydroxyl of galactose.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 14296-14301.  
8604354 P.Moosmann, and S.Rusconi (1996).
Alpha complementation of LacZ in mammalian cells.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 1171-1172.  
  8819162 P.Zhang, and H.K.Schachman (1996).
In vivo formation of allosteric aspartate transcarbamoylase containing circularly permuted catalytic polypeptide chains: implications for protein folding and assembly.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1290-1300.  
8968953 R.E.Huber, N.J.Roth, and H.Bahl (1996).
Quaternary structure, Mg2+ interactions, and some kinetic properties of the beta-galactosidase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1.
  J Protein Chem, 15, 621-629.  
8599764 S.Jain, W.B.Drendel, Z.W.Chen, F.S.Mathews, W.S.Sly, and J.H.Grubb (1996).
Structure of human beta-glucuronidase reveals candidate lysosomal targeting and active-site motifs.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 375-381.
PDB code: 1bhg
  8762144 S.Janecek (1996).
Invariant glycines and prolines flanking in loops the strand beta 2 of various (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes: a hidden homology?
  Protein Sci, 5, 1136-1143.  
9634810 A.Benito, M.G.Mateu, and A.Villaverde (1995).
Improved mimicry of a foot-and-mouth disease virus antigenic site by a viral peptide displayed on beta-galactosidase surface.
  Biotechnology (N Y), 13, 801-804.  
18623333 A.Kondo, and T.Teshima (1995).
Preparation of immobilized enzyme with high activity using affinity tag based on proteins A and G.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 46, 421-428.  
7533160 A.Navon, A.J.Schulze, Y.Guillou, C.A.Zylinski, F.Baleux, N.Expert-Bezançon, B.Friguet, L.Djavadi-Ohaniance, and M.E.Goldberg (1995).
Importance of residues 2-9 in the immunoreactivity, subunit interactions, and activity of the beta 2 subunit of Escherichia coli tryptophan synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 4255-4261.  
7624375 B.Henrissat, I.Callebaut, S.Fabrega, P.Lehn, J.P.Mornon, and G.Davies (1995).
Conserved catalytic machinery and the prediction of a common fold for several families of glycosyl hydrolases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 7090-7094.  
8535789 C.Wiesmann, G.Beste, W.Hengstenberg, and G.E.Schulz (1995).
The three-dimensional structure of 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase from Lactococcus lactis.
  Structure, 3, 961-968.
PDB code: 1pbg
8535779 G.Davies, and B.Henrissat (1995).
Structures and mechanisms of glycosyl hydrolases.
  Structure, 3, 853-859.  
  7883697 I.M.Saxena, R.M.Brown, M.Fevre, R.A.Geremia, and B.Henrissat (1995).
Multidomain architecture of beta-glycosyl transferases: implications for mechanism of action.
  J Bacteriol, 177, 1419-1424.  
  7721689 K.R.Gutshall, D.E.Trimbur, J.J.Kasmir, and J.E.Brenchley (1995).
Analysis of a novel gene and beta-galactosidase isozyme from a psychrotrophic Arthrobacter isolate.
  J Bacteriol, 177, 1981-1988.  
  7747967 L.Fischer, C.Scheckermann, and F.Wagner (1995).
Purification and characterization of a thermotolerant beta-galactosidase from Thermomyces lanuginosus.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 61, 1497-1501.  
  8524224 M.K.Phillips-Jones, L.S.Hill, J.Atkinson, and R.Martin (1995).
Context effects on misreading and suppression at UAG codons in human cells.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 6593-6600.  
8591028 M.R.Parsons, M.A.Convery, C.M.Wilmot, K.D.Yadav, V.Blakeley, A.S.Corner, S.E.Phillips, M.J.McPherson, and P.F.Knowles (1995).
Crystal structure of a quinoenzyme: copper amine oxidase of Escherichia coli at 2 A resolution.
  Structure, 3, 1171-1184.
PDB code: 1oac
7556220 P.Staedtler, S.Hoenig, R.Frank, S.G.Withers, and W.Hengstenberg (1995).
Identification of the active-site nucleophile in 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase from Staphylococcus aureus by labelling with synthetic inhibitors.
  Eur J Biochem, 232, 658-663.  
7583653 R.Kuroki, L.H.Weaver, and B.W.Matthews (1995).
Structure-based design of a lysozyme with altered catalytic activity.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 1007-1011.  
7542247 R.Sullivan, and C.W.Lo (1995).
Expression of a connexin 43/beta-galactosidase fusion protein inhibits gap junctional communication in NIH3T3 cells.
  J Cell Biol, 130, 419-429.  
8535788 T.Barrett, C.G.Suresh, S.P.Tolley, E.J.Dodson, and M.A.Hughes (1995).
The crystal structure of a cyanogenic beta-glucosidase from white clover, a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase.
  Structure, 3, 951-960.
PDB code: 1cbg
8535787 V.Ducros, M.Czjzek, A.Belaich, C.Gaudin, H.P.Fierobe, J.P.Belaich, G.J.Davies, and R.Haser (1995).
Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a bacterial cellulase belonging to family 5.
  Structure, 3, 939-949.
PDB code: 1edg
7988875 A.Benito, and A.Villaverde (1994).
Insertion of a 27 amino acid viral peptide in different zones of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase: effects on the enzyme activity.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 123, 107-112.  
7712292 J.D.McCarter, and S.G.Withers (1994).
Mechanisms of enzymatic glycoside hydrolysis.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 4, 885-892.  
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