PDBsum entry 1b72

Go to PDB code: 
protein dna_rna Protein-protein interface(s) links
Protein/DNA PDB id
Protein chains
68 a.a. *
73 a.a. *
Waters ×61
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Protein/DNA
Title: Pbx1, homeobox protein hox-b1/DNA ternary complex
Structure: DNA (5'- d( Ap Cp Tp Cp Tp Ap Tp Gp Ap Tp Tp Gp Ap Tp Cp Gp Gp Cp Tp G)-3'). Chain: d. Engineered: yes. DNA (5'- d( Tp Cp Ap Gp Cp Cp Gp Ap Tp Cp Ap Ap Tp Cp Ap Tp Ap Gp Ap G)-3'). Chain: e.
Source: Synthetic: yes. Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Gene: hoxb-1. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562. Gene: pbx1.
Biol. unit: Monomer (from PDB file)
2.35Å     R-factor:   0.243     R-free:   0.277
Authors: D.E.Piper,A.H.Batchelor,C.-P.Chang,M.L.Cleary,C.Wolberger
Key ref:
D.E.Piper et al. (1999). Structure of a HoxB1-Pbx1 heterodimer bound to DNA: role of the hexapeptide and a fourth homeodomain helix in complex formation. Cell, 96, 587-597. PubMed id: 10052460 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80662-5
27-Jan-99     Release date:   19-Feb-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P14653  (HXB1_HUMAN) -  Homeobox protein Hox-B1
301 a.a.
68 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P40424  (PBX1_HUMAN) -  Pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1
430 a.a.
73 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   1 term 
  Biological process     regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent   1 term 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80662-5 Cell 96:587-597 (1999)
PubMed id: 10052460  
Structure of a HoxB1-Pbx1 heterodimer bound to DNA: role of the hexapeptide and a fourth homeodomain helix in complex formation.
D.E.Piper, A.H.Batchelor, C.P.Chang, M.L.Cleary, C.Wolberger.
Hox homeodomain proteins are developmental regulators that determine body plan in a variety of organisms. A majority of the vertebrate Hox proteins bind DNA as heterodimers with the Pbx1 homeodomain protein. We report here the 2.35 A structure of a ternary complex containing a human HoxB1-Pbx1 heterodimer bound to DNA. Heterodimer contacts are mediated by the hexapeptide of HoxB1, which binds in a pocket in the Pbx1 protein formed in part by a three-amino acid insertion in the Pbx1 homeodomain. The Pbx1 DNA-binding domain is larger than the canonical homeodomain, containing an additional alpha helix that appears to contribute to binding of the HoxB1 hexapeptide and to stable binding of Pbx1 to DNA. The structure suggests a model for modulation of Hox DNA binding activity by Pbx1 and related proteins.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Packing of the C-Terminal Extension of Pbx against the HomeodomainResidues 60–72 of Pbx1 contain a turn of 3[10] helix followed by a two-turn α helix, helix 4, that packs against helices 1 and 3 of the Pbx1 homeodomain. The side chains shown mediate interactions between the C-terminal extension of the Pbx1 DNA-binding domain with homeodomain helices 1 and 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Binding of the HoxB1 Hexapeptide to Pbx1(A) Contacts between the HoxB1 hexapeptide and Pbx1. The HoxB1 hexapeptide (red) inserts into a pocket in the Pbx1 DNA-binding domain (blue) that is composed of the three–amino acid loop extension of Pbx1, residues in helix 3, and a residue in the C-terminal 3[10] helix. The two i, i+3 hydrogen bonds of the 3[10] helix in the hexapeptide are indicated by dotted lines, as is the hydrogen bond between the indole nitrogen of hexapeptide residue Trp-(−21) and the backbone carbonyl of Leu-23a. The remainder of the interactions between the hexapeptide and Pbx1 are hydrophobic in nature. The HoxB1 hexapeptide forms a single water-mediated hydrogen bond with the phosphate of C7; Lys-57 of Pbx1 forms a second hydrogen bond to the same bound water molecule.(B) Side view of the HoxB1 peptide bound to Pbx1.(C) Difference electron density (contoured at 4.5 σ), derived from the selenomethionyl-substituted complex and the native data set, showing the position of the sulfur atom of HoxB1 hexapeptide residue Met-(−20) (magenta). Difference electron density from a simulated-annealing omit map in which the hexapeptide was omitted is shown in green (contoured at 1.0 σ).(D) Depiction of the solvent-accessible surface of Pbx1, calculated and displayed with GRASP, with the HoxB1 hexapeptide displayed as a full atomic model.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Cell (1999, 96, 587-597) copyright 1999.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference Google scholar

  PubMed id Reference
21262810 M.Saadaoui, S.Merabet, I.Litim-Mecheri, E.Arbeille, N.Sambrani, W.Damen, C.Brena, J.Pradel, and Y.Graba (2011).
Selection of distinct Hox-Extradenticle interaction modes fine-tunes Hox protein activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108, 2276-2281.  
  21416555 T.D.Capellini, V.Zappavigna, and L.Selleri (2011).
Pbx homeodomain proteins: TALEnted regulators of limb patterning and outgrowth.
  Dev Dyn, 240, 1063-1086.  
20005866 C.B.McDonald, K.L.Seldeen, B.J.Deegan, V.Bhat, and A.Farooq (2010).
Assembly of the Sos1-Grb2-Gab1 ternary signaling complex is under allosteric control.
  Arch Biochem Biophys, 494, 216-225.  
20553494 C.Hyman-Walsh, G.A.Bjerke, and D.Wotton (2010).
An autoinhibitory effect of the homothorax domain of Meis2.
  FEBS J, 277, 2584-2597.  
20389279 K.Miyazono, Y.Zhi, Y.Takamura, K.Nagata, K.Saigo, T.Kojima, and M.Tanokura (2010).
Cooperative DNA-binding and sequence-recognition mechanism of aristaless and clawless.
  EMBO J, 29, 1613-1623.
PDB codes: 3a01 3a02 3a03 3lnq
20634319 R.Joshi, L.Sun, and R.Mann (2010).
Dissecting the functional specificities of two Hox proteins.
  Genes Dev, 24, 1533-1545.  
20334529 R.Rohs, X.Jin, S.M.West, R.Joshi, B.Honig, and R.S.Mann (2010).
Origins of specificity in protein-DNA recognition.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 79, 233-269.  
20079749 V.B.Agarkar, N.D.Babayeva, P.J.Wilder, A.Rizzino, and T.H.Tahirov (2010).
Crystal structure of mouse Elf3 C-terminal DNA-binding domain in complex with type II TGF-beta receptor promoter DNA.
  J Mol Biol, 397, 278-289.
PDB code: 3jtg
20232265 Y.Zhang, C.K.Thornburg, H.S.Stadler, and J.B.Ames (2010).
Backbone chemical shift assignments of mouse HOXA13 DNA binding domain bound to duplex DNA.
  Biomol NMR Assign, 4, 97-99.  
19716816 A.R.Yallowitz, K.Q.Gong, I.T.Swinehart, L.T.Nelson, and D.M.Wellik (2009).
Non-homeodomain regions of Hox proteins mediate activation versus repression of Six2 via a single enhancer site in vivo.
  Dev Biol, 335, 156-165.  
19148706 A.S.Jürgens, M.Kolanczyk, D.C.Moebest, T.Zemojtel, U.Lichtenauer, M.Duchniewicz, M.P.Gantert, J.Hecht, U.Hattenhorst, S.Burdach, A.Dorn, M.P.Kamps, F.Beuschlein, D.Räpple, and J.S.Scheele (2009).
PBX1 is dispensable for neural commitment of RA-treated murine ES cells.
  In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim, 45, 252-263.  
19156136 L.Plowright, K.J.Harrington, H.S.Pandha, and R.Morgan (2009).
HOX transcription factors are potential therapeutic targets in non-small-cell lung cancer (targeting HOX genes in lung cancer).
  Br J Cancer, 100, 470-475.  
19293143 L.Sivanantharajah, and A.Percival-Smith (2009).
Analysis of the Sequence and Phenotype of Drosophila Sex combs reduced Alleles Reveals Potential Functions of Conserved Protein Motifs of the Sex combs reduced Protein.
  Genetics, 182, 191-203.  
19651302 R.S.Mann, K.M.Lelli, and R.Joshi (2009).
Hox specificity unique roles for cofactors and collaborators.
  Curr Top Dev Biol, 88, 63.  
19334006 S.Merabet, B.Hudry, M.Saadaoui, and Y.Graba (2009).
Classification of sequence signatures: a guide to Hox protein function.
  Bioessays, 31, 500-511.  
18850588 A.Davis, J.L.Scemama, and E.J.Stellwag (2008).
Japanese medaka Hox paralog group 2: insights into the evolution of Hox PG2 gene composition and expression in the Osteichthyes.
  J Exp Zoolog B Mol Dev Evol, 310, 623-641.  
18408019 B.Xu, D.Geerts, K.Qian, H.Zhang, and G.Zhu (2008).
Myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (MEIS) 1 involvement in embryonic implantation.
  Hum Reprod, 23, 1394-1406.  
18585360 M.B.Noyes, R.G.Christensen, A.Wakabayashi, G.D.Stormo, M.H.Brodsky, and S.A.Wolfe (2008).
Analysis of homeodomain specificities allows the family-wide prediction of preferred recognition sites.
  Cell, 133, 1277-1289.  
  18422304 R.Moretti, L.J.Donato, M.L.Brezinski, R.L.Stafford, H.Hoff, J.S.Thorson, P.B.Dervan, and A.Z.Ansari (2008).
Targeted chemical wedges reveal the role of allosteric DNA modulation in protein-DNA assembly.
  ACS Chem Biol, 3, 220-229.  
18075577 J.Kuriyan, and D.Eisenberg (2007).
The origin of protein interactions and allostery in colocalization.
  Nature, 450, 983-990.  
17981120 R.Joshi, J.M.Passner, R.Rohs, R.Jain, A.Sosinsky, M.A.Crickmore, V.Jacob, A.K.Aggarwal, B.Honig, and R.S.Mann (2007).
Functional specificity of a Hox protein mediated by the recognition of minor groove structure.
  Cell, 131, 530-543.
PDB codes: 2r5y 2r5z
17949089 R.L.Stafford, and P.B.Dervan (2007).
The reach of linear protein-DNA dimerizers.
  J Am Chem Soc, 129, 14026-14033.  
18059448 S.C.Harrison (2007).
Three-dimensional intricacies in protein-DNA recognition and transcriptional control.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 14, 1118-1119.  
17942685 S.Merabet, M.Saadaoui, N.Sambrani, B.Hudry, J.Pradel, M.Affolter, and Y.Graba (2007).
A unique Extradenticle recruitment mode in the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 16946-16951.  
17717195 S.Sarin, M.M.O'Meara, E.B.Flowers, C.Antonio, R.J.Poole, D.Didiano, R.J.Johnston, S.Chang, S.Narula, and O.Hobert (2007).
Genetic screens for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants defective in left/right asymmetric neuronal fate specification.
  Genetics, 176, 2109-2130.  
16959235 T.Erickson, S.Scholpp, M.Brand, C.B.Moens, and A.J.Waskiewicz (2007).
Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to pattern the midbrain-hindbrain and diencephalic-mesencephalic boundaries.
  Dev Biol, 301, 504-517.  
16778079 B.Noro, J.Culi, D.J.McKay, W.Zhang, and R.S.Mann (2006).
Distinct functions of homeodomain-containing and homeodomain-less isoforms encoded by homothorax.
  Genes Dev, 20, 1636-1650.  
16428452 L.Bartholin, S.E.Powers, T.A.Melhuish, S.Lasse, M.Weinstein, and D.Wotton (2006).
TGIF inhibits retinoid signaling.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 990.  
16354684 T.M.Beres, T.Masui, G.H.Swift, L.Shi, R.M.Henke, and R.J.MacDonald (2006).
PTF1 is an organ-specific and Notch-independent basic helix-loop-helix complex containing the mammalian Suppressor of Hairless (RBP-J) or its paralogue, RBP-L.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 117-130.  
16721389 T.Svingen, and K.F.Tonissen (2006).
Hox transcription factors and their elusive mammalian gene targets.
  Heredity, 97, 88-96.  
15781858 J.Hackbusch, K.Richter, J.Müller, F.Salamini, and J.F.Uhrig (2005).
A central role of Arabidopsis thaliana ovate family proteins in networking and subcellular localization of 3-aa loop extension homeodomain proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 4908-4912.  
15781856 K.E.Hauschild, R.E.Metzler, H.D.Arndt, R.Moretti, M.Raffaelle, P.B.Dervan, and A.Z.Ansari (2005).
Temperature-sensitive protein-DNA dimerizers.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 5008-5013.  
16023254 S.Merabet, J.Pradel, and Y.Graba (2005).
Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity.
  Trends Genet, 21, 477-480.  
15823536 U.Löhr, and L.Pick (2005).
Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster.
  Curr Biol, 15, 643-649.  
16075387 Z.N.Akin, and A.J.Nazarali (2005).
Hox genes and their candidate downstream targets in the developing central nervous system.
  Cell Mol Neurobiol, 25, 697-741.  
15371435 D.Muñoz-Espín, M.G.Mateu, L.Villar, A.Marina, M.Salas, and W.J.Meijer (2004).
Phage phi29 DNA replication organizer membrane protein p16.7 contains a coiled coil and a dimeric, homeodomain-related, functional domain.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 50437-50445.  
15731308 H.DU, and H.S.Taylor (2004).
Molecular regulation of mullerian development by Hox genes.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1034, 152-165.  
15247345 M.D.Simon, K.Sato, G.A.Weiss, and K.M.Shokat (2004).
A phage display selection of engrailed homeodomain mutants and the importance of residue Q50.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 3623-3631.  
14746988 P.M.In der Rieden, G.Mainguy, J.M.Woltering, and A.J.Durston (2004).
Homeodomain to hexapeptide or PBC-interaction-domain distance: size apparently matters.
  Trends Genet, 20, 76-79.  
15388867 R.Schleif, and C.Wolberger (2004).
Arm-domain interactions can provide high binding cooperativity.
  Protein Sci, 13, 2829-2831.  
15148315 S.Apuzzo, A.Abdelhakim, A.S.Fortin, and P.Gros (2004).
Cross-talk between the paired domain and the homeodomain of Pax3: DNA binding by each domain causes a structural change in the other domain, supporting interdependence for DNA Binding.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 33601-33612.  
15039447 S.E.Bondos, D.J.Catanese, X.X.Tan, A.Bicknell, L.Li, and K.S.Matthews (2004).
Hox transcription factor ultrabithorax Ib physically and genetically interacts with disconnected interacting protein 1, a double-stranded RNA-binding protein.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 26433-26444.  
14645536 C.A.Hyman, L.Bartholin, S.J.Newfeld, and D.Wotton (2003).
Drosophila TGIF proteins are transcriptional activators.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 9262-9274.  
12649808 D.Johnson, S.H.Kan, M.Oldridge, R.C.Trembath, P.Roche, R.M.Esnouf, H.Giele, and A.O.Wilkie (2003).
Missense mutations in the homeodomain of HOXD13 are associated with brachydactyly types D and E.
  Am J Hum Genet, 72, 984-997.  
12527762 G.Dom, C.Shaw-Jackson, C.Matis, O.Bouffioux, J.J.Picard, A.Prochiantz, M.P.Mingeot-Leclercq, R.Brasseur, and R.Rezsohazy (2003).
Cellular uptake of Antennapedia Penetratin peptides is a two-step process in which phase transfer precedes a tryptophan-dependent translocation.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 556-561.  
12784213 J.Aishima, and C.Wolberger (2003).
Insights into nonspecific binding of homeodomains from a structure of MATalpha2 bound to DNA.
  Proteins, 51, 544-551.  
12923056 N.A.LaRonde-LeBlanc, and C.Wolberger (2003).
Structure of HoxA9 and Pbx1 bound to DNA: Hox hexapeptide and DNA recognition anterior to posterior.
  Genes Dev, 17, 2060-2072.
PDB code: 1puf
12409300 T.Sprules, N.Green, M.Featherstone, and K.Gehring (2003).
Lock and key binding of the HOX YPWM peptide to the PBX homeodomain.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 1053-1058.
PDB code: 1lfu
11972344 C.Fognani, C.Kilstrup-Nielsen, J.Berthelsen, E.Ferretti, V.Zappavigna, and F.Blasi (2002).
Characterization of PREP2, a paralog of PREP1, which defines a novel sub-family of the MEINOX TALE homeodomain transcription factors.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 2043-2051.  
12191484 E.Bertolino, and H.Singh (2002).
POU/TBP cooperativity: a mechanism for enhancer action from a distance.
  Mol Cell, 10, 397-407.  
11711531 S.Bai, and X.Cao (2002).
A nuclear antagonistic mechanism of inhibitory Smads in transforming growth factor-beta signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 4176-4182.  
12060683 S.Remacle, C.Shaw-Jackson, C.Matis, X.Lampe, J.Picard, and R.Rezsöhazy (2002).
Changing homeodomain residues 2 and 3 of Hoxa1 alters its activity in a cell-type and enhancer dependent manner.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 2663-2668.  
11238910 B.G.Bruneau, Z.Z.Bao, D.Fatkin, J.Xavier-Neto, D.Georgakopoulos, C.T.Maguire, C.I.Berul, D.A.Kass, M.L.Kuroski-de Bold, Bold, D.A.Conner, N.Rosenthal, C.L.Cepko, C.E.Seidman, and J.G.Seidman (2001).
Cardiomyopathy in Irx4-deficient mice is preceded by abnormal ventricular gene expression.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 1730-1736.  
11369863 C.M.Slupsky, D.B.Sykes, G.L.Gay, and B.D.Sykes (2001).
The HoxB1 hexapeptide is a prefolded domain: implications for the Pbx1/Hox interaction.
  Protein Sci, 10, 1244-1253.  
11779502 C.W.Garvie, J.Hagman, and C.Wolberger (2001).
Structural studies of Ets-1/Pax5 complex formation on DNA.
  Mol Cell, 8, 1267-1276.
PDB codes: 1k78 1k79 1k7a
11157742 E.Kroon, U.Thorsteinsdottir, N.Mayotte, T.Nakamura, and G.Sauvageau (2001).
NUP98-HOXA9 expression in hemopoietic stem cells induces chronic and acute myeloid leukemias in mice.
  EMBO J, 20, 350-361.  
11179889 F.Rastinejad (2001).
Retinoid X receptor and its partners in the nuclear receptor family.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 11, 33-38.  
11579467 N.Milech, U.R.Kees, and P.M.Watt (2001).
Novel alternative PBX3 isoforms in leukemia cells with distinct interaction specificities.
  Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 32, 275-280.  
11470884 S.Banerjee-Basu, and A.D.Baxevanis (2001).
Molecular evolution of the homeodomain family of transcription factors.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 29, 3258-3269.  
11406412 S.Khorasanizadeh, and F.Rastinejad (2001).
Nuclear-receptor interactions on DNA-response elements.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 26, 384-390.  
11585930 W.F.Shen, K.Krishnan, H.J.Lawrence, and C.Largman (2001).
The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 7509-7522.  
10856250 E.Gillitzer, G.Chen, and A.Stenlund (2000).
Separate domains in E1 and E2 proteins serve architectural and productive roles for cooperative DNA binding.
  EMBO J, 19, 3069-3079.  
10698945 F.Rastinejad, T.Wagner, Q.Zhao, and S.Khorasanizadeh (2000).
Structure of the RXR-RAR DNA-binding complex on the retinoic acid response element DR1.
  EMBO J, 19, 1045-1054.
PDB code: 1dsz
10983974 H.Pöpperl, H.Rikhof, H.Chang, P.Haffter, C.B.Kimmel, and C.B.Moens (2000).
lazarus is a novel pbx gene that globally mediates hox gene function in zebrafish.
  Mol Cell, 6, 255-267.  
10679434 L.W.Jurata, J.B.Thomas, and S.L.Pfaff (2000).
Transcriptional mechanisms in the development of motor control.
  Curr Opin Neurobiol, 10, 72-79.  
10889025 R.A.Grant, M.A.Rould, J.D.Klemm, and C.O.Pabo (2000).
Exploring the role of glutamine 50 in the homeodomain-DNA interface: crystal structure of engrailed (Gln50 --> ala) complex at 2.0 A.
  Biochemistry, 39, 8187-8192.
PDB code: 1du0
10652532 R.Morgan, P.In der Rieden, M.H.Hooiveld, and A.J.Durston (2000).
Identifying HOX paralog groups by the PBX-binding region.
  Trends Genet, 16, 66-67.  
11031237 R.S.Mann, and G.Morata (2000).
The developmental and molecular biology of genes that subdivide the body of Drosophila.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 16, 243-271.  
10933814 T.Sprules, N.Green, M.Featherstone, and K.Gehring (2000).
Conformational changes in the PBX homeodomain and C-terminal extension upon binding DNA and HOX-derived YPWM peptides.
  Biochemistry, 39, 9943-9950.
PDB code: 1du6
11040212 V.C.Bromleigh, and L.P.Freedman (2000).
p21 is a transcriptional target of HOXA10 in differentiating myelomonocytic cells.
  Genes Dev, 14, 2581-2586.  
10625647 X.Yang, X.Ji, X.Shi, and X.Cao (2000).
Smad1 domains interacting with Hoxc-8 induce osteoblast differentiation.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 1065-1072.  
10587520 D.W.Benson, G.M.Silberbach, A.Kavanaugh-McHugh, C.Cottrill, Y.Zhang, S.Riggs, O.Smalls, M.C.Johnson, M.S.Watson, J.G.Seidman, C.E.Seidman, J.Plowden, and J.D.Kugler (1999).
Mutations in the cardiac transcription factor NKX2.5 affect diverse cardiac developmental pathways.
  J Clin Invest, 104, 1567-1573.  
10601270 D.Wotton, R.S.Lo, L.A.Swaby, and J.Massagué (1999).
Multiple modes of repression by the Smad transcriptional corepressor TGIF.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 37105-37110.  
  10567547 H.Asahara, S.Dutta, H.Y.Kao, R.M.Evans, and M.Montminy (1999).
Pbx-Hox heterodimers recruit coactivator-corepressor complexes in an isoform-specific manner.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 8219-8225.  
  10398683 H.D.Ryoo, and R.S.Mann (1999).
The control of trunk Hox specificity and activity by Extradenticle.
  Genes Dev, 13, 1704-1716.  
  10523646 K.Shanmugam, N.C.Green, I.Rambaldi, H.U.Saragovi, and M.S.Featherstone (1999).
PBX and MEIS as non-DNA-binding partners in trimeric complexes with HOX proteins.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 7577-7588.  
10651272 M.Scarsi, N.Majeux, and A.Caflisch (1999).
Hydrophobicity at the surface of proteins.
  Proteins, 37, 565-575.  
10375516 S.Khorasanizadeh, and F.Rastinejad (1999).
Transcription factors: the right combination for the DNA lock.
  Curr Biol, 9, R456-R458.  
  10454582 U.Thorsteinsdottir, J.Krosl, E.Kroon, A.Haman, T.Hoang, and G.Sauvageau (1999).
The oncoprotein E2A-Pbx1a collaborates with Hoxa9 to acutely transform primary bone marrow cells.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 6355-6366.  
  10373562 Y.Jacobs, C.A.Schnabel, and M.L.Cleary (1999).
Trimeric association of Hox and TALE homeodomain proteins mediates Hoxb2 hindbrain enhancer activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 5134-5142.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.