PDBsum entry 1a02

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protein dna_rna Protein-protein interface(s) links
Transcription/DNA PDB id
Protein chains
280 a.a. *
53 a.a. *
52 a.a. *
Waters ×88
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transcription/DNA
Title: Structure of the DNA binding domains of nfat, fos and jun bound to DNA
Structure: DNA (5'- d( Dtp Dtp Dgp Dgp Dap Dap Dap Dap Dtp Dtp Dtp Dgp Dtp Dtp Dtp Dcp Dap Dtp Dap Dg)-3'). Chain: a. Engineered: yes. DNA (5'- d( Dap Dap Dcp Dtp Dap Dtp Dgp Dap Dap Dap Dcp Dap Dap Dap Dtp Dtp Dtp Dtp Dcp Dc)-3'). Chain: b.
Source: Synthetic: yes. Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Cell: t-lymphocyte. Gene: nfat1. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21(de3). Expression_system_taxid: 469008. Expressed in: escherichia coli.
Biol. unit: Monomer (from PDB file)
2.70Å     R-factor:   0.246     R-free:   0.303
Authors: L.Chen,J.N.M.Glover,P.G.Hogan,A.Rao,S.C.Harrison
Key ref:
L.Chen et al. (1998). Structure of the DNA-binding domains from NFAT, Fos and Jun bound specifically to DNA. Nature, 392, 42-48. PubMed id: 9510247 DOI: 10.1038/32100
08-Dec-97     Release date:   27-May-98    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q13469  (NFAC2_HUMAN) -  Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 2
925 a.a.
280 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01100  (FOS_HUMAN) -  Proto-oncogene c-Fos
380 a.a.
53 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P05412  (JUN_HUMAN) -  Transcription factor AP-1
331 a.a.
52 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   2 terms 
  Biological process     regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/32100 Nature 392:42-48 (1998)
PubMed id: 9510247  
Structure of the DNA-binding domains from NFAT, Fos and Jun bound specifically to DNA.
L.Chen, J.N.Glover, P.G.Hogan, A.Rao, S.C.Harrison.
The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and the AP-1 heterodimer, Fos-Jun, cooperatively bind a composite DNA site and synergistically activate the expression of many immune-response genes. A 2.7-A-resolution crystal structure of the DNA-binding domains of NFAT, Fos and Jun, in a quaternary complex with a DNA fragment containing the distal antigen-receptor response element from the interleukin-2 gene promoter, shows an extended interface between NFAT and AP-1, facilitated by the bending of Fos and DNA. The tight association of the three proteins on DNA creates a continuous groove for the recognition of 15 base pairs.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 4.
Figure 4 DNA recognition in the NFAT-AP-1-ARRE2 complex. a, View of the composite binding groove generated by the DNA-facing surfaces of NFAT, Fos and Jun. The colour scheme indicates electrostatic potential (blue, positive; red, negative) as calculated by the program GRASP49. b, Schematic diagram of detailed protein-DNA contacts, compared with similar contacts in the NF- B p50-DNA complex (upper left)24 and in the ternary Fos-Jun-AP-1 site complex (lower right)31. Lines with arrowheads, hydrogen bonds; lines with filled circles at either end, van der Waals contacts; solid lines, major-groove and sugar-phosphate interactions; dashed lines, minor-groove interactions. The coloured blocks indicate which protein is involved. c, Detailed view (using Ribbons50) of NFAT interactions in the major groove, showing the roles of Arg 421, Glu 427, Arg 430, Gln 571 and Arg 572 in specifying base pairs. Arg 430 is supported by salt links to Glu 427, which also accepts hydrogen bonds from the main-chain NH of Tyr 424 and from N4 of Cyt 2'. The view is essentially the same as that in Fig. 2.
Figure 5.
Figure 5 The interface between NFAT and AP-1. a, Surface representation (made with GRASP) showing the partly discontinuous character of the contacts. The box indicates the region shown in detail in b. The orientation is essentially the same as in Fig. 3c. b, Detailed view (using Ribbons50) of the contacts between the E'F and CX loops of NFAT (right) and Jun and Fos (left), respectively. Note the very extensive network of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (1998, 392, 42-48) copyright 1998.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
22992524 R.Tussiwand, W.L.Lee, T.L.Murphy, M.Mashayekhi, K.C.Wumesh, J.C.Albring, A.T.Satpathy, J.A.Rotondo, B.T.Edelson, N.M.Kretzer, X.Wu, L.A.Weiss, E.Glasmacher, P.Li, W.Liao, M.Behnke, S.S.Lam, C.T.Aurthur, W.J.Leonard, H.Singh, C.L.Stallings, L.D.Sibley, R.D.Schreiber, and K.M.Murphy (2012).
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21220349 A.Yarilina, K.Xu, J.Chen, and L.B.Ivashkiv (2011).
TNF activates calcium-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)c1 signaling pathways in human macrophages.
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21458306 H.S.Bandukwala, Y.Wu, M.Feuerer, Y.Chen, B.Barboza, S.Ghosh, J.C.Stroud, C.Benoist, D.Mathis, A.Rao, and L.Chen (2011).
Structure of a domain-swapped FOXP3 dimer on DNA and its function in regulatory T cells.
  Immunity, 34, 479-491.
PDB code: 3qrf
20195357 E.Miyamoto-Sato, S.Fujimori, M.Ishizaka, N.Hirai, K.Masuoka, R.Saito, Y.Ozawa, K.Hino, T.Washio, M.Tomita, T.Yamashita, T.Oshikubo, H.Akasaka, J.Sugiyama, Y.Matsumoto, and H.Yanagawa (2010).
A comprehensive resource of interacting protein regions for refining human transcription factor networks.
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19818095 L.V.Bosc, T.Resta, B.Walker, and N.L.Kanagy (2010).
Mechanisms of intermittent hypoxia induced hypertension.
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20953181 M.D.Daugherty, B.Liu, and A.D.Frankel (2010).
Structural basis for cooperative RNA binding and export complex assembly by HIV Rev.
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PDB code: 3lph
20399089 M.S.Sundrud, and M.A.Nolan (2010).
Synergistic and combinatorial control of T cell activation and differentiation by transcription factors.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 22, 286-292.  
20103781 N.Hermann-Kleiter, and G.Baier (2010).
NFAT pulls the strings during CD4+ T helper cell effector functions.
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20107604 P.Velupillai, C.K.Sung, Y.Tian, J.Dahl, J.Carroll, R.Bronson, and T.Benjamin (2010).
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20334529 R.Rohs, X.Jin, S.M.West, R.Joshi, B.Honig, and R.S.Mann (2010).
Origins of specificity in protein-DNA recognition.
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21048386 Y.Amasaki (2010).
[Calcineurin inhibitors and calcineurin-NFAT system].
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20159469 Y.Chen, R.Dey, and L.Chen (2010).
Crystal structure of the p53 core domain bound to a full consensus site as a self-assembled tetramer.
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PDB code: 3kmd
19754900 I.Baine, B.T.Abe, and F.Macian (2009).
Regulation of T-cell tolerance by calcium/NFAT signaling.
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19683540 J.C.Stroud, A.Oltman, A.Han, D.L.Bates, and L.Chen (2009).
Structural basis of HIV-1 activation by NF-kappaB--a higher-order complex of p50:RelA bound to the HIV-1 LTR.
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PDB code: 3gut
19290928 J.O.Liu (2009).
Calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, kinases, and transcriptional corepressors involved in T-cell activation.
  Immunol Rev, 228, 184-198.  
19034929 J.S.Bose, V.Gangan, S.K.Jain, and S.K.Manna (2009).
Novel caffeic acid ester derivative induces apoptosis by expressing FasL and downregulating NF-KappaB: Potentiation of cell death mediated by chemotherapeutic agents.
  J Cell Physiol, 218, 653-662.  
19168672 K.Hochedlinger, and K.Plath (2009).
Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency.
  Development, 136, 509-523.  
19553667 K.K.Hill, S.C.Roemer, D.N.Jones, M.E.Churchill, and D.P.Edwards (2009).
A progesterone receptor co-activator (JDP2) mediates activity through interaction with residues in the carboxyl-terminal extension of the DNA binding domain.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 24415-24424.  
19851316 M.Mancini, and A.Toker (2009).
NFAT proteins: emerging roles in cancer progression.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 9, 810-820.  
19519454 M.Miller (2009).
The importance of being flexible: the case of basic region leucine zipper transcriptional regulators.
  Curr Protein Pept Sci, 10, 244-269.  
19307325 N.Soto-Nieves, I.Puga, B.T.Abe, S.Bandyopadhyay, I.Baine, A.Rao, and F.Macian (2009).
Transcriptional complexes formed by NFAT dimers regulate the induction of T cell tolerance.
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19754901 T.Negishi-Koga, and H.Takayanagi (2009).
Ca2+-NFATc1 signaling is an essential axis of osteoclast differentiation.
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  19684889 W.I.Al-Daraji, T.T.Malak, R.J.Prescott, A.Abdellaoui, M.M.Ali, T.Dabash, B.G.Zelger, and B.Zelger (2009).
Expression, localisation and functional activation of NFAT-2 in normal human skin, psoriasis, and cultured keratocytes.
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19571180 W.L.Liu, R.A.Coleman, E.Ma, P.Grob, J.L.Yang, Y.Zhang, G.Dailey, E.Nogales, and R.Tjian (2009).
Structures of three distinct activator-TFIID complexes.
  Genes Dev, 23, 1510-1521.  
19530305 X.Cao, and Y.Chen (2009).
Mitochondria and calcium signaling in embryonic development.
  Semin Cell Dev Biol, 20, 337-345.  
18366726 D.Aguilar, and B.Oliva (2008).
Topological comparison of methods for predicting transcriptional cooperativity in yeast.
  BMC Genomics, 9, 137.  
18462673 D.L.Bates, K.K.Barthel, Y.Wu, R.Kalhor, J.C.Stroud, M.J.Giffin, and L.Chen (2008).
Crystal structure of NFAT bound to the HIV-1 LTR tandem kappaB enhancer element.
  Structure, 16, 684-694.
PDB code: 2o93
18182578 E.Ullerås, M.Karlberg, C.Möller Westerberg, J.Alfredsson, S.Gerondakis, A.Strasser, and G.Nilsson (2008).
NFAT but not NF-kappaB is critical for transcriptional induction of the prosurvival gene A1 after IgE receptor activation in mast cells.
  Blood, 111, 3081-3089.  
18227433 F.R.Salsbury, S.T.Knutson, L.B.Poole, and J.S.Fetrow (2008).
Functional site profiling and electrostatic analysis of cysteines modifiable to cysteine sulfenic acid.
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19060202 J.V.Falvo, C.H.Lin, A.V.Tsytsykova, P.K.Hwang, D.Thanos, A.E.Goldfeld, and T.Maniatis (2008).
A dimer-specific function of the transcription factor NFATp.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 19637-19642.  
18298549 M.E.Pipkin, and S.Monticelli (2008).
Genomics and the immune system.
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18769450 M.L.Lesniewski, P.Haviernik, R.P.Weitzel, S.Kadereit, M.M.Kozik, L.R.Fanning, Y.C.Yang, Y.Hegerfeldt, M.R.Finney, M.Z.Ratajczak, N.Greco, P.Paul, J.Maciejewski, and M.J.Laughlin (2008).
Regulation of IL-2 expression by transcription factor BACH2 in umbilical cord blood CD4+ T cells.
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18718539 N.A.Ciaccio, M.L.Moreno, R.L.Bauer, and J.S.Laurence (2008).
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.
  Protein Expr Purif, 62, 235-243.  
18299389 O.A.Olabisi, N.Soto-Nieves, E.Nieves, T.T.Yang, X.Yang, R.Y.Yu, H.Y.Suk, F.Macian, and C.W.Chow (2008).
Regulation of transcription factor NFAT by ADP-ribosylation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 28, 2860-2871.  
18772129 S.Klein-Hessling, T.Bopp, M.K.Jha, A.Schmidt, S.Miyatake, E.Schmitt, and E.Serfling (2008).
Cyclic AMP-induced Chromatin Changes Support the NFATc-mediated Recruitment of GATA-3 to the Interleukin 5 Promoter.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 31030-31037.  
18500346 X.Wang, G.Xiao, Y.Zhang, X.Wen, X.Gao, S.Okada, and X.Liu (2008).
Regulation of Tcrb recombination ordering by c-Fos-dependent RAG deposition.
  Nat Immunol, 9, 794-801.  
18271625 X.Y.Li, S.MacArthur, R.Bourgon, D.Nix, D.A.Pollard, V.N.Iyer, A.Hechmer, L.Simirenko, M.Stapleton, C.L.Luengo Hendriks, H.C.Chu, N.Ogawa, W.Inwood, V.Sementchenko, A.Beaton, R.Weiszmann, S.E.Celniker, D.W.Knowles, T.Gingeras, T.P.Speed, M.B.Eisen, and M.D.Biggin (2008).
Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm.
  PLoS Biol, 6, e27.  
18172215 Y.J.Shyu, C.D.Suarez, and C.D.Hu (2008).
Visualization of AP-1 NF-kappaB ternary complexes in living cells by using a BiFC-based FRET.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 151-156.  
18846096 Y.J.Shyu, C.D.Suarez, and C.D.Hu (2008).
Visualization of ternary complexes in living cells by using a BiFC-based FRET assay.
  Nat Protoc, 3, 1693-1702.  
17307879 B.M.Reinhard, S.Sheikholeslami, A.Mastroianni, A.P.Alivisatos, and J.Liphardt (2007).
Use of plasmon coupling to reveal the dynamics of DNA bending and cleavage by single EcoRV restriction enzymes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 2667-2672.  
17574024 D.Panne, T.Maniatis, and S.C.Harrison (2007).
An atomic model of the interferon-beta enhanceosome.
  Cell, 129, 1111-1123.
PDB codes: 2o61 2o6g
17493814 H.Wu, A.Peisley, I.A.Graef, and G.R.Crabtree (2007).
NFAT signaling and the invention of vertebrates.
  Trends Cell Biol, 17, 251-260.  
17652081 I.Waldmann, S.Wälde, and R.H.Kehlenbach (2007).
Nuclear import of c-Jun is mediated by multiple transport receptors.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 27685-27692.  
17876792 J.J.Heit (2007).
Calcineurin/NFAT signaling in the beta-cell: From diabetes to new therapeutics.
  Bioessays, 29, 1011-1021.  
17502104 K.Takeuchi, M.H.Roehrl, Z.Y.Sun, and G.Wagner (2007).
Structure of the calcineurin-NFAT complex: defining a T cell activation switch using solution NMR and crystal coordinates.
  Structure, 15, 587-597.
PDB code: 2jog
17360518 L.Guo, A.Han, D.L.Bates, J.Cao, and L.Chen (2007).
Crystal structure of a conserved N-terminal domain of histone deacetylase 4 reveals functional insights into glutamine-rich domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 4297-4302.
PDB codes: 2h8n 2o94
17636030 M.Ginsberg, E.Czeko, P.Müller, Z.Ren, X.Chen, and J.E.Darnell (2007).
Amino acid residues required for physical and cooperative transcriptional interaction of STAT3 and AP-1 proteins c-Jun and c-Fos.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 6300-6308.  
17334777 M.Savignac, B.Mellström, and J.R.Naranjo (2007).
Calcium-dependent transcription of cytokine genes in T lymphocytes.
  Pflugers Arch, 454, 523-533.  
17521508 M.Shinohara, and H.Takayanagi (2007).
Novel osteoclast signaling mechanisms.
  Curr Osteoporos Rep, 5, 67-72.  
17402846 M.Yagi, K.Ninomiya, N.Fujita, T.Suzuki, R.Iwasaki, K.Morita, N.Hosogane, K.Matsuo, Y.Toyama, T.Suda, and T.Miyamoto (2007).
Induction of DC-STAMP by alternative activation and downstream signaling mechanisms.
  J Bone Miner Res, 22, 992.  
17203245 P.B.Raghavendra, Y.Sreenivasan, G.T.Ramesh, and S.K.Manna (2007).
Cardiac glycoside induces cell death via FasL by activating calcineurin and NF-AT, but apoptosis initially proceeds through activation of caspases.
  Apoptosis, 12, 307-318.  
17387022 S.Bandyopadhyay, N.Soto-Nieves, and F.Macián (2007).
Transcriptional regulation of T cell tolerance.
  Semin Immunol, 19, 180-187.  
17719012 S.L.Cobbs, and J.L.Gooch (2007).
NFATc is required for TGFbeta-mediated transcriptional regulation of fibronectin.
  Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 362, 288-294.  
16473870 A.Kel, T.Konovalova, T.Waleev, E.Cheremushkin, O.Kel-Margoulis, and E.Wingender (2006).
Composite Module Analyst: a fitness-based tool for identification of transcription factor binding site combinations.
  Bioinformatics, 22, 1190-1197.  
16931157 E.Serfling, S.Chuvpilo, J.Liu, T.Höfer, and A.Palmetshofer (2006).
NFATc1 autoregulation: a crucial step for cell-fate determination.
  Trends Immunol, 27, 461-469.  
16407075 J.C.Stroud, Y.Wu, D.L.Bates, A.Han, K.Nowick, S.Paabo, H.Tong, and L.Chen (2006).
Structure of the forkhead domain of FOXP2 bound to DNA.
  Structure, 14, 159-166.
PDB code: 2a07
16718377 J.Li, H.Lu, and C.Huang (2006).
NFAT3 is required for EGF-induced COX-2 transcription, but neither iNOS transcription nor cell transformation in Cl 41 cells.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 289, 73-82.  
16504170 K.Ishii, T.Washio, T.Uechi, M.Yoshihama, N.Kenmochi, and M.Tomita (2006).
Characteristics and clustering of human ribosomal protein genes.
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16874304 M.Buchholz, A.Schatz, M.Wagner, P.Michl, T.Linhart, G.Adler, T.M.Gress, and V.Ellenrieder (2006).
Overexpression of c-myc in pancreatic cancer caused by ectopic activation of NFATc1 and the Ca2+/calcineurin signaling pathway.
  EMBO J, 25, 3714-3724.  
16415348 S.Abbasi, J.D.Lee, B.Su, X.Chen, J.L.Alcon, J.Yang, R.E.Kellems, and Y.Xia (2006).
Protein kinase-mediated regulation of calcineurin through the phosphorylation of modulatory calcineurin-interacting protein 1.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 7717-7726.  
16537893 S.Kim, C.T.Denny, and R.Wisdom (2006).
Cooperative DNA binding with AP-1 proteins is required for transformation by EWS-Ets fusion proteins.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 2467-2478.  
16998587 V.Davé, T.Childs, Y.Xu, M.Ikegami, V.Besnard, Y.Maeda, S.E.Wert, J.R.Neilson, G.R.Crabtree, and J.A.Whitsett (2006).
Calcineurin/Nfat signaling is required for perinatal lung maturation and function.
  J Clin Invest, 116, 2597-2609.  
16873067 Y.Wu, M.Borde, V.Heissmeyer, M.Feuerer, A.D.Lapan, J.C.Stroud, D.L.Bates, L.Guo, A.Han, S.F.Ziegler, D.Mathis, C.Benoist, L.Chen, and A.Rao (2006).
FOXP3 controls regulatory T cell function through cooperation with NFAT.
  Cell, 126, 375-387.
PDB code: 2as5
15537643 A.B.Benedito, M.Lehtinen, R.Massol, U.G.Lopes, T.Kirchhausen, A.Rao, and A.Bonni (2005).
The transcription factor NFAT3 mediates neuronal survival.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 2818-2825.  
15928679 F.Macian (2005).
NFAT proteins: key regulators of T-cell development and function.
  Nat Rev Immunol, 5, 472-484.  
15857835 L.V.Gonzalez Bosc, J.J.Layne, M.T.Nelson, and D.C.Hill-Eubanks (2005).
Nuclear factor of activated T cells and serum response factor cooperatively regulate the activity of an alpha-actin intronic enhancer.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 26113-26120.  
16099873 L.V.Pham, A.T.Tamayo, L.C.Yoshimura, Y.C.Lin-Lee, and R.J.Ford (2005).
Constitutive NF-kappaB and NFAT activation in aggressive B-cell lymphomas synergistically activates the CD154 gene and maintains lymphoma cell survival.
  Blood, 106, 3940-3947.  
16126726 S.Abbasi, B.Su, R.E.Kellems, J.Yang, and Y.Xia (2005).
The essential role of MEKK3 signaling in angiotensin II-induced calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells activation.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 36737-36746.  
16148011 S.Kang, H.Li, A.Rao, and P.G.Hogan (2005).
Inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT interaction by small organic molecules reflects binding at an allosteric site.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 37698-37706.  
15657420 T.T.Yang, Q.Xiong, I.A.Graef, G.R.Crabtree, and C.W.Chow (2005).
Recruitment of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/ribosomal S6 kinase signaling pathway to the NFATc4 transcription activation complex.
  Mol Cell Biol, 25, 907-920.  
15340054 B.V.Johnson, A.G.Bert, G.R.Ryan, A.Condina, and P.N.Cockerill (2004).
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhancer activation requires cooperation between NFAT and AP-1 elements and is associated with extensive nucleosome reorganization.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 7914-7930.  
  14725568 C.Kato, T.Tamura, T.Okuda, H.Kojima, Y.Kinoshita, and H.Honjo (2004).
Expression of IL-4, IL-8 and IL-18 messenger RNAs in maternal peripheral blood and relationships with the HbF-gamma chain mRNA in it.
  Am J Reprod Immunol, 51, 71-80.  
14570911 D.Coss, S.B.Jacobs, C.E.Bender, and P.L.Mellon (2004).
A novel AP-1 site is critical for maximal induction of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene by gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 152-162.  
15510218 D.Panne, T.Maniatis, and S.C.Harrison (2004).
Crystal structure of ATF-2/c-Jun and IRF-3 bound to the interferon-beta enhancer.
  EMBO J, 23, 4384-4393.
PDB code: 1t2k
14607827 D.U.Lee, O.Avni, L.Chen, and A.Rao (2004).
A distal enhancer in the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) locus revealed by genome sequence comparison.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 4802-4810.  
15109564 E.Serfling, F.Berberich-Siebelt, A.Avots, S.Chuvpilo, S.Klein-Hessling, M.K.Jha, E.Kondo, P.Pagel, J.Schulze-Luehrmann, and A.Palmetshofer (2004).
NFAT and NF-kappaB factors-the distant relatives.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 36, 1166-1170.  
15123671 H.Liu, M.Holm, X.Q.Xie, M.Wolf-Watz, and T.Grundström (2004).
AML1/Runx1 recruits calcineurin to regulate granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor by Ets1 activation.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 29398-29408.  
15073183 K.Matsuo, D.L.Galson, C.Zhao, L.Peng, C.Laplace, K.Z.Wang, M.A.Bachler, H.Amano, H.Aburatani, H.Ishikawa, and E.F.Wagner (2004).
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) rescues osteoclastogenesis in precursors lacking c-Fos.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 26475-26480.  
15304486 M.Matsumoto, M.Kogawa, S.Wada, H.Takayanagi, M.Tsujimoto, S.Katayama, K.Hisatake, and Y.Nogi (2004).
Essential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cathepsin K gene expression during osteoclastogenesis through association of NFATc1 and PU.1.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 45969-45979.  
15297877 R.A.Kovall, and W.A.Hendrickson (2004).
Crystal structure of the nuclear effector of Notch signaling, CSL, bound to DNA.
  EMBO J, 23, 3441-3451.
PDB code: 1ttu
15229217 S.Monticelli, D.C.Solymar, and A.Rao (2004).
Role of NFAT proteins in IL13 gene transcription in mast cells.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 36210-36218.  
15087451 T.N.Lively, T.N.Nguyen, S.K.Galasinski, and J.A.Goodrich (2004).
The basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun functions in transcriptional activation through interaction with the N terminus of human TATA-binding protein-associated factor-1 (human TAF(II)250).
  J Biol Chem, 279, 26257-26265.  
15173172 V.Davé, T.Childs, and J.A.Whitsett (2004).
Nuclear factor of activated T cells regulates transcription of the surfactant protein D gene (Sftpd) via direct interaction with thyroid transcription factor-1 in lung epithelial cells.
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12797520 H.Kojima, T.Tamura, T.Okuda, C.Kato, Y.Kinoshita, and H.Honjo (2003).
Expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells mRNA in maternal peripheral blood cells.
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12624092 H.R.Mott, D.Nietlispach, L.J.Hopkins, G.Mirey, J.H.Camonis, and D.Owen (2003).
Structure of the GTPase-binding domain of Sec5 and elucidation of its Ral binding site.
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PDB code: 1hk6
12805554 J.R.Newman, and A.E.Keating (2003).
Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays.
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12581658 K.Ogata, K.Sato, T.H.Tahirov, and T.Tahirov (2003).
Eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory complexes: cooperativity from near and afar.
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12949491 L.Jin, P.Sliz, L.Chen, F.Macián, A.Rao, P.G.Hogan, and S.C.Harrison (2003).
An asymmetric NFAT1 dimer on a pseudo-palindromic kappa B-like DNA site.
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PDB code: 1pzu
12949493 M.J.Giffin, J.C.Stroud, D.L.Bates, K.D.von Koenig, J.Hardin, and L.Chen (2003).
Structure of NFAT1 bound as a dimer to the HIV-1 LTR kappa B element.
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PDB code: 1p7h
14621985 S.A.Wolfe, R.A.Grant, and C.O.Pabo (2003).
Structure of a designed dimeric zinc finger protein bound to DNA.
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PDB code: 1llm
12606546 T.T.Yang, and C.W.Chow (2003).
Transcription cooperation by NFAT.C/EBP composite enhancer complex.
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12588992 V.Ramirez-Carrozzi, and T.Kerppola (2003).
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12644465 Y.Nam, A.P.Weng, J.C.Aster, and S.C.Blacklow (2003).
Structural requirements for assembly of the CSL.intracellular Notch1.Mastermind-like 1 transcriptional activation complex.
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11909956 A.V.Tsytsykova, and A.E.Goldfeld (2002).
Inducer-specific enhanceosome formation controls tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in T lymphocytes.
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12021260 B.San-Antonio, M.A.Iñiguez, and M.Fresno (2002).
Protein kinase Czeta phosphorylates nuclear factor of activated T cells and regulates its transactivating activity.
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11786533 B.Zhou, R.Q.Cron, B.Wu, A.Genin, Z.Wang, S.Liu, P.Robson, and H.S.Baldwin (2002).
Regulation of the murine Nfatc1 gene by NFATc2.
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11983154 G.R.Crabtree, and E.N.Olson (2002).
NFAT signaling: choreographing the social lives of cells.
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11754361 J.Bodor, J.Bodorova, C.Bare, D.L.Hodge, H.A.Young, and R.E.Gress (2002).
Differential inducibility of the transcriptional repressor ICER and its role in modulation of Fas ligand expression in T and NK lymphocytes.
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11780147 J.C.Stroud, C.Lopez-Rodriguez, A.Rao, and L.Chen (2002).
Structure of a TonEBP-DNA complex reveals DNA encircled by a transcription factor.
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PDB code: 1imh
12176927 J.Fassler, D.Landsman, A.Acharya, J.R.Moll, M.Bonovich, and C.Vinson (2002).
B-ZIP proteins encoded by the Drosophila genome: evaluation of potential dimerization partners.
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12411490 J.S.Lamoureux, D.Stuart, R.Tsang, C.Wu, and J.N.Glover (2002).
Structure of the sporulation-specific transcription factor Ndt80 bound to DNA.
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PDB codes: 1mn4 1mnn
12087103 K.E.Bower, R.W.Zeller, W.Wachsman, T.Martinez, and K.L.McGuire (2002).
Correlation of transcriptional repression by p21(SNFT) with changes in DNA.NF-AT complex interactions.
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12111723 M.Ikura, M.Osawa, and J.B.Ames (2002).
The role of calcium-binding proteins in the control of transcription: structure to function.
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12056905 P.R.Hardwidge, J.Wu, S.L.Williams, K.M.Parkhurst, L.J.Parkhurst, and L.J.Maher (2002).
DNA bending by bZIP charge variants: a unified study using electrophoretic phasing and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
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12414920 R.J.Kim, S.Moine, D.K.Reese, and P.A.Bullock (2002).
Peptides containing cyclin/Cdk-nuclear localization signal motifs derived from viral initiator proteins bind to DNA when unphosphorylated.
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Microfluorimetric analysis of a purinergic receptor (P2X7) in GH4C1 rat pituitary cells: effects of a bioactive substance produced by Pfiesteria piscicida.
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11741530 C.W.Garvie, and C.Wolberger (2001).
Recognition of specific DNA sequences.
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11779502 C.W.Garvie, J.Hagman, and C.Wolberger (2001).
Structural studies of Ets-1/Pax5 complex formation on DNA.
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PDB codes: 1k78 1k79 1k7a
11600717 H.A.Ferguson, and J.A.Goodrich (2001).
Expression and purification of recombinant human c-Fos/c-Jun that is highly active in DNA binding and transcriptional activation in vitro.
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NFAT signaling in vertebrate development.
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11344309 I.A.Graef, J.M.Gastier, U.Francke, and G.R.Crabtree (2001).
Evolutionary relationships among Rel domains indicate functional diversification by recombination.
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Kinetic studies of Fos.Jun.DNA complex formation: DNA binding prior to dimerization.
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11509557 J.L.Gooch, Y.Tang, J.M.Ricono, and H.E.Abboud (2001).
Insulin-like growth factor-I induces renal cell hypertrophy via a calcineurin-dependent mechanism.
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11313476 L.J.Kim, A.G.Seto, T.N.Nguyen, and J.A.Goodrich (2001).
Human Taf(II)130 is a coactivator for NFATp.
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11689449 R.G.Vries, M.Prudenziati, C.Zwartjes, M.Verlaan, E.Kalkhoven, and A.Zantema (2001).
A specific lysine in c-Jun is required for transcriptional repression by E1A and is acetylated by p300.
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11406412 S.Khorasanizadeh, and F.Rastinejad (2001).
Nuclear-receptor interactions on DNA-response elements.
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11257229 T.H.Tahirov, T.Inoue-Bungo, H.Morii, A.Fujikawa, M.Sasaki, K.Kimura, M.Shiina, K.Sato, T.Kumasaka, M.Yamamoto, S.Ishii, and K.Ogata (2001).
Structural analyses of DNA recognition by the AML1/Runx-1 Runt domain and its allosteric control by CBFbeta.
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PDB codes: 1hjb 1hjc 1io4
11514544 T.Yang, R.J.Davis, and C.W.Chow (2001).
Requirement of two NFATc4 transactivation domains for CBP potentiation.
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11320240 V.R.Ramirez-Carrozzi, and T.K.Kerppola (2001).
Dynamics of Fos-Jun-NFAT1 complexes.
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11400173 X.Yang, L.Taylor, J.Yu, M.J.Fenton, and P.Polgar (2001).
Mediator caused induction of a human bradykinin B1 receptor minigene: participation of c-Jun in the process.
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  11063696 A.M.Huang, and G.M.Rubin (2000).
A misexpression screen identifies genes that can modulate RAS1 pathway signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.
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10779413 D.A.Erlanson (2000).
The advantages of ambiguous orientation.
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10856250 E.Gillitzer, G.Chen, and A.Stenlund (2000).
Separate domains in E1 and E2 proteins serve architectural and productive roles for cooperative DNA binding.
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11042346 E.Serfling, F.Berberich-Siebelt, S.Chuvpilo, E.Jankevics, S.Klein-Hessling, T.Twardzik, and A.Avots (2000).
The role of NF-AT transcription factors in T cell activation and differentiation.
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Gene expression elicited by NFAT in the presence or absence of cooperative recruitment of Fos and Jun.
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Two patches of amino acids on the E2 DNA binding domain define the surface for interaction with E1.
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Integration of calcineurin and MEF2 signals by the coactivator p300 during T-cell apoptosis.
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10848607 J.V.Falvo, B.S.Parekh, C.H.Lin, E.Fraenkel, and T.Maniatis (2000).
Assembly of a functional beta interferon enhanceosome is dependent on ATF-2-c-jun heterodimer orientation.
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10837066 K.M.Murphy, W.Ouyang, J.D.Farrar, J.Yang, S.Ranganath, H.Asnagli, M.Afkarian, and T.L.Murphy (2000).
Signaling and transcription in T helper development.
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Structural and thermodynamic strategies for site-specific DNA binding proteins.
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Sexual dimorphism in diverse metazoans is regulated by a novel class of intertwined zinc fingers.
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PDB code: 1lpv
11258480 M.Cokol, R.Nair, and B.Rost (2000).
Finding nuclear localization signals.
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10671501 R.Mohana-Borges, A.B.Pacheco, F.J.Sousa, D.Foguel, D.F.Almeida, and J.L.Silva (2000).
LexA repressor forms stable dimers in solution. The role of specific dna in tightening protein-protein interactions.
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10995587 S.Baksh, and S.J.Burakoff (2000).
The role of calcineurin in lymphocyte activation.
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NF-kappaB p65 (RelA) homodimer uses distinct mechanisms to recognize DNA targets.
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Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers.
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NF-AT5: the NF-AT family of transcription factors expands in a new direction.
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10377394 C.Lopez-Rodríguez, J.Aramburu, A.S.Rakeman, and A.Rao (1999).
NFAT5, a constitutively nuclear NFAT protein that does not cooperate with Fos and Jun.
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Requirement for transcription factor NFAT in interleukin-2 expression.
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10410794 C.Wolberger (1999).
Multiprotein-DNA complexes in transcriptional regulation.
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Zinc finger transcription factors as molecular targets for nitric oxide-mediated immunosuppression: inhibition of IL-2 gene expression in murine lymphocytes.
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10541551 D.Chasman, K.Cepek, P.A.Sharp, and C.O.Pabo (1999).
Crystal structure of an OCA-B peptide bound to an Oct-1 POU domain/octamer DNA complex: specific recognition of a protein-DNA interface.
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PDB code: 1cqt
10051549 D.Kültz, and L.Csonka (1999).
What sets the TonE during osmotic stress?
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Reciprocal modulatory interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and transcription factor NFAT1.
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10449431 G.Choukroun, R.Hajjar, S.Fry, F.del Monte, S.Haq, J.L.Guerrero, M.Picard, A.Rosenzweig, and T.Force (1999).
Regulation of cardiac hypertrophy in vivo by the stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases.
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10089876 G.R.Crabtree (1999).
Generic signals and specific outcomes: signaling through Ca2+, calcineurin, and NF-AT.
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10581239 I.Ohki, N.Shimotake, N.Fujita, M.Nakao, and M.Shirakawa (1999).
Solution structure of the methyl-CpG-binding domain of the methylation-dependent transcriptional repressor MBD1.
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PDB code: 1d9n
11232329 L.Chen, A.Rao, and S.C.Harrison (1999).
Signal integration by transcription-factor assemblies: interactions of NF-AT1 and AP-1 on the IL-2 promoter.
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10047576 L.Chen (1999).
Combinatorial gene regulation by eukaryotic transcription factors.
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10545320 M.J.Berardi, C.Sun, M.Zehr, F.Abildgaard, J.Peng, N.A.Speck, and J.H.Bushweller (1999).
The Ig fold of the core binding factor alpha Runt domain is a member of a family of structurally and functionally related Ig-fold DNA-binding domains.
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PDB code: 1co1
10425685 P.Cramer, A.Varrot, C.Barillas-Mury, F.C.Kafatos, and C.W.Müller (1999).
Structure of the specificity domain of the Dorsal homologue Gambif1 bound to DNA.
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PDB code: 1bvo
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A two-hit mechanism for vitamin D3-mediated transcriptional repression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene: vitamin D receptor competes for DNA binding with NFAT1 and stabilizes c-Jun.
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10400634 V.Nadkarni, K.H.Gabbay, K.M.Bohren, and D.Sheikh-Hamad (1999).
Osmotic response element enhancer activity. Regulation through p38 kinase and mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase.
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The highly conserved beta-hairpin of the paired DNA-binding domain is required for assembly of Pax-Ets ternary complexes.
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10487755 Y.Fujii, T.Shimizu, M.Kusumoto, Y.Kyogoku, T.Taniguchi, and T.Hakoshima (1999).
Crystal structure of an IRF-DNA complex reveals novel DNA recognition and cooperative binding to a tandem repeat of core sequences.
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PDB code: 2irf
9742392 A.Travers (1998).
Transcription: activation by cooperating conformations.
  Curr Biol, 8, R616-R618.  
9794820 C.Wolberger (1998).
Combinatorial transcription factors.
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9783746 D.A.Leonard, and T.K.Kerppola (1998).
DNA bending determines Fos-Jun heterodimer orientation.
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9727000 F.J.Garcia-Cozar, H.Okamura, J.F.Aramburu, K.T.Shaw, L.Pelletier, R.Showalter, E.Villafranca, and A.Rao (1998).
Two-site interaction of nuclear factor of activated T cells with activated calcineurin.
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9769323 G.Choukroun, R.Hajjar, J.M.Kyriakis, J.V.Bonventre, A.Rosenzweig, and T.Force (1998).
Role of the stress-activated protein kinases in endothelin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
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9826656 M.Chytil, B.R.Peterson, D.A.Erlanson, and G.L.Verdine (1998).
The orientation of the AP-1 heterodimer on DNA strongly affects transcriptional potency.
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9653115 R.J.Diebold, N.Rajaram, D.A.Leonard, and T.K.Kerppola (1998).
Molecular basis of cooperative DNA bending and oriented heterodimer binding in the NFAT1-Fos-Jun-ARRE2 complex.
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9671298 S.Becker, B.Groner, and C.W.Müller (1998).
Three-dimensional structure of the Stat3beta homodimer bound to DNA.
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PDB code: 1bg1
9634693 T.K.Kerppola (1998).
Transcriptional cooperativity: bending over backwards and doing the flip.
  Structure, 6, 549-554.  
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