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PDBsum entry 1seb

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protein Protein-protein interface(s) links
Complex (mhc ii/peptide/toxin) PDB id
1seb
Jmol
Contents
Protein chains
181 a.a. *
192 a.a. *
13 a.a. *
206 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
1seb
Name: Complex (mhc ii/peptide/toxin)
Title: Complex of the human mhc class ii glycoprotein hla-dr1 and the bacterial superantigen seb
Structure: Hla class ii histocompatibility antigen. Chain: a, e. Fragment: extracellular domain. Synonym: hla-dr1. Engineered: yes. Hla class ii histocompatibility antigen. Chain: b, f. Fragment: extracellular domain. Synonym: hla-dr1.
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Cell_line: lg-2. Expressed in: homo sapiens. Expression_system_taxid: 9606. Expression_system_cell_line: lg-2 cells. Staphylococcus aureus. Organism_taxid: 1280.
Biol. unit: Octamer (from PQS)
Resolution:
2.70Å     R-factor:   0.257     R-free:   0.327
Authors: T.S.Jardetzky,J.H.Brown,J.C.Gorga,L.J.Stern,R.G.Urban, Y.I.Chi,C.Stauffacher,J.L.Strominger,D.C.Wiley
Key ref: T.S.Jardetzky et al. (1994). Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen. Nature, 368, 711-718. PubMed id: 8152483
Date:
26-Nov-95     Release date:   20-Jun-96    
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01903  (DRA_HUMAN) -  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain
Seq:
Struc:
254 a.a.
181 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P04229  (2B11_HUMAN) -  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-1 beta chain
Seq:
Struc:
266 a.a.
192 a.a.
Protein chains
No UniProt id for this chain
Struc: 13 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01552  (ETXB_STAAU) -  Enterotoxin type B
Seq:
Struc:
266 a.a.
206 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   3 terms 
  Biological process     immune response   3 terms 

 

 
Nature 368:711-718 (1994)
PubMed id: 8152483  
 
 
Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen.
T.S.Jardetzky, J.H.Brown, J.C.Gorga, L.J.Stern, R.G.Urban, Y.I.Chi, C.Stauffacher, J.L.Strominger, D.C.Wiley.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
The structure of a bacterial superantigen, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, bound to a human class II histocompatibility complex molecule (HLA-DR1) has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The superantigen binds as an intact protein outside the conventional peptide antigen-binding site of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. No large conformational changes occur upon complex formation in either the DR1 or the enterotoxin B molecules. The structure of the complex helps explain how different class II molecules and superantigens associate and suggests a model for ternary complex formation with the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), in which unconventional TCR-MHC contacts are possible.
 

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20109735 P.M.Schlievert, K.L.Strandberg, Y.C.Lin, M.L.Peterson, and D.Y.Leung (2010).
Secreted virulence factor comparison between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and its relevance to atopic dermatitis.
  J Allergy Clin Immunol, 125, 39-49.  
19808256 V.Thammavongsa, J.W.Kern, D.M.Missiakas, and O.Schneewind (2009).
Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes adenosine to escape host immune responses.
  J Exp Med, 206, 2417-2427.  
18525076 B.A.Cobb, and D.L.Kasper (2008).
Characteristics of carbohydrate antigen binding to the presentation protein HLA-DR.
  Glycobiology, 18, 707-718.  
19036163 C.O'Brien, D.R.Flower, and C.Feighery (2008).
Peptide length significantly influences in vitro affinity for MHC class II molecules.
  Immunome Res, 4, 6.  
18270567 G.C.Bulwin, S.Wälter, M.Schlawinsky, T.Heinemann, A.Schulze, W.Höhne, G.Krause, W.Kalka-Moll, P.Fraser, H.D.Volk, J.Löhler, E.L.Milford, and N.Utku (2008).
HLA-DR alpha 2 mediates negative signalling via binding to Tirc7 leading to anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects in lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e1576.  
17268555 B.Moza, A.K.Varma, R.A.Buonpane, P.Zhu, C.A.Herfst, M.J.Nicholson, A.K.Wilbuer, N.P.Seth, K.W.Wucherpfennig, J.K.McCormick, D.M.Kranz, and E.J.Sundberg (2007).
Structural basis of T-cell specificity and activation by the bacterial superantigen TSST-1.
  EMBO J, 26, 1187-1197.
PDB code: 2ij0
17560120 E.J.Sundberg, L.Deng, and R.A.Mariuzza (2007).
TCR recognition of peptide/MHC class II complexes and superantigens.
  Semin Immunol, 19, 262-271.  
17166841 H.Li, Y.Zhao, Y.Guo, Z.Li, L.Eisele, and W.Mourad (2007).
Zinc induces dimerization of the class II major histocompatibility complex molecule that leads to cooperative binding to a superantigen.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 5991-6000.
PDB code: 2oje
17427250 M.M.Fernández, S.Bhattacharya, M.C.De Marzi, P.H.Brown, M.Kerzic, P.Schuck, R.A.Mariuzza, and E.L.Malchiodi (2007).
Superantigen natural affinity maturation revealed by the crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin G and its binding to T-cell receptor Vbeta8.2.
  Proteins, 68, 389-402.  
17560605 S.Günther, A.K.Varma, B.Moza, K.J.Kasper, A.W.Wyatt, P.Zhu, A.K.Rahman, Y.Li, R.A.Mariuzza, J.K.McCormick, and E.J.Sundberg (2007).
A novel loop domain in superantigens extends their T cell receptor recognition site.
  J Mol Biol, 371, 210-221.
PDB codes: 2nts 2ntt
17428256 T.Tawara, K.Hasegawa, Y.Sugiura, T.Tahara, I.Ishida, and S.Kataoka (2007).
Fully human antibody exhibits pan-human leukocyte antigen-DR recognition and high in vitro/vivo efficacy against human leukocyte antigen-DR-positive lymphomas.
  Cancer Sci, 98, 921-928.  
16428778 G.Rajagopalan, K.Iijima, M.Singh, H.Kita, R.Patel, and C.S.David (2006).
Intranasal exposure to bacterial superantigens induces airway inflammation in HLA class II transgenic mice.
  Infect Immun, 74, 1284-1296.  
16721274 G.Rajagopalan, M.M.Sen, M.Singh, N.S.Murali, K.A.Nath, K.Iijima, H.Kita, A.A.Leontovich, U.Gopinathan, R.Patel, and C.S.David (2006).
Intranasal exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin B elicits an acute systemic inflammatory response.
  Shock, 25, 647-656.  
16551242 J.L.Strominger, and J.L.Strominger (2006).
The tortuous journey of a biochemist to immunoland and what he found there.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 24, 1.  
16829512 M.M.Fernández, R.Guan, C.P.Swaminathan, E.L.Malchiodi, and R.A.Mariuzza (2006).
Crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin I (SEI) in complex with a human major histocompatibility complex class II molecule.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 25356-25364.
PDB code: 2g9h
16113251 D.D.Pless, G.Ruthel, E.K.Reinke, R.G.Ulrich, and S.Bavari (2005).
Persistence of zinc-binding bacterial superantigens at the surface of antigen-presenting cells contributes to the extreme potency of these superantigens as T-cell activators.
  Infect Immun, 73, 5358-5366.  
16260763 H.Li, S.Van Vranken, Y.Zhao, Z.Li, Y.Guo, L.Eisele, and Y.Li (2005).
Crystal structures of T cell receptor (beta) chains related to rheumatoid arthritis.
  Protein Sci, 14, 3025-3038.
PDB codes: 2axh 2axj
16013435 J.D.Hayball, and R.A.Lake (2005).
The immune function of MHC class II molecules mutated in the putative superdimer interface.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 273, 1-9.  
16237645 M.Llewelyn (2005).
Human leukocyte antigen class II haplotypes that protect against or predispose to streptococcal toxic shock.
  Clin Infect Dis, 41, S445-S448.  
15459942 M.Möllhoff, H.B.Zanden, P.R.Shiflett, and G.Gupta (2005).
Modeling of receptor mimics that inhibit superantigen pathogenesis.
  J Mol Recognit, 18, 73-83.  
15935880 N.J.Mantis (2005).
Vaccines against the category B toxins: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, epsilon toxin and ricin.
  Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 57, 1424-1439.  
14559915 A.C.Papageorgiou, M.D.Baker, J.D.McLeod, S.K.Goda, C.N.Manzotti, D.M.Sansom, H.S.Tranter, and K.R.Acharya (2004).
Identification of a secondary zinc-binding site in staphylococcal enterotoxin C2. Implications for superantigen recognition.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 1297-1303.
PDB code: 1uns
15213171 A.M.Al-Shangiti, C.E.Naylor, S.P.Nair, D.C.Briggs, B.Henderson, and B.M.Chain (2004).
Structural relationships and cellular tropism of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins.
  Infect Immun, 72, 4261-4270.
PDB codes: 1v1o 1v1p
15245378 E.Garino, M.Berrino, G.Mazzola, M.Boccadoro, B.Bruno, F.Bertinetto, L.Bertola, P.Caropreso, E.Frisaldi, F.Marin, M.L.Panniello, F.Tondat, and A.M.Dall'Omo (2004).
Identification of a new HLA-DRB1 allele in three members of an Italian family.
  Tissue Antigens, 64, 210-212.  
14604991 E.Hong-Geller, M.Möllhoff, P.R.Shiflett, and G.Gupta (2004).
Design of chimeric receptor mimics with different TcRVbeta isoforms. Type-specific inhibition of superantigen pathogenesis.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 5676-5684.  
14748001 H.D.Schafroth, and C.A.Floudas (2004).
Predicting peptide binding to MHC pockets via molecular modeling, implicit solvation, and global optimization.
  Proteins, 54, 534-556.  
15049778 K.Petersson, G.Forsberg, and B.Walse (2004).
Interplay between superantigens and immunoreceptors.
  Scand J Immunol, 59, 345-355.  
15295110 M.D.Baker, I.Gendlina, C.M.Collins, and K.R.Acharya (2004).
Crystal structure of a dimeric form of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1).
  Protein Sci, 13, 2285-2290.
PDB code: 1uup
15220463 N.Sutkowski, G.Chen, G.Calderon, and B.T.Huber (2004).
Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein LMP-2A is sufficient for transactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K18 superantigen.
  J Virol, 78, 7852-7860.  
14962388 Y.Zhao, Z.Li, S.J.Drozd, Y.Guo, W.Mourad, and H.Li (2004).
Crystal structure of Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen complexed with HLA-DR1 reveals a novel superantigen fold and a dimerized superantigen-MHC complex.
  Structure, 12, 277-288.
PDB code: 1r5i
12720278 E.Hong-Geller, and G.Gupta (2003).
Therapeutic approaches to superantigen-based diseases: a review.
  J Mol Recognit, 16, 91.  
12962633 E.J.Sundberg, P.S.Andersen, P.M.Schlievert, K.Karjalainen, and R.A.Mariuzza (2003).
Structural, energetic, and functional analysis of a protein-protein interface at distinct stages of affinity maturation.
  Structure, 11, 1151-1161.
PDB codes: 1jwm 1jws 1jwu
12622814 T.Miyoshi-Akiyama, J.Zhao, H.Kato, K.Kikuchi, K.Totsuka, Y.Kataoka, M.Katsumi, and T.Uchiyama (2003).
Streptococcus dysgalactiae-derived mitogen (SDM), a novel bacterial superantigen: characterization of its biological activity and predicted tertiary structure.
  Mol Microbiol, 47, 1589-1599.  
12799428 W.G.Purschke, F.Radtke, F.Kleinjung, and S.Klussmann (2003).
A DNA Spiegelmer to staphylococcal enterotoxin B.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 3027-3032.  
12473669 W.Swietnicki, A.M.Barnie, B.K.Dyas, and R.G.Ulrich (2003).
Zinc binding and dimerization of Streptococcus pyogenes pyrogenic exotoxin C are not essential for T-cell stimulation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 9885-9895.  
11790531 E.J.Sundberg, Y.Li, and R.A.Mariuzza (2002).
So many ways of getting in the way: diversity in the molecular architecture of superantigen-dependent T-cell signaling complexes.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 14, 36-44.  
12190925 E.R.Unanue (2002).
Perspective on antigen processing and presentation.
  Immunol Rev, 185, 86.  
11847286 H.I.Krupka, B.W.Segelke, R.G.Ulrich, S.Ringhofer, M.Knapp, and B.Rupp (2002).
Structural basis for abrogated binding between staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen vaccine and MHC-IIalpha.
  Protein Sci, 11, 642-651.
PDB code: 1dyq
11972634 H.Pettersson, and G.Forsberg (2002).
Staphylococcal enterotoxin H contrasts closely related enterotoxins in species reactivity.
  Immunology, 106, 71-79.  
11988465 M.G.Rudolph, J.G.Luz, and I.A.Wilson (2002).
Structural and thermodynamic correlates of T cell signaling.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 31, 121-149.  
11944185 M.Llewelyn, and J.Cohen (2002).
Superantigens: microbial agents that corrupt immunity.
  Lancet Infect Dis, 2, 156-162.  
11864610 M.M.Mullen, K.M.Haan, R.Longnecker, and T.S.Jardetzky (2002).
Structure of the Epstein-Barr virus gp42 protein bound to the MHC class II receptor HLA-DR1.
  Mol Cell, 9, 375-385.
PDB code: 1kg0
12010576 P.E.Adrian, G.Rajaseger, V.S.Mathura, M.K.Sakharkar, and P.Kangueane (2002).
Types of inter-atomic interactions at the MHC-peptide interface: identifying commonality from accumulated data.
  BMC Struct Biol, 2, 2.  
11790535 R.König (2002).
Interactions between MHC molecules and co-receptors of the TCR.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 14, 75-83.  
12082105 V.L.Arcus, R.Langley, T.Proft, J.D.Fraser, and E.N.Baker (2002).
The Three-dimensional structure of a superantigen-like protein, SET3, from a pathogenicity island of the Staphylococcus aureus genome.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 32274-32281.
PDB code: 1m4v
11934896 Y.I.Chi, I.Sadler, L.M.Jablonski, S.D.Callantine, C.F.Deobald, C.V.Stauffacher, and G.A.Bohach (2002).
Zinc-mediated dimerization and its effect on activity and conformation of staphylococcal enterotoxin type C.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 22839-22846.
PDB code: 1ck1
11526318 D.Kumaran, S.Eswaramoorthy, W.Furey, M.Sax, and S.Swaminathan (2001).
Structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 at various pH levels.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 1270-1275.
PDB codes: 1cqv 1i4p 1i4q 1i4r 1i4x
11580857 H.A.Elsner, K.Kotsch, and R.Blasczyk (2001).
Identification of the novel allele HLA-DRB1*1137 which probably originated from DRB1*11011: implications for mismatch with its ancestor allele at bone marrow transplantation.
  Tissue Antigens, 58, 47-49.  
11544350 J.K.McCormick, J.M.Yarwood, and P.M.Schlievert (2001).
Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: an update.
  Annu Rev Microbiol, 55, 77.  
11432818 K.Petersson, M.Håkansson, H.Nilsson, G.Forsberg, L.A.Svensson, A.Liljas, and B.Walse (2001).
Crystal structure of a superantigen bound to MHC class II displays zinc and peptide dependence.
  EMBO J, 20, 3306-3312.
PDB code: 1hxy
11159981 K.Visvanathan, A.Charles, J.Bannan, P.Pugach, K.Kashfi, and J.B.Zabriskie (2001).
Inhibition of bacterial superantigens by peptides and antibodies.
  Infect Immun, 69, 875-884.  
11369867 M.Baker, D.M.Gutman, A.C.Papageorgiou, C.M.Collins, and K.R.Acharya (2001).
Structural features of a zinc binding site in the superantigen strepococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1): implications for MHC class II recognition.
  Protein Sci, 10, 1268-1273.
PDB code: 1ha5
11119525 P.M.Orwin, D.Y.Leung, H.L.Donahue, R.P.Novick, and P.M.Schlievert (2001).
Biochemical and biological properties of Staphylococcal enterotoxin K.
  Infect Immun, 69, 360-366.  
  11890612 S.Casares, C.A.Bona, and T.D.Brumeanu (2001).
Modulation of CD4 T cell function by soluble MHC II-peptide chimeras.
  Int Rev Immunol, 20, 547-573.  
10920396 A.C.Papageorgiou, and K.R.Acharya (2000).
Microbial superantigens: from structure to function.
  Trends Microbiol, 8, 369-375.  
11093128 A.Piani, J.P.Hossle, T.Birchler, C.A.Siegrist, D.Heumann, G.Davies, S.Loeliger, R.Seger, and R.P.Lauener (2000).
Expression of MHC class II molecules contributes to lipopolysaccharide responsiveness.
  Eur J Immunol, 30, 3140-3146.  
10873861 F.A.Saul, P.Rovira, G.Boulot, E.J.Damme, W.J.Peumans, P.Truffa-Bachi, and G.A.Bentley (2000).
Crystal structure of Urtica dioica agglutinin, a superantigen presented by MHC molecules of class I and class II.
  Structure, 8, 593-603.
PDB codes: 1eis 1en2 1enm
10651924 J.D.Hayball, and R.A.Lake (2000).
Partial T cell activation with an altered superantigenic ligand.
  Immunol Cell Biol, 78, 13-19.  
10816471 L.T.Pang, W.W.Kum, and A.W.Chow (2000).
Inhibition of staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lymphocyte proliferation and tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by MAb5, an anti-toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 monoclonal antibody.
  Infect Immun, 68, 3261-3268.  
10627489 M.M.Dinges, P.M.Orwin, and P.M.Schlievert (2000).
Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Clin Microbiol Rev, 13, 16.  
11070170 R.C.Doebele, R.Busch, H.M.Scott, A.Pashine, and E.D.Mellins (2000).
Determination of the HLA-DM interaction site on HLA-DR molecules.
  Immunity, 13, 517-527.  
10929053 Y.Huang, S.T.Ildstad, M.Neipp, and H.Shirwan (2000).
Mouse xenoantigens contribute to rat T-cell Vbeta repertoire generation in mixed xenogeneic bone marrow chimeras.
  Immunology, 100, 317-325.  
9878045 A.C.Papageorgiou, C.M.Collins, D.M.Gutman, J.B.Kline, S.M.O'Brien, H.S.Tranter, and K.R.Acharya (1999).
Structural basis for the recognition of superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1) by MHC class II molecules and T-cell receptors.
  EMBO J, 18, 9.
PDB code: 1b1z
10358765 H.Li, A.Llera, E.L.Malchiodi, and R.A.Mariuzza (1999).
The structural basis of T cell activation by superantigens.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 17, 435-466.  
10358763 K.C.Garcia, L.Teyton, and I.A.Wilson (1999).
Structural basis of T cell recognition.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 17, 369-397.  
10607669 K.Maenaka, and E.Y.Jones (1999).
MHC superfamily structure and the immune system.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 745-753.  
  10446108 P.C.Stokkers, P.H.Reitsma, G.N.Tytgat, and S.J.van Deventer (1999).
HLA-DR and -DQ phenotypes in inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis.
  Gut, 45, 395-401.  
10399079 P.M.Lavoie, J.Thibodeau, F.Erard, and R.P.Sékaly (1999).
Understanding the mechanism of action of bacterial superantigens from a decade of research.
  Immunol Rev, 168, 257-269.  
10359111 P.Rovira, M.Buckle, J.P.Abastado, W.J.Peumans, and P.Truffa-Bachi (1999).
Major histocompatibility class I molecules present Urtica dioica agglutinin, a superantigen of vegetal origin, to T lymphocytes.
  Eur J Immunol, 29, 1571-1580.  
10229190 P.S.Andersen, P.M.Lavoie, R.P.Sékaly, H.Churchill, D.M.Kranz, P.M.Schlievert, K.Karjalainen, and R.A.Mariuzza (1999).
Role of the T cell receptor alpha chain in stabilizing TCR-superantigen-MHC class II complexes.
  Immunity, 10, 473-483.  
  10417141 S.Esin, G.Batoni, G.Saruhan-Direskeneli, R.A.Harris, J.Grunewald, M.Pardini, S.B.Svenson, M.Campa, and H.Wigzell (1999).
In vitro expansion of T-cell-receptor Valpha2.3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes in HLA-DR17(3), DQ2(+) individuals upon stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  Infect Immun, 67, 3800-3809.  
  10614742 S.Macphail (1999).
Superantigens: mechanisms by which they may induce, exacerbate and control autoimmune diseases.
  Int Rev Immunol, 18, 141-180.  
10580640 T.Krakauer (1999).
Immune response to staphylococcal superantigens.
  Immunol Res, 20, 163-173.  
  10085033 W.Mahana (1999).
Mapping of staphylococcal enterotoxin A functional binding sites and presentation by monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins.
  Infect Immun, 67, 1894-1900.  
10406939 Y.Ito, G.Seprényi, J.Abe, and T.Kohsaka (1999).
Analysis of functional regions of YPM, a superantigen derived from gram-negative bacteria.
  Eur J Biochem, 263, 326-337.  
  10569782 Z.Yan, D.C.Yang, R.Neill, and M.Jett (1999).
Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in human T lymphocytes by staphylococcal enterotoxin B correlates with toxin-induced proliferation and is regulated through protein kinase C.
  Infect Immun, 67, 6611-6618.  
9661055 A.A.Beharka, J.W.Armstrong, S.K.Chapes, S.K.Chapes, and B.S.Spooner (1998).
Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.
  In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim, 34, 499-507.  
10837622 B.Persson, R.Persson, L.M.Weiner, and R.K.Alpaugh (1998).
Overview of clinical trials employing antibody-targeted superantigens.
  Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 31, 143-152.  
9585531 C.A.Earhart, D.T.Mitchell, D.L.Murray, D.M.Pinheiro, M.Matsumura, P.M.Schlievert, and D.H.Ohlendorf (1998).
Structures of five mutants of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 with reduced biological activity.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7194-7202.
PDB codes: 1aw7 1ts2 1ts3 1ts4 1ts5
9432983 C.Ciurli, D.N.Posnett, R.P.Sékaly, and F.Denis (1998).
Highly biased CDR3 usage in restricted sets of beta chain variable regions during viral superantigen 9 response.
  J Exp Med, 187, 253-258.  
9741336 C.Garcia, C.Briggs, L.Zhang, L.Guan, J.L.Gabriel, and T.J.Rogers (1998).
Molecular characterization of the putative T-cell receptor cavity of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B.
  Immunology, 94, 160-166.  
9759354 D.Gerlier, M.C.Trescol-Biémont, L.Ettouati, J.Paris, and C.Rabourdin-Combe (1998).
An accessory peptide binding site with allosteric effect on the formation of peptide-MHC-II complexes?
  C R Acad Sci III, 321, 19-24.  
9881971 H.Li, A.Llera, D.Tsuchiya, L.Leder, X.Ysern, P.M.Schlievert, K.Karjalainen, and R.A.Mariuzza (1998).
Three-dimensional structure of the complex between a T cell receptor beta chain and the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B.
  Immunity, 9, 807-816.
PDB code: 1sbb
9700510 H.Li, A.Llera, and R.A.Mariuzza (1998).
Structure-function studies of T-cell receptor-superantigen interactions.
  Immunol Rev, 163, 177-186.  
9523114 I.A.Wilson, and P.J.Bjorkman (1998).
Unusual MHC-like molecules: CD1, Fc receptor, the hemochromatosis gene product, and viral homologs.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 10, 67-73.  
9846574 J.Desbarats, R.C.Duke, and M.K.Newell (1998).
Newly discovered role for Fas ligand in the cell-cycle arrest of CD4+ T cells.
  Nat Med, 4, 1377-1382.  
  9746612 J.Yamaoka, E.Nakamura, Y.Takeda, S.Imamura, and N.Minato (1998).
Mutational analysis of superantigen activity responsible for the induction of skin erythema by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C.
  Infect Immun, 66, 5020-5026.  
9500785 L.Leder, A.Llera, P.M.Lavoie, M.I.Lebedeva, H.Li, R.P.Sékaly, G.A.Bohach, P.J.Gahr, P.M.Schlievert, K.Karjalainen, and R.A.Mariuzza (1998).
A mutational analysis of the binding of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C3 to the T cell receptor beta chain and major histocompatibility complex class II.
  J Exp Med, 187, 823-833.  
9768757 L.Mosyak, D.M.Zaller, and D.C.Wiley (1998).
The structure of HLA-DM, the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation.
  Immunity, 9, 377-383.
PDB code: 1hdm
9860852 L.Schmitt, J.J.Boniface, M.M.Davis, and H.M.McConnell (1998).
Kinetic isomers of a class II MHC-peptide complex.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17371-17380.  
10837621 M.Dohlsten, T.Kalland, P.Gunnarsson, P.Antonsson, A.Molander, J.Olsson, R.d'Argy, L.Ohlsson, M.Soegaard, R.Persson, and T.N.Brodin (1998).
Man-made superantigens: Tumor-selective agents for T-cell-based therapy.
  Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 31, 131-142.  
10066470 M.Kotb (1998).
Superantigens of gram-positive bacteria: structure-function analyses and their implications for biological activity.
  Curr Opin Microbiol, 1, 56-65.  
9597140 M.M.Davis, J.J.Boniface, Z.Reich, D.Lyons, J.Hampl, B.Arden, and Y.Chien (1998).
Ligand recognition by alpha beta T cell receptors.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 16, 523-544.  
  9453611 W.A.Ferens, W.C.Davis, M.J.Hamilton, Y.H.Park, C.F.Deobald, L.Fox, and G.Bohach (1998).
Activation of bovine lymphocyte subpopulations by staphylococcal enterotoxin C.
  Infect Immun, 66, 573-580.  
9824494 W.Huang, and L.D.Koller (1998).
Superantigen activation and kinetics of cytokines in the Long-Evans rat.
  Immunology, 95, 331-338.  
9309216 A.C.Papageorgiou, and K.R.Acharya (1997).
Superantigens as immunomodulators: recent structural insights.
  Structure, 5, 991-996.  
9012438 A.C.Wood, J.S.Chadwick, R.S.Brehm, I.Todd, J.P.Arbuthnott, and H.S.Tranter (1997).
Identification of antigenic sites on staphylococcal enterotoxin B and toxoid.
  FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 17, 1.  
9354468 A.Dessen, C.M.Lawrence, S.Cupo, D.M.Zaller, and D.C.Wiley (1997).
X-ray crystal structure of HLA-DR4 (DRA*0101, DRB1*0401) complexed with a peptide from human collagen II.
  Immunity, 7, 473-481.
PDB code: 2seb
9126925 A.R.Hamad, P.Marrack, and J.W.Kappler (1997).
Transcytosis of staphylococcal superantigen toxins.
  J Exp Med, 185, 1447-1454.  
  9393804 A.Rosendahl, J.Hansson, P.Antonsson, R.P.Sékaly, T.Kalland, and M.Dohlsten (1997).
A mutation of F47 to A in staphylococcus enterotoxin A activates the T-cell receptor Vbeta repertoire in vivo.
  Infect Immun, 65, 5118-5124.  
9253413 A.Roussel, B.F.Anderson, H.M.Baker, J.D.Fraser, and E.N.Baker (1997).
Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SPE-C: dimerization and zinc binding suggest a novel mode of interaction with MHC class II molecules.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 635-643.
PDB code: 1an8
  9317026 B.C.Cole, A.D.Sawitzke, E.A.Ahmed, C.L.Atkin, and C.S.David (1997).
Allelic polymorphisms at the H-2A and HLA-DQ loci influence the response of murine lymphocytes to the Mycoplasma arthritidis superantigen MAM.
  Infect Immun, 65, 4190-4198.  
  9169724 C.Bernatchez, R.Al-Daccak, P.E.Mayer, K.Mehindate, L.Rink, S.Mecheri, and W.Mourad (1997).
Functional analysis of Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen interactions with class II molecules.
  Infect Immun, 65, 2000-2005.  
9389315 E.Pareja, R.Tobes, J.Martín, and A.Nieto (1997).
The tetramer model: a new view of class II MHC molecules in antigenic presentation to T cells.
  Tissue Antigens, 50, 421-428.  
9039781 E.S.Ward, and A.Qadri (1997).
Biophysical and structural studies of TCRs and ligands: implications for T cell signaling.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 9, 97.  
9039778 E.Y.Jones (1997).
MHC class I and class II structures.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 9, 75-79.  
9434905 I.A.Wilson, and K.C.Garcia (1997).
T-cell receptor structure and TCR complexes.
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9109426 J.Abe, M.Onimaru, S.Matsumoto, S.Noma, K.Baba, Y.Ito, T.Kohsaka, and T.Takeda (1997).
Clinical role for a superantigen in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.
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9238041 J.D.Rabinowitz, K.Tate, C.Lee, C.Beeson, and H.M.McConnell (1997).
Specific T cell recognition of kinetic isomers in the binding of peptide to class II major histocompatibility complex.
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9122222 J.Hansson, L.Ohlsson, R.Persson, G.Andersson, N.G.Ilbäck, M.J.Litton, T.Kalland, and M.Dohlsten (1997).
Genetically engineered superantigens as tolerable antitumor agents.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 2489-2494.  
  9317006 J.R.Deringer, R.J.Ely, S.R.Monday, C.V.Stauffacher, and G.A.Bohach (1997).
Vbeta-dependent stimulation of bovine and human T cells by host-specific staphylococcal enterotoxins.
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9316393 M.A.Batalia, and E.J.Collins (1997).
Peptide binding by class I and class II MHC molecules.
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9770652 M.A.Olson, and L.Cuff (1997).
Molecular docking of superantigens with class II major histocompatibility complex proteins.
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9008164 M.Bycroft, T.J.Hubbard, M.Proctor, S.M.Freund, and A.G.Murzin (1997).
The solution structure of the S1 RNA binding domain: a member of an ancient nucleic acid-binding fold.
  Cell, 88, 235-242.
PDB code: 1sro
9075934 O.Mandelboim, H.T.Reyburn, E.G.Sheu, M.Vales-Gomez, D.M.Davis, L.Pazmany, and J.L.Strominger (1997).
The binding site of NK receptors on HLA-C molecules.
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9316394 P.E.Jensen (1997).
Peptide binding and antigen presentation by class II histocompatibility glycoproteins.
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9236189 P.L.Li, R.E.Tiedemann, S.L.Moffat, and J.D.Fraser (1997).
The superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SPE-C) exhibits a novel mode of action.
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9192662 P.M.Lavoie, J.Thibodeau, I.Cloutier, R.Busch, and R.P.Sékaly (1997).
Selective binding of bacterial toxins to major histocompatibility complex class II-expressing cells is controlled by invariant chain and HLA-DM.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 6892-6897.  
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B cell superantigens: potential modifiers of the normal human B cell repertoire.
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9079821 R.Wen, D.R.Broussard, S.Surman, T.L.Hogg, M.A.Blackman, and D.L.Woodland (1997).
Carboxy-terminal residues of major histocompatibility complex class II-associated peptides control the presentation of the bacterial superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 to T cells.
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9046437 S.M.Weenink, and A.M.Gautam (1997).
Antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules.
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9169491 S.W.Dow, and T.A.Potter (1997).
Expression of bacterial superantigen genes in mice induces localized mononuclear cell inflammatory responses.
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9351812 V.L.Murthy, and L.J.Stern (1997).
The class II MHC protein HLA-DR1 in complex with an endogenous peptide: implications for the structural basis of the specificity of peptide binding.
  Structure, 5, 1385-1396.
PDB code: 1aqd
  9169773 V.M.Edwards, J.R.Deringer, S.D.Callantine, C.F.Deobald, P.H.Berger, V.Kapur, C.V.Stauffacher, and G.A.Bohach (1997).
Characterization of the canine type C enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus intermedius pyoderma isolates.
  Infect Immun, 65, 2346-2352.  
9295029 X.Zhu, S.Bavari, R.Ulrich, S.Sadegh-Nasseri, S.Ferrone, L.McHugh, and M.Mage (1997).
A recombinant single-chain human class II MHC molecule (HLA-DR1) as a covalently linked heterotrimer of alpha chain, beta chain, and antigenic peptide, with immunogenicity in vitro and reduced affinity for bacterial superantigens.
  Eur J Immunol, 27, 1933-1941.  
9022003 Y.Bravo de Alba, P.N.Marche, P.A.Cazenave, I.Cloutier, R.P.Sekaly, and J.Thibodeau (1997).
V alpha domain modulates the multiple topologies of mouse T cell receptor V beta20/staphylococcal enterotoxins A and E complexes.
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8610164 A.C.Häffner, K.Zepter, and C.A.Elmets (1996).
Major histocompatibility complex class I molecule serves as a ligand for presentation of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B to T cells.
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8642252 B.C.Cole, K.L.Knudtson, A.Oliphant, A.D.Sawitzke, A.Pole, M.Manohar, L.S.Benson, E.Ahmed, and C.L.Atkin (1996).
The sequence of the Mycoplasma arthritidis superantigen, MAM: identification of functional domains and comparison with microbial superantigens and plant lectin mitogens.
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Virus-encoded superantigens.
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8729452 D.H.Fremont, W.A.Rees, and H.Kozono (1996).
Biophysical studies of T-cell receptors and their ligands.
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8879196 D.Plaksin, S.Chacko, P.McPhie, A.Bax, E.A.Padlan, and D.H.Margulies (1996).
A T cell receptor V alpha domain expressed in bacteria: does it dimerize in solution?
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  8557329 F.Huang, E.Hermann, J.Wang, X.K.Cheng, W.C.Tsai, J.Wen, J.G.Kuipers, H.Kellner, B.Ackermann, G.Roth, K.M.Williams, D.K.Yu, and R.B.Raybourne (1996).
A patient-derived cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone and two peptide-dependent monoclonal antibodies recognize HLA-B27-peptide complexes with low stringency for peptide sequences.
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8717525 G.A.Bentley, and R.A.Mariuzza (1996).
The structure of the T cell antigen receptor.
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Analysis of the superantigenic activity of mutant and allelic forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A.
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8966662 J.D.Ohmen, and R.L.Modlin (1996).
Evidence for a superantigen in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.
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8814249 K.Mehindate, R.al-Daccak, F.Damdoumi, and W.Mourad (1996).
Synergistic effect between CD40 and class II signals overcome the requirement for class II dimerization in superantigen-induced cytokine gene expression.
  Eur J Immunol, 26, 2075-2080.  
8879218 L.Liao, A.Marinescu, A.Molano, C.Ciurli, R.P.Sekaly, J.D.Fraser, A.Popowicz, and D.N.Posnett (1996).
TCR binding differs for a bacterial superantigen (SEE) and a viral superantigen (Mtv-9).
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8839779 M.A.Blackman, and D.L.Woodland (1996).
Role of the T cell receptor alpha-chain in superantigen recognition.
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8643447 M.Bouvier, and D.C.Wiley (1996).
Antigenic peptides containing large PEG loops designed to extend out of the HLA-A2 binding site form stable complexes with class I major histocompatibility complex molecules.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 4583-4588.  
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Biochemical and mutational analysis of the histidine residues of staphylococcal enterotoxin A.
  Infect Immun, 64, 885-890.  
9373308 M.Søgaard, J.Hansson, M.J.Litton, L.Ohlsson, A.Rosendahl, P.A.Lando, P.Antonsson, T.Kalland, and M.Dohlsten (1996).
Antibody-targeted superantigens in cancer immunotherapy.
  Immunotechnology, 2, 151-162.  
8943278 M.Sundström, D.Hallén, A.Svensson, E.Schad, M.Dohlsten, and L.Abrahmsén (1996).
The Co-crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin type A with Zn2+ at 2.7 A resolution. Implications for major histocompatibility complex class II binding.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 32212-32216.
PDB code: 1sxt
  9003758 M.Sundström, L.Abrahmsén, P.Antonsson, K.Mehindate, W.Mourad, and M.Dohlsten (1996).
The crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin type D reveals Zn2+-mediated homodimerization.
  EMBO J, 15, 6832-6840.  
  8819072 N.Amariglio, and G.Rechavi (1996).
Do superantigens play a role in lymphoproliferation?
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8966664 P.Antonsson, J.Hansson, T.Kalland, P.A.Lando, L.Ohlsson, E.Schad, A.Svensson, and M.Dohlsten (1996).
Genetically engineered superantigens in experimental tumor therapy.
  Springer Semin Immunopathol, 17, 397-410.  
  8940732 P.Fischer, M.M.Uttenreuther-Fischer, S.Naoe, and G.Gaedicke (1996).
Kawasaki disease: update on diagnosis, treatment, and a still controversial etiology.
  Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 13, 487-501.  
8700877 P.I.Neophytou, B.O.Roep, S.D.Arden, E.M.Muir, G.Duinkerken, A.Kallan, R.R.de Vries, and J.C.Hutton (1996).
T-cell epitope analysis using subtracted expression libraries (TEASEL): application to a 38-kDA autoantigen recognized by T cells from an insulin-dependent diabetic patient.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 2014-2018.  
8605929 P.Musette, A.Galelli, P.Truffa-Bachi, W.Peumans, P.Kourilsky, and G.Gachelin (1996).
The J beta segment of the T cell receptor contributes to the V beta-specific T cell expansion caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Urtica dioica superantigens.
  Eur J Immunol, 26, 618-622.  
  8757827 R.J.Neill, M.Jett, R.Crane, J.Wootres, C.Welch, D.Hoover, and P.Gemski (1996).
Mitogenic activities of amino acid substitution mutants of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in human and mouse lymphocyte cultures.
  Infect Immun, 64, 3007-3015.  
  8890208 R.Vabulas, R.Bittlingmaier, K.Heeg, H.Wagner, and T.Miethke (1996).
Rapid clearance of the bacterial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B in vivo.
  Infect Immun, 64, 4567-4573.  
8642250 R.Wen, G.A.Cole, S.Surman, M.A.Blackman, and D.L.Woodland (1996).
Major histocompatibility complex class II-associated peptides control the presentation of bacterial superantigens to T cells.
  J Exp Med, 183, 1083-1092.  
8984679 S.Brocke, C.Piercy, and L.Steinman (1996).
Superantigens in demyelinating disease.
  Springer Semin Immunopathol, 18, 51-56.  
8666902 S.C.Hong, G.Waterbury, and C.A.Janeway (1996).
Different superantigens interact with distinct sites in the Vbeta domain of a single T cell receptor.
  J Exp Med, 183, 1437-1446.  
8642290 S.M.Tompkins, J.C.Moore, and P.E.Jensen (1996).
An insulin peptide that binds an alternative site in class II major histocompatibility complex.
  J Exp Med, 183, 857-866.  
8570625 T.S.Jardetzky, J.H.Brown, J.C.Gorga, L.J.Stern, R.G.Urban, J.L.Strominger, and D.C.Wiley (1996).
Crystallographic analysis of endogenous peptides associated with HLA-DR1 suggests a common, polyproline II-like conformation for bound peptides.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 734-738.  
7603985 A.A.Beharka, J.J.Iandolo, S.K.Chapes, and B.S.Spooner (1995).
Staphylococcal enterotoxins bind H-2Db molecules on macrophages.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 6294-6298.  
7589089 A.von Bonin, S.Ehrlich, G.Malcherek, and B.Fleischer (1995).
Major histocompatibility complex class II-associated peptides determine the binding of the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.
  Eur J Immunol, 25, 2894-2898.  
  8770351 B.Fazekas de St Groth (1995).
Regulation of the immune response--lessons from transgenic models.
  Aust N Z J Med, 25, 761-767.  
7544393 C.A.Fargeas, A.Truneh, M.Reddy, M.Hurle, R.Sweet, and R.P.Sékaly (1995).
Identification of residues in the V domain of CD80 (B7-1) implicated in functional interactions with CD28 and CTLA4.
  J Exp Med, 182, 667-675.  
  7534228 C.D.Katayama, F.J.Eidelman, A.Duncan, F.Hooshmand, and S.M.Hedrick (1995).
Predicted complementarity determining regions of the T cell antigen receptor determine antigen specificity.
  EMBO J, 14, 927-938.  
7561341 C.E.Pucillo, L.D.Palmer, and R.J.Hodes (1995).
Superantigenic characteristics of mouse mammary tumor viruses play a critical role in susceptibility to infection in mice.
  Immunol Res, 14, 58-68.  
8582251 C.Ferlini, R.Biselli, R.Nisini, and A.Fattorossi (1995).
Rhodamine 123: a useful probe for monitoring T cell activation.
  Cytometry, 21, 284-293.  
  7768593 C.M.Cullen, L.R.Blanco, P.F.Bonventre, and E.Choi (1995).
A toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 mutant that defines a functional site critical for T-cell activation.
  Infect Immun, 63, 2141-2146.  
7895171 D.G.Mottershead, P.N.Hsu, R.G.Urban, J.L.Strominger, and B.T.Huber (1995).
Direct binding of the Mtv7 superantigen (Mls-1) to soluble MHC class II molecules.
  Immunity, 2, 149-154.  
  7628431 E.M.Schad, I.Zaitseva, V.N.Zaitsev, M.Dohlsten, T.Kalland, P.M.Schlievert, D.H.Ohlendorf, and L.A.Svensson (1995).
Crystal structure of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin type A.
  EMBO J, 14, 3292-3301.
PDB code: 1esf
  7797015 F.Gantner, M.Leist, S.Jilg, P.G.Germann, M.A.Freudenberg, and G.Tiegs (1995).
Tumor necrosis factor-induced hepatic DNA fragmentation as an early marker of T cell-dependent liver injury in mice.
  Gastroenterology, 109, 166-176.  
7759540 F.Niedergang, A.Hémar, C.R.Hewitt, M.J.Owen, A.Dautry-Varsat, and A.Alcover (1995).
The Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B superantigen induces specific T cell receptor down-regulation by increasing its internalization.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 12839-12845.  
7648392 H.Kozono, D.Parker, J.White, P.Marrack, and J.Kappler (1995).
Multiple binding sites for bacterial superantigens on soluble class II MHC molecules.
  Immunity, 3, 187-196.  
7667286 H.Kropshofer, A.B.Vogt, and G.J.Hämmerling (1995).
Structural features of the invariant chain fragment CLIP controlling rapid release from HLA-DR molecules and inhibition of peptide binding.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 8313-8317.  
7772287 I.Stroynowski, and J.Forman (1995).
Novel molecules related to MHC antigens.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 7, 97.  
  8528069 J.C.Almagro, E.Vargas-Madrazo, F.Lara-Ochoa, and E.Horjales (1995).
Molecular modeling of a T-cell receptor bound to a major histocompatibility complex molecule: implications for T-cell recognition.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1708-1717.  
  7662172 J.D.Hayball, R.E.O'Hehir, J.R.Lamb, and R.A.Lake (1995).
The domain structure and functional relationships in the bacterial superantigen, SEB.
  Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler, 376, 303-309.  
7477341 J.E.Gumperz, and P.Parham (1995).
The enigma of the natural killer cell.
  Nature, 378, 245-248.  
7760008 J.M.Hurley, R.Shimonkevitz, A.Hanagan, K.Enney, E.Boen, S.Malmstrom, B.L.Kotzin, and M.Matsumura (1995).
Identification of class II major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor binding sites in the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.
  J Exp Med, 181, 2229-2235.  
7545162 K.Jönsson, D.McDevitt, M.H.McGavin, J.M.Patti, and M.Höök (1995).
Staphylococcus aureus expresses a major histocompatibility complex class II analog.
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7595227 K.Mehindate, J.Thibodeau, M.Dohlsten, T.Kalland, R.P.Sékaly, and W.Mourad (1995).
Cross-linking of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a requirement for inflammatory cytokine gene expression.
  J Exp Med, 182, 1573-1577.  
7650479 K.R.Hudson, R.E.Tiedemann, R.G.Urban, S.C.Lowe, J.L.Strominger, and J.D.Fraser (1995).
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A has two cooperative binding sites on major histocompatibility complex class II.
  J Exp Med, 182, 711-720.  
  7542584 L.Abrahmsén, M.Dohlsten, S.Segrén, P.Björk, E.Jonsson, and T.Kalland (1995).
Characterization of two distinct MHC class II binding sites in the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A.
  EMBO J, 14, 2978-2986.  
8528762 L.Abrahmsén (1995).
Superantigen engineering.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 464-470.  
  7553574 M.Kotb (1995).
Bacterial pyrogenic exotoxins as superantigens.
  Clin Microbiol Rev, 8, 411-426.  
7477400 P.Ghosh, M.Amaya, E.Mellins, and D.C.Wiley (1995).
The structure of an intermediate in class II MHC maturation: CLIP bound to HLA-DR3.
  Nature, 378, 457-462.
PDB code: 1a6a
7780728 P.N.Hsu, and B.T.Huber (1995).
Superantigens. Gazing into the crystal ball.
  Curr Biol, 5, 235-237.  
8566035 R.E.Hargreaves, R.D.Brehm, H.Tranter, A.N.Warrens, G.Lombardi, and R.I.Lechler (1995).
Definition of sites on HLA-DR1 involved in the T cell response to staphylococcal enterotoxins E and C2.
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8618863 R.E.Tiedemann, R.J.Urban, J.L.Strominger, and J.D.Fraser (1995).
Isolation of HLA-DR1.(staphylococcal enterotoxin A)2 trimers in solution.
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7664123 R.G.Ulrich, S.Bavari, and M.A.Olson (1995).
Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B share a common structural motif for binding class II major histocompatibility complex molecules.
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8800837 R.G.Ulrich, S.Bavari, and M.A.Olson (1995).
Bacterial superantigens in human disease: structure, function and diversity.
  Trends Microbiol, 3, 463-468.  
  7822006 S.Bavari, and R.G.Ulrich (1995).
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and toxic shock syndrome toxin compete with CD4 for human major histocompatibility complex class II binding.
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7479981 S.J.Park, S.Sadegh-Nasseri, and D.C.Wiley (1995).
Invariant chain made in Escherichia coli has an exposed N-terminal segment that blocks antigen binding to HLA-DR1 and a trimeric C-terminal segment that binds empty HLA-DR1.
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7552730 S.Swaminathan, W.Furey, J.Pletcher, and M.Sax (1995).
Residues defining V beta specificity in staphylococcal enterotoxins.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 680-686.
PDB codes: 1se2 1se3 1se4 1sea 1see
  7768592 T.O.Harris, and M.J.Betley (1995).
Biological activities of staphylococcal enterotoxin type A mutants with N-terminal substitutions.
  Infect Immun, 63, 2133-2140.  
  7622202 W.Mahana, R.al-Daccak, C.Lévéillé, J.P.Valet, J.Hébert, M.Ouellette, and W.Mourad (1995).
A natural mutation of the amino acid residue at position 60 destroys staphylococcal enterotoxin A murine T-cell mitogenicity.
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8566033 Y.Bravo de Alba, P.A.Cazenave, and P.N.Marche (1995).
Bacterial superantigen specificities of mouse T cell receptor V beta 20.
  Eur J Immunol, 25, 3425-3430.  
7964468 A.M.Deckhut, Y.Chien, M.A.Blackman, and D.L.Woodland (1994).
Evidence for a functional interaction between the beta chain of major histocompatibility complex class II and the T cell receptor alpha chain during recognition of a bacterial superantigen.
  J Exp Med, 180, 1931-1935.  
8078904 J.Kappler, J.White, H.Kozono, J.Clements, and P.Marrack (1994).
Binding of a soluble alpha beta T-cell receptor to superantigen/major histocompatibility complex ligands.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 8462-8466.  
  7927754 J.L.Komisar, S.Small-Harris, and J.Tseng (1994).
Localization of binding sites of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a superantigen, for HLA-DR by inhibition with synthetic peptides of SEB.
  Infect Immun, 62, 4775-4780.  
8090768 K.L.Hilyard, H.Reyburn, S.Chung, J.I.Bell, and J.L.Strominger (1994).
Binding of soluble natural ligands to a soluble human T-cell receptor fragment produced in Escherichia coli.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 9057-9061.  
8090774 L.Olsson, A.Goldstein, and J.Stagsted (1994).
Regulation of receptor internalization by the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 9086-9090.  
  8039910 M.L.Hoffmann, L.M.Jablonski, K.K.Crum, S.P.Hackett, Y.I.Chi, C.V.Stauffacher, D.L.Stevens, and G.A.Bohach (1994).
Predictions of T-cell receptor- and major histocompatibility complex-binding sites on staphylococcal enterotoxin C1.
  Infect Immun, 62, 3396-3407.  
7964467 N.Labrecque, J.Thibodeau, W.Mourad, and R.P.Sékaly (1994).
T cell receptor-major histocompatibility complex class II interaction is required for the T cell response to bacterial superantigens.
  J Exp Med, 180, 1921-1929.  
7704531 O.Perisic, P.A.Webb, P.Holliger, G.Winter, and R.L.Williams (1994).
Crystal structure of a diabody, a bivalent antibody fragment.
  Structure, 2, 1217-1226.
PDB code: 1lmk
7600295 P.H.Schafer, and S.K.Pierce (1994).
Evidence for dimers of MHC class II molecules in B lymphocytes and their role in low affinity T cell responses.
  Immunity, 1, 699-707.  
7712289 P.J.Bjorkman, and W.P.Burmeister (1994).
Structures of two classes of MHC molecules elucidated: crucial differences and similarities.
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7917116 S.R.Webb, and N.R.Gascoigne (1994).
T-cell activation by superantigens.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 6, 467-475.  
7715537 U.F.Hartwig, D.Gerlach, and B.Fleischer (1994).
Major histocompatibility complex class II binding site for streptococcal pyrogenic (erythrogenic) toxin A.
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