PDBsum entry 1xwd

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Hormone/growth factor PDB id
Protein chains
90 a.a. *
105 a.a. *
242 a.a. *
NAG ×6
SO4 ×3
Waters ×50
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hormone/growth factor
Title: Crystal structure of human follicle stimulating hormone comp its receptor
Structure: Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain. Chain: a, d. Synonym: follitropin alpha chain, follicle-stimulating horm chain, fsh-alpha, lutropin alpha chain, luteinizing hormone chain, lsh-alpha, thyrotropin alpha chain, thyroid-stimulat hormone alpha chain, tsh-alpha, choriogonadotropin alpha ch chorionic gonadotrophin alpha subunit, cg-alpha. Engineered: yes. Follitropin beta chain.
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Gene: cga. Expressed in: trichoplusia ni. Expression_system_taxid: 7111. Expression_system_cell_line: high 5. Gene: fshb. Gene: fshr.
Biol. unit: Trimer (from PQS)
2.92Å     R-factor:   0.221     R-free:   0.259
Authors: Q.R.Fan,W.A.Hendrickson
Key ref:
Q.R.Fan and W.A.Hendrickson (2005). Structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone in complex with its receptor. Nature, 433, 269-277. PubMed id: 15662415 DOI: 10.1038/nature03206
30-Oct-04     Release date:   25-Jan-05    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01215  (GLHA_HUMAN) -  Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain
116 a.a.
90 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01225  (FSHB_HUMAN) -  Follitropin subunit beta
129 a.a.
105 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P23945  (FSHR_HUMAN) -  Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor
695 a.a.
242 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   4 terms 
  Biological process     developmental growth   25 terms 
  Biochemical function     protein binding     4 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/nature03206 Nature 433:269-277 (2005)
PubMed id: 15662415  
Structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone in complex with its receptor.
Q.R.Fan, W.A.Hendrickson.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is central to reproduction in mammals. It acts through a G-protein-coupled receptor on the surface of target cells to stimulate testicular and ovarian functions. We present here the 2.9-A-resolution structure of a partially deglycosylated complex of human FSH bound to the extracellular hormone-binding domain of its receptor (FSHR(HB)). The hormone is bound in a hand-clasp fashion to an elongated, curved receptor. The buried interface of the complex is large (2,600 A2) and has a high charge density. Our analysis suggests that all glycoprotein hormones bind to their receptors in this mode and that binding specificity is mediated by key interaction sites involving both the common alpha- and hormone-specific beta-subunits. On binding, FSH undergoes a concerted conformational change that affects protruding loops implicated in receptor activation. The FSH-FSHR(HB) complexes form dimers in the crystal and at high concentrations in solution. Such dimers may participate in transmembrane signal transduction.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 1.
Figure 1: Crystal structure of human FSH bound to FSHR[HB]. a, b, Ribbon diagram of the complex structure shown in two views related by a 90 rotation about the vertical axis. FSH -chains and -chains are in green and cyan, respectively. FSHR[HB] is in red. The observed N-linked carbohydrates at N52 and N78 of FSH- , N7 and N24 of FSH- , and N191 of FSHR[HB] are in yellow. Disulphide bonds are in black. c, Schematic diagram of the topology of FSHR[HB] structure. -Strands are shown as arrows. Red represents strands located at the concave face of FSHR[HB]; pink represents strands on the convex face.
Figure 3.
Figure 3: Interactions at the receptor-ligand interface. a, Ribbon diagram showing the top view of the FSH-FSHR[HB] complex. The view in the right panel is tilted to highlight the regions of FSHR[HB] (red), and FSH- (green) and FSH- (cyan) chains that are involved in direct contacts at the receptor-ligand interface. Dashed circles mark the locations of L55 and K179 in the FSHR[HB] structure. b, Detailed views of the interactions at the specificity pockets for L55 and K179 of FSHR[HB]. The dotted molecular surface of FSH is shown in cyan in each panel. c, Close-up stereo view of the interactions between the C-terminal region of FSH- and FSHR[HB].
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (2005, 433, 269-277) copyright 2005.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

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PDB code: 2k8p
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PDB codes: 2o6q 2o6r 2o6s
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PDB codes: 2i35 2i36 2i37
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Significance of ectodomain cysteine boxes 2 and 3 for the activation mechanism of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor.
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Genetic variation in G-protein-coupled receptors--consequences for G-protein-coupled receptors as drug targets.
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16467256 D.Puett, Y.Li, K.Angelova, G.Demars, T.P.Meehan, F.Fanelli, and P.Narayan (2005).
Structure-function relationships of the luteinizing hormone receptor.
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15889138 E.Urizar, L.Montanelli, T.Loy, M.Bonomi, S.Swillens, C.Gales, M.Bouvier, G.Smits, G.Vassart, and S.Costagliola (2005).
Glycoprotein hormone receptors: link between receptor homodimerization and negative cooperativity.
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20035466 J.Bogerd (2005).
Selective ligand-binding determinants in catfish and human gonadotropin receptors.
  Fish Physiol Biochem, 31, 247-254.  
16126408 J.Gromoll, and M.Simoni (2005).
Genetic complexity of FSH receptor function.
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15908694 M.Zhang, D.Mizrachi, F.Fanelli, and D.L.Segaloff (2005).
The formation of a salt bridge between helices 3 and 6 is responsible for the constitutive activity and lack of hormone responsiveness of the naturally occurring L457R mutation of the human lutropin receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 26169-26176.  
16316453 P.S.Kene, D.V.Behere, and S.D.Mahale (2005).
Secondary structure analysis of synthetic peptides of the extracellular domain of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.
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Delineation of regions in the extracellular domain of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor involved in hormone binding and signal transduction.
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Comparative modeling of the thyrotropin receptor.
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The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.