PDBsum entry 1ab8

Go to PDB code: 
protein ligands Protein-protein interface(s) links
Lyase PDB id
Protein chains
177 a.a. *
FOK ×2
Waters ×113
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Lyase
Title: Rat type ii adenylyl cyclase c2 domain/forskolin complex
Structure: Adenylyl cyclase. Chain: a, b. Fragment: c2 domain. Engineered: yes
Source: Rattus norvegicus. Norway rat. Organism_taxid: 10116. Gene: pproex-1. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21(de3). Expression_system_taxid: 469008. Expression_system_variant: de3.
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PDB file)
2.20Å     R-factor:   0.219     R-free:   0.284
Authors: G.Zhang,J.H.Hurley
Key ref: G.Zhang et al. (1997). Structure of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic core. Nature, 386, 247-253. PubMed id: 9069282
04-Feb-97     Release date:   15-May-97    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P26769  (ADCY2_RAT) -  Adenylate cyclase type 2
1090 a.a.
177 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 3 residue positions (black crosses)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Adenylate cyclase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: ATP = 3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
= 3',5'-cyclic AMP
+ diphosphate
      Cofactor: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     intracellular signal transduction   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity     1 term  


Nature 386:247-253 (1997)
PubMed id: 9069282  
Structure of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic core.
G.Zhang, Y.Liu, A.E.Ruoho, J.H.Hurley.
Mammalian adenylyl cyclases contain two conserved regions, C1 and C2, which are responsible for forskolin- and G-protein-stimulated catalysis. The structure of the C2 catalytic region of type II rat adenylyl cyclase has an alpha/beta class fold in a wreath-like dimer, which has a central cleft. Two forskolin molecules bind in hydrophobic pockets at the ends of cleft. The central part of the cleft is lined by charged residues implicated in ATP binding. Forskolin appears to activate adenylyl cyclase by promoting the assembly of the active dimer and by direct interaction within the catalytic cleft. Other adenylyl cyclase regulators act at the dimer interface or on a flexible C-terminal region.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
  21375691 K.N.Pandey (2011).
The functional genomics of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A: Perspectives and paradigms.
  FEBS J, 278, 1792-1807.  
  21375693 K.S.Misono, J.S.Philo, T.Arakawa, C.M.Ogata, Y.Qiu, H.Ogawa, and H.S.Young (2011).
Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.
  FEBS J, 278, 1818-1829.  
19923210 K.Kanchan, J.Linder, K.Winkler, K.Hantke, A.Schultz, and J.E.Schultz (2010).
Transmembrane signaling in chimeras of the Escherichia coli aspartate and serine chemotaxis receptors and bacterial class III adenylyl cyclases.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 2090-2099.  
20072606 M.Röttig, C.Rausch, and O.Kohlbacher (2010).
Combining structure and sequence information allows automated prediction of substrate specificities within enzyme families.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 6, e1000636.  
19638320 B.Pavan, C.Biondi, and A.Dalpiaz (2009).
Adenylyl cyclases as innovative therapeutic goals.
  Drug Discov Today, 14, 982-991.  
19447224 C.Pinto, M.Hübner, A.Gille, M.Richter, T.C.Mou, S.R.Sprang, and R.Seifert (2009).
Differential interactions of the catalytic subunits of adenylyl cyclase with forskolin analogs.
  Biochem Pharmacol, 78, 62-69.  
19337273 S.Pierre, T.Eschenhagen, G.Geisslinger, and K.Scholich (2009).
Capturing adenylyl cyclases as potential drug targets.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 8, 321-335.  
18640994 A.V.Ritchie, S.van Es, C.Fouquet, and P.Schaap (2008).
From drought sensing to developmental control: evolution of cyclic AMP signaling in social amoebas.
  Mol Biol Evol, 25, 2109-2118.  
18426879 H.J.Newton, F.M.Sansom, J.Dao, C.Cazalet, H.Bruggemann, C.Albert-Weissenberger, C.Buchrieser, N.P.Cianciotto, and E.L.Hartland (2008).
Significant role for ladC in initiation of Legionella pneumophila infection.
  Infect Immun, 76, 3075-3085.  
18842118 J.A.Winger, E.R.Derbyshire, M.H.Lamers, M.A.Marletta, and J.Kuriyan (2008).
The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a eukaryotic guanylate cyclase.
  BMC Struct Biol, 8, 42.
PDB code: 3et6
18983712 J.J.Tesmer (2008).
Guanylyl cyclase sees the light.
  J Biol, 7, 31.  
19054664 J.U.Linder, and J.E.Schultz (2008).
Versatility of signal transduction encoded in dimeric adenylyl cyclases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 18, 667-672.  
18215455 L.H.Cao, and X.L.Yang (2008).
Natriuretic peptides and their receptors in the central nervous system.
  Prog Neurobiol, 84, 234-248.  
18541530 L.I.Jiang, J.Collins, R.Davis, I.D.Fraser, and P.C.Sternweis (2008).
Regulation of cAMP Responses by the G12/13 Pathway Converges on Adenylyl Cyclase VII.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 23429-23439.  
18006497 X.Ma, N.Sayed, P.Baskaran, A.Beuve, and F.van den Akker (2008).
PAS-mediated dimerization of soluble guanylyl cyclase revealed by signal transduction histidine kinase domain crystal structure.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 1167-1178.
PDB codes: 2p04 2p08
17451607 I.M.Wallace, and D.G.Higgins (2007).
Supervised multivariate analysis of sequence groups to identify specificity determining residues.
  BMC Bioinformatics, 8, 135.  
17329110 J.L.Wang, J.X.Guo, Q.Y.Zhang, J.J.Wu, R.Seifert, and G.H.Lushington (2007).
A conformational transition in the adenylyl cyclase catalytic site yields different binding modes for ribosyl-modified and unmodified nucleotide inhibitors.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 15, 2993-3002.  
17480040 J.M.Cunliffe, M.R.Whorton, R.K.Sunahara, and R.T.Kennedy (2007).
A CE assay for the detection of agonist-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity.
  Electrophoresis, 28, 1913-1920.  
17873410 R.B.Russell (2007).
Classification of protein folds.
  Mol Biotechnol, 36, 238-247.  
17215864 X.Ma, N.Sayed, A.Beuve, and F.van den Akker (2007).
NO and CO differentially activate soluble guanylyl cyclase via a heme pivot-bend mechanism.
  EMBO J, 26, 578-588.
PDB codes: 2o09 2o0c 2o0g
16740923 M.Y.Galperin (2006).
Structural classification of bacterial response regulators: diversity of output domains and domain combinations.
  J Bacteriol, 188, 4169-4182.  
17067346 M.Yoshimura, S.Pearson, Y.Kadota, and C.E.Gonzalez (2006).
Identification of ethanol responsive domains of adenylyl cyclase.
  Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 30, 1824-1832.  
16464235 S.Wachten, J.Schlenstedt, R.Gauss, and A.Baumann (2006).
Molecular identification and functional characterization of an adenylyl cyclase from the honeybee.
  J Neurochem, 96, 1580-1590.  
16754683 S.Yazawa, H.Tsuchiya, H.Hori, and R.Makino (2006).
Functional characterization of two nucleotide-binding sites in soluble guanylate cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 21763-21770.  
16002394 C.Steegborn, T.N.Litvin, K.C.Hess, A.B.Capper, R.Taussig, J.Buck, L.R.Levin, and H.Wu (2005).
A novel mechanism for adenylyl cyclase inhibition from the crystal structure of its complex with catechol estrogen.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 31754-31759.
PDB code: 2bw7
15831585 F.D.Ivey, and C.S.Hoffman (2005).
Direct activation of fission yeast adenylate cyclase by the Gpa2 Galpha of the glucose signaling pathway.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 6108-6113.  
15890882 I.Tews, F.Findeisen, I.Sinning, A.Schultz, J.E.Schultz, and J.U.Linder (2005).
The structure of a pH-sensing mycobacterial adenylyl cyclase holoenzyme.
  Science, 308, 1020-1023.
PDB codes: 1y10 1y11
15689969 J.J.Tesmer (2005).
A seminal study of soluble adenylyl cyclase.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 7-8.  
15955067 L.I.Castro, C.Hermsen, J.E.Schultz, and J.U.Linder (2005).
Adenylyl cyclase Rv0386 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv uses a novel mode for substrate selection.
  FEBS J, 272, 3085-3092.  
15489510 M.A.Schade, N.K.Reynolds, C.M.Dollins, and K.G.Miller (2005).
Mutations that rescue the paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans ric-8 (synembryn) mutants activate the G alpha(s) pathway and define a third major branch of the synaptic signaling network.
  Genetics, 169, 631-649.  
15678099 S.C.Sinha, M.Wetterer, S.R.Sprang, J.E.Schultz, and J.U.Linder (2005).
Origin of asymmetry in adenylyl cyclases: structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1900c.
  EMBO J, 24, 663-673.
PDB codes: 1ybt 1ybu
16082162 T.Shiga, and N.Suzuki (2005).
Amphipathic alpha-helix mediates the heterodimerization of soluble guanylyl cyclase.
  Zoolog Sci, 22, 735-742.  
16045612 Y.L.Guo, U.Kurz, A.Schultz, J.U.Linder, D.Dittrich, C.Keller, S.Ehlers, P.Sander, and J.E.Schultz (2005).
Interaction of Rv1625c, a mycobacterial class IIIa adenylyl cyclase, with a mammalian congener.
  Mol Microbiol, 57, 667-677.  
14747729 A.D.Ketkar, A.R.Shenoy, M.M.Kesavulu, S.S.Visweswariah, and K.Suguna (2004).
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the catalytic domain of adenylyl cyclase Rv1625c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 371-373.  
15189569 A.Robichon, S.Tinette, C.Courtial, and F.Pelletier (2004).
Simultaneous stimulation of GABA and beta adrenergic receptors stabilizes isotypes of activated adenylyl cyclase heterocomplex.
  BMC Cell Biol, 5, 25.  
15165228 D.A.Baker, and J.M.Kelly (2004).
Structure, function and evolution of microbial adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases.
  Mol Microbiol, 52, 1229-1242.  
15326296 P.Pellicena, D.S.Karow, E.M.Boon, M.A.Marletta, and J.Kuriyan (2004).
Crystal structure of an oxygen-binding heme domain related to soluble guanylate cyclases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 12854-12859.
PDB codes: 1u4h 1u55 1u56
14718564 S.Saran, and P.Schaap (2004).
Adenylyl cyclase G is activated by an intramolecular osmosensor.
  Mol Biol Cell, 15, 1479-1486.  
12558998 D.B.Morton, and A.Nighorn (2003).
MsGC-II, a receptor guanylyl cyclase isolated from the CNS of Manduca sexta that is inhibited by calcium.
  J Neurochem, 84, 363-372.  
12668669 D.K.Muhia, C.A.Swales, U.Eckstein-Ludwig, S.Saran, S.D.Polley, J.M.Kelly, P.Schaap, S.Krishna, and D.A.Baker (2003).
Multiple splice variants encode a novel adenylyl cyclase of possible plastid origin expressed in the sexual stage of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 22014-22022.  
12962635 D.Ksiazek, H.Brandstetter, L.Israel, G.P.Bourenkov, G.Katchalova, K.P.Janssen, H.D.Bartunik, A.A.Noegel, M.Schleicher, and T.A.Holak (2003).
Structure of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum.
  Structure, 11, 1171-1178.
PDB codes: 1pn1 1s0p
  14739996 I.Sokal, A.Alekseev, and K.Palczewski (2003).
Photoreceptor guanylate cyclase variants: cGMP production under control.
  Acta Biochim Pol, 50, 1075-1095.  
12783579 K.Iwatsubo, T.Tsunematsu, and Y.Ishikawa (2003).
Isoform-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase: a potential target in future pharmacotherapy.
  Expert Opin Ther Targets, 7, 441-451.  
12829712 M.J.Cann, A.Hammer, J.Zhou, and T.Kanacher (2003).
A defined subset of adenylyl cyclases is regulated by bicarbonate ion.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 35033-35038.  
12838561 M.Salerno, G.Amabile, C.Mandato, S.Di Maio, M.Lecora, E.V.Avvedimento, and G.Andria (2003).
Growth retardation, developmental delay, distinctive face, multiple endocrine abnormalities, and adenylyl cyclase dysfunction: a new syndrome?
  Am J Med Genet A, 120, 389-394.  
12540839 R.Makino, E.Obayashi, N.Homma, Y.Shiro, and H.Hori (2003).
YC-1 facilitates release of the proximal His residue in the NO and CO complexes of soluble guanylate cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 11130-11137.  
11937677 A.R.Shenoy, N.Srinivasan, and S.S.Visweswariah (2002).
The ascent of nucleotide cyclases: conservation and evolution of a theme.
  J Biosci, 27, 85-91.  
11856299 C.Gu, J.J.Cali, and D.M.Cooper (2002).
Dimerization of mammalian adenylate cyclases.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 413-421.  
12058044 C.W.Dessauer, M.Chen-Goodspeed, and J.Chen (2002).
Mechanism of Galpha i-mediated inhibition of type V adenylyl cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 28823-28829.  
11777934 J.Roelofs, and P.J.Van Haastert (2002).
Characterization of two unusual guanylyl cyclases from dictyostelium.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 9167-9174.  
12057950 J.Téllez-Sosa, N.Soberón, A.Vega-Segura, M.E.Torres-Márquez, and M.A.Cevallos (2002).
The Rhizobium etli cyaC product: characterization of a novel adenylate cyclase class.
  J Bacteriol, 184, 3560-3568.  
11839758 J.U.Linder, A.Schultz, and J.E.Schultz (2002).
Adenylyl cyclase Rv1264 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an autoinhibitory N-terminal domain.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 15271-15276.  
11978784 M.Russwurm, E.Mergia, F.Mullershausen, and D.Koesling (2002).
Inhibition of deactivation of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase accounts for the sensitizing effect of YC-1.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 24883-24888.  
12110580 T.Kanacher, A.Schultz, J.U.Linder, and J.E.Schultz (2002).
A GAF-domain-regulated adenylyl cyclase from Anabaena is a self-activating cAMP switch.
  EMBO J, 21, 3672-3680.  
11138973 A.Guenifi, and S.M.Abdel-Halim (2001).
Glucose enhances adenylyl cyclase responses in normal but not diabetic GK rat islets.
  Pancreas, 22, 65-68.  
11157750 B.Bieger, and L.O.Essen (2001).
Structural analysis of adenylate cyclases from Trypanosoma brucei in their monomeric state.
  EMBO J, 20, 433-445.
PDB codes: 1fx2 1fx4
11173975 B.Tabakoff, E.Nelson, M.Yoshimura, K.Hellevuo, and P.L.Hoffman (2001).
Phosphorylation cascades control the actions of ethanol on cell cAMP signalling.
  J Biomed Sci, 8, 44-51.  
11181955 B.Wedel, and D.Garbers (2001).
The guanylyl cyclase family at Y2K.
  Annu Rev Physiol, 63, 215-233.  
11703675 D.K.Muhia, C.A.Swales, W.Deng, J.M.Kelly, and D.A.Baker (2001).
The gametocyte-activating factor xanthurenic acid stimulates an increase in membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase activity in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
  Mol Microbiol, 42, 553-560.  
11558678 F.van den Akker (2001).
Detailed analysis of the atrial natriuretic factor receptor hormone-binding domain crystal structure.
  Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 79, 692-704.  
11264454 J.Hanoune, and N.Defer (2001).
Regulation and role of adenylyl cyclase isoforms.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 41, 145-174.  
11119645 J.Pei, and N.V.Grishin (2001).
GGDEF domain is homologous to adenylyl cyclase.
  Proteins, 42, 210-216.  
11500361 J.Roelofs, M.Meima, P.Schaap, and P.J.Van Haastert (2001).
The Dictyostelium homologue of mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase encodes a guanylyl cyclase.
  EMBO J, 20, 4341-4348.  
11340052 S.L.Cohen, and B.T.Chait (2001).
Mass spectrometry as a tool for protein crystallography.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 30, 67-85.  
  11602596 T.Onda, Y.Hashimoto, M.Nagai, H.Kuramochi, S.Saito, H.Yamazaki, Y.Toya, I.Sakai, C.J.Homcy, K.Nishikawa, and Y.Ishikawa (2001).
Type-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase. Selective pharmacological stimulation and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase isoforms.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 47785-47793.  
11447108 Y.L.Guo, T.Seebacher, U.Kurz, J.U.Linder, and J.E.Schultz (2001).
Adenylyl cyclase Rv1625c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a progenitor of mammalian adenylyl cyclases.
  EMBO J, 20, 3667-3675.  
10811616 H.Patel, K.Guo, C.Parent, J.Gross, P.N.Devreotes, and C.J.Weijer (2000).
A temperature-sensitive adenylyl cyclase mutant of Dictyostelium.
  EMBO J, 19, 2247-2256.  
10851002 J.A.Ochoa De Alda, G.Ajlani, and J.Houmard (2000).
Synechocystis strain PCC 6803 cya2, a prokaryotic gene that encodes a guanylyl cyclase.
  J Bacteriol, 182, 3839-3842.  
11087399 J.J.Tesmer, C.W.Dessauer, R.K.Sunahara, L.D.Murray, R.A.Johnson, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (2000).
Molecular basis for P-site inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.
  Biochemistry, 39, 14464-14471.
PDB codes: 1cs4 1cul
10753932 J.U.Linder, T.Hoffmann, U.Kurz, and J.E.Schultz (2000).
A guanylyl cyclase from Paramecium with 22 transmembrane spans. Expression of the catalytic domains and formation of chimeras with the catalytic domains of mammalian adenylyl cyclases.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 11235-11240.  
10408894 A.Danchin (1999).
From protein sequence to function.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 363-367.  
10563809 A.Friebe, M.Russwurm, E.Mergia, and D.Koesling (1999).
A point-mutated guanylyl cyclase with features of the YC-1-stimulated enzyme: implications for the YC-1 binding site?
  Biochemistry, 38, 15253-15257.  
10075700 C.Gu, and D.M.Cooper (1999).
Calmodulin-binding sites on adenylyl cyclase type VIII.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 8012-8021.  
10464292 E.V.Olshevskaya, A.N.Ermilov, and A.M.Dizhoor (1999).
Dimerization of guanylyl cyclase-activating protein and a mechanism of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase activation.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 25583-25587.  
10371466 H.LeVine (1999).
Structural features of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors and their modulatory proteins.
  Mol Neurobiol, 19, 111-149.  
10574941 I.Shoshani, V.Boudou, C.Pierra, G.Gosselin, and R.A.Johnson (1999).
Enzymatic synthesis of unlabeled and beta-(32)P-labeled beta-L-2', 3'-dideoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate as a potent inhibitor of adenylyl cyclases and its use as reversible binding ligand.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 34735-34741.  
10574942 I.Shoshani, W.H.Laux, C.Périgaud, G.Gosselin, and R.A.Johnson (1999).
Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by acyclic nucleoside phosphonate antiviral agents.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 34742-34744.  
10075642 J.H.Hurley (1999).
Structure, mechanism, and regulation of mammalian adenylyl cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 7599-7602.  
10428960 J.U.Linder, P.Engel, A.Reimer, T.Krüger, H.Plattner, A.Schultz, and J.E.Schultz (1999).
Guanylyl cyclases with the topology of mammalian adenylyl cyclases and an N-terminal P-type ATPase-like domain in Paramecium, Tetrahymena and Plasmodium.
  EMBO J, 18, 4222-4232.  
10092597 M.H.Ghahremani, P.Cheng, P.M.Lembo, and P.R.Albert (1999).
Distinct roles for Galphai2, Galphai3, and Gbeta gamma in modulation offorskolin- or Gs-mediated cAMP accumulation and calcium mobilization by dopamine D2S receptors.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 9238-9245.  
10512310 M.Yoshimura, and B.Tabakoff (1999).
Ethanol's actions on cAMP-mediated signaling in cells transfected with type VII adenylyl cyclase.
  Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 23, 1457-1461.  
10574943 S.Doronin, L.Murray, C.W.Dessauer, and R.A.Johnson (1999).
Covalent labeling of adenylyl cyclase cytosolic domains with gamma-methylimidazole-2',5'-dideoxy-[gamma-(32)P]3'-ATP and the mechanism for P-site-mediated inhibition.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 34745-34750.  
10079086 S.Weitmann, N.Würsig, J.M.Navarro, and C.Kleuss (1999).
A functional chimera of mammalian guanylyl and adenylyl cyclases.
  Biochemistry, 38, 3409-3413.  
9931009 T.Yuan, M.P.Walsh, C.Sutherland, H.Fabian, and H.J.Vogel (1999).
Calcium-dependent and -independent interactions of the calmodulin-binding domain of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 38, 1446-1455.  
10101967 W.F.Simonds (1999).
G protein regulation of adenylate cyclase.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 20, 66-73.  
9666335 A.G.Murzin (1998).
How far divergent evolution goes in proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 380-387.  
9600905 C.L.Tucker, J.H.Hurley, T.R.Miller, and J.B.Hurley (1998).
Two amino acid substitutions convert a guanylyl cyclase, RetGC-1, into an adenylyl cyclase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 5993-5997.  
9748257 C.W.Dessauer, J.J.Tesmer, S.R.Sprang, and A.G.Gilman (1998).
Identification of a Gialpha binding site on type V adenylyl cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 25831-25839.  
9765307 D.M.Cooper, M.J.Schell, P.Thorn, and R.F.Irvine (1998).
Regulation of adenylyl cyclase by membrane potential.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 27703-27707.  
9507003 G.Zimmermann, D.Zhou, and R.Taussig (1998).
Genetic selection of mammalian adenylyl cyclases insensitive to stimulation by Gsalpha.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 6968-6975.  
9677392 G.Zimmermann, D.Zhou, and R.Taussig (1998).
Mutations uncover a role for two magnesium ions in the catalytic mechanism of adenylyl cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 19650-19655.  
9724641 H.C.Korswagen, A.M.van der Linden, and R.H.Plasterk (1998).
G protein hyperactivation of the Caenorhabditis elegans adenylyl cyclase SGS-1 induces neuronal degeneration.
  EMBO J, 17, 5059-5065.  
9914257 J.H.Hurley (1998).
The adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase superfamily.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 770-777.  
9562564 J.J.Dumas, and D.G.Lambright (1998).
Gs alpha meets its target--shedding light on a key signal transduction event.
  Structure, 6, 407-411.  
9914249 J.J.Tesmer, and S.R.Sprang (1998).
The structure, catalytic mechanism and regulation of adenylyl cyclase.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 713-719.  
9733805 L.Désaubry, and R.A.Johnson (1998).
Adenine nucleoside 3'-tetraphosphates are novel and potent inhibitors of adenylyl cyclases.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 24972-24977.  
  9525576 M.Hild, O.Weber, and H.Schaller (1998).
Glucagon treatment interferes with an early step of duck hepatitis B virus infection.
  J Virol, 72, 2600-2606.  
9461067 N.P.Skiba, and H.E.Hamm (1998).
How Gsalpha activates adenylyl cyclase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 88-92.  
9836582 P.E.Brandish, W.Buechler, and M.A.Marletta (1998).
Regeneration of the ferrous heme of soluble guanylate cyclase from the nitric oxide complex: acceleration by thiols and oxyhemoglobin.
  Biochemistry, 37, 16898-16907.  
9666333 R.B.Russell, and C.P.Ponting (1998).
Protein fold irregularities that hinder sequence analysis.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 364-371.  
9632695 R.K.Sunahara, A.Beuve, J.J.Tesmer, S.R.Sprang, D.L.Garbers, and A.G.Gilman (1998).
Exchange of substrate and inhibitor specificities between adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 16332-16338.  
9829971 S.Doronin, C.Dessauer, and R.A.Johnson (1998).
Direct photoaffinity labeling of individual cytosolic domains of adenylyl cyclase by [32P]2'-deoxy-3'-AMP and [alpha-32P]5'-ATP.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 32416-32420.  
9819210 T.Mitterauer, M.Hohenegger, W.J.Tang, C.Nanoff, and M.Freissmuth (1998).
The C2 catalytic domain of adenylyl cyclase contains the second metal ion (Mn2+) binding site.
  Biochemistry, 37, 16183-16191.  
9485473 T.Yuan, A.M.Weljie, and H.J.Vogel (1998).
Tryptophan fluorescence quenching by methionine and selenomethionine residues of calmodulin: orientation of peptide and protein binding.
  Biochemistry, 37, 3187-3195.  
9789008 W.Liu, and J.K.Northup (1998).
The helical domain of a G protein alpha subunit is a regulator of its effector.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 12878-12883.  
9265729 A.Bohm, R.Gaudet, and P.B.Sigler (1997).
Structural aspects of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 8, 480-487.  
9458697 A.J.Hobbs (1997).
Soluble guanylate cyclase: the forgotten sibling.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 18, 484-491.  
9266716 C.Camus, M.Geymonat, H.Garreau, S.Baudet-Nessler, and M.Jacquet (1997).
Dimerization of Cdc25p, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Ras from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its interaction with Sdc25p.
  Eur J Biochem, 247, 703-708.  
9346923 C.W.Dessauer, and A.G.Gilman (1997).
The catalytic mechanism of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. Equilibrium binding and kinetic analysis of P-site inhibition.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 27787-27795.  
9268376 C.W.Dessauer, T.T.Scully, and A.G.Gilman (1997).
Interactions of forskolin and ATP with the cytosolic domains of mammalian adenylyl cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 22272-22277.  
9417641 J.J.Tesmer, R.K.Sunahara, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1997).
Crystal structure of the catalytic domains of adenylyl cyclase in a complex with Gsalpha.GTPgammaS.
  Science, 278, 1907-1916.
PDB code: 1azs
9275169 K.Scholich, C.Wittpoth, A.J.Barbier, J.B.Mullenix, and T.B.Patel (1997).
Identification of an intramolecular interaction between small regions in type V adenylyl cyclase that influences stimulation of enzyme activity by Gsalpha.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 9602-9607.  
  9389653 M.Y.Chen, Y.Long, and P.N.Devreotes (1997).
A novel cytosolic regulator, Pianissimo, is required for chemoattractant receptor and G protein-mediated activation of the 12 transmembrane domain adenylyl cyclase in Dictyostelium.
  Genes Dev, 11, 3218-3231.  
9228061 S.Z.Yan, Z.H.Huang, V.D.Rao, J.H.Hurley, and W.J.Tang (1997).
Three discrete regions of mammalian adenylyl cyclase form a site for Gsalpha activation.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 18849-18854.  
9391159 Y.Chen, A.Harry, J.Li, M.J.Smit, X.Bai, R.Magnusson, J.P.Pieroni, G.Weng, and R.Iyengar (1997).
Adenylyl cyclase 6 is selectively regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation in a region involved in Galphas stimulation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 14100-14104.  
9391039 Y.Liu, A.E.Ruoho, V.D.Rao, and J.H.Hurley (1997).
Catalytic mechanism of the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases: modeling and mutational analysis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13414-13419.
PDB codes: 1awk 1awl 1awm 1awn
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.