PDBsum entry 1irk

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Transferase (phosphotransferase) PDB id
Protein chain
303 a.a. *
EMC ×2
Waters ×199
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transferase (phosphotransferase)
Title: Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the human insulin receptor
Structure: Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606
2.10Å     R-factor:   0.196     R-free:   0.232
Authors: S.R.Hubbard,L.Wei,L.Ellis,W.A.Hendrickson
Key ref: S.R.Hubbard et al. (1994). Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the human insulin receptor. Nature, 372, 746-754. PubMed id: 7997262
02-Jan-95     Release date:   27-Feb-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P06213  (INSR_HUMAN) -  Insulin receptor
1382 a.a.
303 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Receptor protein-tyrosine kinase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate
+ [protein]-L-tyrosine
+ [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   1 term 
  Biological process     transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups     5 terms  


Nature 372:746-754 (1994)
PubMed id: 7997262  
Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the human insulin receptor.
S.R.Hubbard, L.Wei, L.Ellis, W.A.Hendrickson.
The X-ray crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the human insulin receptor has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing and refined to 2.1 A resolution. The structure reveals the determinants of substrate preference for tyrosine rather than serine or threonine and a novel autoinhibition mechanism whereby one of the tyrosines that is autophosphorylated in response to insulin, Tyr 1,162, is bound in the active site.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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Crystal structure of the ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) catalytic domain.
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PDB codes: 3l9p 3lcs 3lct
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The cytoplasmic adaptor protein Dok7 activates the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK via dimerization.
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PDB code: 3ml4
20352052 H.You, W.Zhang, M.K.Jones, G.N.Gobert, J.Mulvenna, G.Rees, M.Spanevello, D.Blair, M.Duke, K.Brehm, and D.P.McManus (2010).
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Cytoskeletal components enhance the autophosphorylation of retinal insulin receptor.
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18940662 A.C.Dar, M.S.Lopez, and K.M.Shokat (2008).
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PDB codes: 3el7 3el8
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17988211 A.Taguchi, and M.F.White (2008).
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18497741 D.C.Lee, J.Zheng, Y.M.She, and Z.Jia (2008).
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PDB code: 3cio
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Crystal structures of the FAK kinase in complex with TAE226 and related bis-anilino pyrimidine inhibitors reveal a helical DFG conformation.
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PDB codes: 2jkk 2jkm 2jko 2jkq
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Small-molecule inhibition and activation-loop trans-phosphorylation of the IGF1 receptor.
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PDB code: 3d94
18278056 J.Wu, Y.D.Tseng, C.F.Xu, T.A.Neubert, M.F.White, and S.R.Hubbard (2008).
Structural and biochemical characterization of the KRLB region in insulin receptor substrate-2.
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PDB codes: 3bu3 3bu5 3bu6
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Structure of the dual enzyme Ire1 reveals the basis for catalysis and regulation in nonconventional RNA splicing.
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PDB code: 2rio
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Inhibition of autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor by a small peptide not employing an ATP-competitive mechanism.
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Refining targeted therapies in chronic myeloid leukemia: development and application of nilotinib, a step beyond imatinib.
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17910071 M.D.Jacobs, P.R.Caron, and B.J.Hare (2008).
Classifying protein kinase structures guides use of ligand-selectivity profiles to predict inactive conformations: structure of lck/imatinib complex.
  Proteins, 70, 1451-1460.
PDB code: 2pl0
18434310 N.Vajpai, A.Strauss, G.Fendrich, S.W.Cowan-Jacob, P.W.Manley, S.Grzesiek, and W.Jahnke (2008).
Solution conformations and dynamics of ABL kinase-inhibitor complexes determined by NMR substantiate the different binding modes of imatinib/nilotinib and dasatinib.
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18324780 P.R.Sheth, J.L.Hays, L.A.Elferink, and S.J.Watowich (2008).
Biochemical basis for the functional switch that regulates hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation.
  Biochemistry, 47, 4028-4038.  
18369445 S.S.Lopes, X.Yang, J.Müller, T.J.Carney, A.R.McAdow, G.J.Rauch, A.S.Jacoby, L.D.Hurst, M.Delfino-Machín, P.Haffter, R.Geisler, S.L.Johnson, A.Ward, and R.N.Kelsh (2008).
Leukocyte tyrosine kinase functions in pigment cell development.
  PLoS Genet, 4, e1000026.  
18319738 S.Y.Park, and S.E.Shoelson (2008).
When a domain is not a domain.
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18682296 W.Vainchenker, A.Dusa, and S.N.Constantinescu (2008).
JAKs in pathology: role of Janus kinases in hematopoietic malignancies and immunodeficiencies.
  Semin Cell Dev Biol, 19, 385-393.  
18215309 Z.I.Storozheva, A.T.Proshin, V.V.Sherstnev, T.P.Storozhevykh, Y.E.Senilova, N.A.Persiyantseva, V.G.Pinelis, N.A.Semenova, E.I.Zakharova, and I.A.Pomytkin (2008).
Dicholine salt of succinic acid, a neuronal insulin sensitizer, ameliorates cognitive deficits in rodent models of normal aging, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced amnesia.
  BMC Pharmacol, 8, 1.  
17318838 A.Garza-Garcia, D.S.Patel, D.Gems, and P.C.Driscoll (2007).
RILM: a web-based resource to aid comparative and functional analysis of the insulin and IGF-1 receptor family.
  Hum Mutat, 28, 660-668.  
17853901 A.Quintás-Cardama, H.Kantarjian, and J.Cortes (2007).
Flying under the radar: the new wave of BCR-ABL inhibitors.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 6, 834-848.  
17185414 A.V.Galkin, J.S.Melnick, S.Kim, T.L.Hood, N.Li, L.Li, G.Xia, R.Steensma, G.Chopiuk, J.Jiang, Y.Wan, P.Ding, Y.Liu, F.Sun, P.G.Schultz, N.S.Gray, and M.Warmuth (2007).
Identification of NVP-TAE684, a potent, selective, and efficacious inhibitor of NPM-ALK.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 270-275.  
17132625 C.Schalk-Hihi, H.C.Ma, G.T.Struble, S.Bayoumy, R.Williams, E.Devine, I.P.Petrounia, T.Mezzasalma, L.Zeng, C.Schubert, B.Grasberger, B.A.Springer, and I.C.Deckman (2007).
Protein engineering of the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor kinase domain for structural studies.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 4085-4093.  
17132624 C.Schubert, C.Schalk-Hihi, G.T.Struble, H.C.Ma, I.P.Petrounia, B.Brandt, I.C.Deckman, R.J.Patch, M.R.Player, J.C.Spurlino, and B.A.Springer (2007).
Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (cFMS) in complex with two inhibitors.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 4094-4101.
PDB codes: 2i0v 2i0y 2i1m
17167796 G.M.Verkhivker (2007).
In silico profiling of tyrosine kinases binding specificity and drug resistance using Monte Carlo simulations with the ensembles of protein kinase crystal structures.
  Biopolymers, 85, 333-348.  
17173284 G.M.Verkhivker (2007).
Computational proteomics of biomolecular interactions in the sequence and structure space of the tyrosine kinome: deciphering the molecular basis of the kinase inhibitors selectivity.
  Proteins, 66, 912-929.  
17292838 J.Eswaran, W.H.Lee, J.E.Debreczeni, P.Filippakopoulos, A.Turnbull, O.Fedorov, S.W.Deacon, J.R.Peterson, and S.Knapp (2007).
Crystal Structures of the p21-activated kinases PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6 reveal catalytic domain plasticity of active group II PAKs.
  Structure, 15, 201-213.
PDB codes: 2bva 2c30 2cdz 2f57
17223528 M.L.Baker, T.Ju, and W.Chiu (2007).
Identification of secondary structure elements in intermediate-resolution density maps.
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17380483 N.K.Banavali, and B.Roux (2007).
Anatomy of a structural pathway for activation of the catalytic domain of Src kinase Hck.
  Proteins, 67, 1096-1112.  
17164530 S.W.Cowan-Jacob, G.Fendrich, A.Floersheimer, P.Furet, J.Liebetanz, G.Rummel, P.Rheinberger, M.Centeleghe, D.Fabbro, and P.W.Manley (2007).
Structural biology contributions to the discovery of drugs to treat chronic myelogenous leukaemia.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 63, 80-93.
PDB codes: 2hyy 2hz0 2hz4 2hzi 2hzn
17229728 T.Morita, A.Yamashita, I.Kashima, K.Ogata, S.Ishiura, and S.Ohno (2007).
Distant N- and C-terminal domains are required for intrinsic kinase activity of SMG-1, a critical component of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.
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17919343 T.P.Storozhevykh, Y.E.Senilova, N.A.Persiyantseva, V.G.Pinelis, and I.A.Pomytkin (2007).
Mitochondrial respiratory chain is involved in insulin-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production and plays an integral role in insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons.
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17389770 U.Unluturk, A.Harmanci, C.Kocaefe, and B.O.Yildiz (2007).
The Genetic Basis of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Literature Review Including Discussion of PPAR-gamma.
  PPAR Res, 2007, 49109.  
17095602 A.P.Kornev, N.M.Haste, S.S.Taylor, and L.F.Eyck (2006).
Surface comparison of active and inactive protein kinases identifies a conserved activation mechanism.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 17783-17788.  
16505275 B.Sonnweber, M.Dlaska, S.Skvortsov, S.Dirnhofer, T.Schmid, and W.Hilbe (2006).
High predictive value of epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation but not of EGFRvIII mutation in resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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16492148 D.Dalgarno, T.Stehle, S.Narula, P.Schelling, M.R.van Schravendijk, S.Adams, L.Andrade, J.Keats, M.Ram, L.Jin, T.Grossman, I.MacNeil, C.Metcalf, W.Shakespeare, Y.Wang, T.Keenan, R.Sundaramoorthi, R.Bohacek, M.Weigele, and T.Sawyer (2006).
Structural basis of Src tyrosine kinase inhibition with a new class of potent and selective trisubstituted purine-based compounds.
  Chem Biol Drug Des, 67, 46-57.
PDB codes: 2bdf 2bdj
16628247 E.S.Groban, A.Narayanan, and M.P.Jacobson (2006).
Conformational changes in protein loops and helices induced by post-translational phosphorylation.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 2, e32.  
16402038 M.Abe, Y.Kuroda, M.Hirose, Y.Watanabe, M.Nakano, and T.Handa (2006).
Inhibition of autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor by small peptides in vitro.
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16526000 M.C.Baek, S.J.Kim, K.Yea, Y.Kim, B.D.Lee, J.Kim, H.J.Lee, M.H.Kang, S.K.Choi, J.I.Kim, T.G.Lee, P.G.Suh, and S.H.Ryu (2006).
Ligand profiling and identification technology for searching bioactive ligands.
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16640460 N.M.Levinson, O.Kuchment, K.Shen, M.A.Young, M.Koldobskiy, M.Karplus, P.A.Cole, and J.Kuriyan (2006).
A Src-like inactive conformation in the abl tyrosine kinase domain.
  PLoS Biol, 4, e144.
PDB codes: 2g1t 2g2f 2g2h 2g2i
17079130 P.Pellicena, and J.Kuriyan (2006).
Protein-protein interactions in the allosteric regulation of protein kinases.
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16431914 R.D.Meyer, X.Qian, H.C.Guo, and N.Rahimi (2006).
Leucine motif-dependent tyrosine autophosphorylation of type III receptor tyrosine kinases.
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16917500 R.Jauch, M.K.Cho, S.Jäkel, C.Netter, K.Schreiter, B.Aicher, M.Zweckstetter, H.Jäckle, and M.C.Wahl (2006).
Mitogen-activated protein kinases interacting kinases are autoinhibited by a reprogrammed activation segment.
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PDB codes: 2hw6 2hw7
16793764 W.Li, and W.T.Miller (2006).
Role of the activation loop tyrosines in regulation of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor-tyrosine kinase.
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16783341 Y.Liu, and N.S.Gray (2006).
Rational design of inhibitors that bind to inactive kinase conformations.
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X-ray structure of glutathione S-transferase from Schistosoma japonicum in a new crystal form reveals flexibility of the substrate-binding site.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 61, 263-265.
PDB code: 1y6e
15790558 A.J.Bernal, Q.Pan, J.Pollack, L.Rose, A.Kozik, N.Willits, Y.Luo, M.Guittet, E.Kochetkova, and R.W.Michelmore (2005).
Functional analysis of the plant disease resistance gene Pto using DNA shuffling.
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16084385 A.Kohl, P.Amstutz, P.Parizek, H.K.Binz, C.Briand, G.Capitani, P.Forrer, A.Plückthun, and M.G.Grütter (2005).
Allosteric inhibition of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase by a designed ankyrin repeat protein.
  Structure, 13, 1131-1141.
PDB code: 2bkk
15925816 A.Polychronis, H.D.Sinnett, D.Hadjiminas, H.Singhal, J.L.Mansi, D.Shivapatham, S.Shousha, J.Jiang, D.Peston, N.Barrett, D.Vigushin, K.Morrison, E.Beresford, S.Ali, M.J.Slade, and R.C.Coombes (2005).
Preoperative gefitinib versus gefitinib and anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with oestrogen-receptor positive and epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-positive primary breast cancer: a double-blind placebo-controlled phase II randomised trial.
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16055020 F.Hofmann, and C.García-Echeverría (2005).
Blocking the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor as a strategy for targeting cancer.
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15618230 G.H.Iyer, M.J.Moore, and S.S.Taylor (2005).
Consequences of lysine 72 mutation on the phosphorylation and activation state of cAMP-dependent kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 8800-8807.  
15699039 J.Wharton, T.Meshulam, G.Vallega, and P.Pilch (2005).
Dissociation of insulin receptor expression and signaling from caveolin-1 expression.
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16223723 K.Y.Lo, W.H.Chin, Y.P.Ng, A.W.Cheng, Z.H.Cheung, and N.Y.Ip (2005).
SLAM-associated protein as a potential negative regulator in Trk signaling.
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16186108 K.Yang, J.H.Kim, H.J.Kim, I.S.Park, I.Y.Kim, and B.S.Yang (2005).
Tyrosine 740 phosphorylation of discoidin domain receptor 2 by Src stimulates intramolecular autophosphorylation and Shc signaling complex formation.
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15712318 M.Jenny, O.A.Wrulich, W.Schwaiger, and F.Ueberall (2005).
Relevance of atypical protein kinase C isotypes to the drug discovery process.
  Chembiochem, 6, 491-499.  
15893667 M.Lei, M.A.Robinson, and S.C.Harrison (2005).
The active conformation of the PAK1 kinase domain.
  Structure, 13, 769-778.
PDB codes: 1yhv 1yhw
16271895 N.K.Banavali, and B.Roux (2005).
The N-terminal end of the catalytic domain of SRC kinase Hck is a conformational switch implicated in long-range allosteric regulation.
  Structure, 13, 1715-1723.  
15611134 P.R.Graves, K.M.Winkfield, and T.A.Haystead (2005).
Regulation of zipper-interacting protein kinase activity in vitro and in vivo by multisite phosphorylation.
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16216586 R.Jauch, S.Jäkel, C.Netter, K.Schreiter, B.Aicher, H.Jäckle, and M.C.Wahl (2005).
Crystal structures of the Mnk2 kinase domain reveal an inhibitory conformation and a zinc binding site.
  Structure, 13, 1559-1568.
PDB codes: 2ac3 2ac5
16271887 S.Li, R.S.Depetris, D.Barford, J.Chernoff, and S.R.Hubbard (2005).
Crystal structure of a complex between protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  Structure, 13, 1643-1651.
PDB code: 2b4s
15563471 T.L.Schmitt, A.Hotz-Wagenblatt, H.Klein, and W.Dröge (2005).
Interdependent regulation of insulin receptor kinase activity by ADP and hydrogen peroxide.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 3795-3801.  
15094157 A.Bennasroune, A.Gardin, D.Aunis, G.Crémel, and P.Hubert (2004).
Tyrosine kinase receptors as attractive targets of cancer therapy.
  Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 50, 23-38.  
15123710 C.D.Mol, D.R.Dougan, T.R.Schneider, R.J.Skene, M.L.Kraus, D.N.Scheibe, G.P.Snell, H.Zou, B.C.Sang, and K.P.Wilson (2004).
Structural basis for the autoinhibition and STI-571 inhibition of c-Kit tyrosine kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 31655-31663.
PDB codes: 1t45 1t46
15557554 C.Graveel, Y.Su, J.Koeman, L.M.Wang, L.Tessarollo, M.Fiscella, C.Birchmeier, P.Swiatek, R.Bronson, and G.Vande Woude (2004).
Activating Met mutations produce unique tumor profiles in mice with selective duplication of the mutant allele.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 17198-17203.  
14732693 D.Mattoon, P.Klein, M.A.Lemmon, I.Lax, and J.Schlessinger (2004).
The tethered configuration of the EGF receptor extracellular domain exerts only a limited control of receptor function.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 923-928.  
15143188 E.P.Feener, F.Rosario, S.L.Dunn, Z.Stancheva, and M.G.Myers (2004).
Tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak2 in the JH2 domain inhibits cytokine signaling.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 4968-4978.  
15308621 J.C.Lougheed, R.H.Chen, P.Mak, and T.J.Stout (2004).
Crystal structures of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated kinase domains of the Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase ACK1.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 44039-44045.
PDB codes: 1u46 1u4d 1u54
14759363 J.Griffith, J.Black, C.Faerman, L.Swenson, M.Wynn, F.Lu, J.Lippke, and K.Saxena (2004).
The structural basis for autoinhibition of FLT3 by the juxtamembrane domain.
  Mol Cell, 13, 169-178.
PDB code: 1rjb
15150234 J.S.Tyler, and D.I.Friedman (2004).
Characterization of a eukaryotic-like tyrosine protein kinase expressed by the Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage 933W.
  J Bacteriol, 186, 3472-3479.  
15292186 L.Jin, S.Pluskey, E.C.Petrella, S.M.Cantin, J.C.Gorga, M.J.Rynkiewicz, P.Pandey, J.E.Strickler, R.E.Babine, D.T.Weaver, and K.J.Seidl (2004).
The three-dimensional structure of the ZAP-70 kinase domain in complex with staurosporine: implications for the design of selective inhibitors.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 42818-42825.
PDB code: 1u59
15238639 M.M.Slutsky, and E.N.Marsh (2004).
Cation-pi interactions studied in a model coiled-coil peptide.
  Protein Sci, 13, 2244-2251.  
15229886 N.Fernandez-Fuentes, A.Hermoso, J.Espadaler, E.Querol, F.X.Aviles, and B.Oliva (2004).
Classification of common functional loops of kinase super-families.
  Proteins, 56, 539-555.  
15343278 N.J.Dibb, S.M.Dilworth, and C.D.Mol (2004).
Switching on kinases: oncogenic activation of BRAF and the PDGFR family.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 4, 718-727.  
15551269 P.De Meyts (2004).
Insulin and its receptor: structure, function and evolution.
  Bioessays, 26, 1351-1362.  
15035987 P.T.Wan, M.J.Garnett, S.M.Roe, S.Lee, D.Niculescu-Duvaz, V.M.Good, C.M.Jones, C.J.Marshall, C.J.Springer, D.Barford, and R.Marais (2004).
Mechanism of activation of the RAF-ERK signaling pathway by oncogenic mutations of B-RAF.
  Cell, 116, 855-867.
PDB codes: 1uwh 1uwj
15507431 S.Atwell, J.M.Adams, J.Badger, M.D.Buchanan, I.K.Feil, K.J.Froning, X.Gao, J.Hendle, K.Keegan, B.C.Leon, H.J.Müller-Dieckmann, V.L.Nienaber, B.W.Noland, K.Post, K.R.Rajashankar, A.Ramos, M.Russell, S.K.Burley, and S.G.Buchanan (2004).
A novel mode of Gleevec binding is revealed by the structure of spleen tyrosine kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 55827-55832.
PDB codes: 1xba 1xbb 1xbc
15173825 S.R.Hubbard (2004).
Juxtamembrane autoinhibition in receptor tyrosine kinases.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 5, 464-471.  
14711813 Y.Kawamoto, K.Takeda, Y.Okuno, Y.Yamakawa, Y.Ito, R.Taguchi, M.Kato, H.Suzuki, M.Takahashi, and I.Nakashima (2004).
Identification of RET autophosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 14213-14224.  
15231819 Y.X.Fan, L.Wong, T.B.Deb, and G.R.Johnson (2004).
Ligand regulates epidermal growth factor receptor kinase specificity: activation increases preference for GAB1 and SHC versus autophosphorylation sites.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 38143-38150.  
15485908 Z.L.Yuan, Y.J.Guan, L.Wang, W.Wei, A.B.Kane, and Y.E.Chin (2004).
Central role of the threonine residue within the p+1 loop of receptor tyrosine kinase in STAT3 constitutive phosphorylation in metastatic cancer cells.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 9390-9400.  
14527402 A.W.Burgess, H.S.Cho, C.Eigenbrot, K.M.Ferguson, T.P.Garrett, D.J.Leahy, M.A.Lemmon, M.X.Sliwkowski, C.W.Ward, and S.Yokoyama (2003).
An open-and-shut case? Recent insights into the activation of EGF/ErbB receptors.
  Mol Cell, 12, 541-552.  
14596595 B.E.Aubol, B.Nolen, J.Shaffer, G.Ghosh, and J.A.Adams (2003).
Novel destabilization of nucleotide binding by the gamma phosphate of ATP in the yeast SR protein kinase Sky1p.
  Biochemistry, 42, 12813-12820.  
14685170 C.Birchmeier, W.Birchmeier, E.Gherardi, and G.F.Vande Woude (2003).
Met, metastasis, motility and more.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 4, 915-925.  
12764141 C.C.Yip, and P.Ottensmeyer (2003).
Three-dimensional structural interactions of insulin and its receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 27329-27332.  
12435730 F.D.Böhmer, L.Karagyozov, A.Uecker, H.Serve, A.Botzki, S.Mahboobi, and S.Dove (2003).
A single amino acid exchange inverts susceptibility of related receptor tyrosine kinases for the ATP site inhibitor STI-571.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 5148-5155.  
12486127 J.Tong, S.Elowe, P.Nash, and T.Pawson (2003).
Manipulation of EphB2 regulatory motifs and SH2 binding sites switches MAPK signaling and biological activity.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 6111-6119.  
12493740 K.R.Wick, E.D.Werner, P.Langlais, F.J.Ramos, L.Q.Dong, S.E.Shoelson, and F.Liu (2003).
Grb10 inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway by disrupting the association of IRS-1/IRS-2 with the insulin receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 8460-8467.  
12684539 L.Schäffer, R.E.Brissette, J.C.Spetzler, R.C.Pillutla, S.Østergaard, M.Lennick, J.Brandt, P.W.Fletcher, G.M.Danielsen, K.C.Hsiao, A.S.Andersen, O.Dedova, U.Ribel, T.Hoeg-Jensen, P.H.Hansen, A.J.Blume, J.Markussen, and N.I.Goldstein (2003).
Assembly of high-affinity insulin receptor agonists and antagonists from peptide building blocks.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 4435-4439.  
12609899 M.Tsuboi, S.A.Overman, K.Nakamura, A.Rodriguez-Casado, and G.J.Thomas (2003).
Orientation and interactions of an essential tryptophan (Trp-38) in the capsid subunit of Pf3 filamentous virus.
  Biophys J, 84, 1969-1976.  
14559966 N.Schiering, S.Knapp, M.Marconi, M.M.Flocco, J.Cui, R.Perego, L.Rusconi, and C.Cristiani (2003).
Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met and its complex with the microbial alkaloid K-252a.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 12654-12659.
PDB codes: 1r0p 1r1w
12697809 P.M.Chan, S.Ilangumaran, J.La Rose, A.Chakrabartty, and R.Rottapel (2003).
Autoinhibition of the kit receptor tyrosine kinase by the cytosolic juxtamembrane region.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 3067-3078.  
12707268 S.Li, N.D.Covino, E.G.Stein, J.H.Till, and S.R.Hubbard (2003).
Structural and biochemical evidence for an autoinhibitory role for tyrosine 984 in the juxtamembrane region of the insulin receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 26007-26014.
PDB code: 1p14
14501110 S.Munshi, D.L.Hall, M.Kornienko, P.L.Darke, and L.C.Kuo (2003).
Structure of apo, unactivated insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor kinase at 1.5 A resolution.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 59, 1725-1730.
PDB code: 1p4o
12517337 X.Huang, M.Begley, K.A.Morgenstern, Y.Gu, P.Rose, H.Zhao, and X.Zhu (2003).
Crystal structure of an inactive Akt2 kinase domain.
  Structure, 11, 21-30.
PDB codes: 1mrv 1mry
12686554 X.Lin, S.Lee, and G.Sun (2003).
Functions of the activation loop in Csk protein-tyrosine kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 24072-24077.  
11896401 C.Pargellis, L.Tong, L.Churchill, P.F.Cirillo, T.Gilmore, A.G.Graham, P.M.Grob, E.R.Hickey, N.Moss, S.Pav, and J.Regan (2002).
Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by utilizing a novel allosteric binding site.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 268-272.
PDB codes: 1kv1 1kv2
12191602 D.Fabbro, S.Ruetz, E.Buchdunger, S.W.Cowan-Jacob, G.Fendrich, J.Liebetanz, J.Mestan, T.O'Reilly, P.Traxler, B.Chaudhuri, H.Fretz, J.Zimmermann, T.Meyer, G.Caravatti, P.Furet, and P.W.Manley (2002).
Protein kinases as targets for anticancer agents: from inhibitors to useful drugs.
  Pharmacol Ther, 93, 79-98.  
  11805065 G.Pielberg, C.Olsson, A.C.Syvänen, and L.Andersson (2002).
Unexpectedly high allelic diversity at the KIT locus causing dominant white color in the domestic pig.
  Genetics, 160, 305-311.  
12220490 J.H.Till, M.Becerra, A.Watty, Y.Lu, Y.Ma, T.A.Neubert, S.J.Burden, and S.R.Hubbard (2002).
Crystal structure of the MuSK tyrosine kinase: insights into receptor autoregulation.
  Structure, 10, 1187-1196.
PDB code: 1luf
12011437 J.M.Goldberg, L.Bosgraaf, P.J.Van Haastert, and J.L.Smith (2002).
Identification of four candidate cGMP targets in Dictyostelium.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 6749-6754.  
12086620 J.Yang, P.Cron, V.Thompson, V.M.Good, D.Hess, B.A.Hemmings, and D.Barford (2002).
Molecular mechanism for the regulation of protein kinase B/Akt by hydrophobic motif phosphorylation.
  Mol Cell, 9, 1227-1240.
PDB codes: 1gzk 1gzn 1gzo
12015977 M.Huse, and J.Kuriyan (2002).
The conformational plasticity of protein kinases.
  Cell, 109, 275-282.  
11964230 M.Martin-Fernandez, D.T.Clarke, M.J.Tobin, S.V.Jones, and G.R.Jones (2002).
Preformed oligomeric epidermal growth factor receptors undergo an ectodomain structure change during signaling.
  Biophys J, 82, 2415-2427.  
12360255 P.De Meyts, and J.Whittaker (2002).
Structural biology of insulin and IGF1 receptors: implications for drug design.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 1, 769-783.  
12191603 R.A.Engh, and D.Bossemeyer (2002).
Structural aspects of protein kinase control-role of conformational flexibility.
  Pharmacol Ther, 93, 99.  
11989718 S.Hati, S.Bhattacharyya, J.V.Price, and A.S.Tracey (2002).
Comparative modeling of the phosphatase and kinase domains of protein tyrosine phosphatase and insulin receptor kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (DPTP61fm), and a computational study of their mutual interactions.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 80, 225-239.  
12138114 S.Munshi, M.Kornienko, D.L.Hall, J.C.Reid, L.Waxman, S.M.Stirdivant, P.L.Darke, and L.C.Kuo (2002).
Crystal structure of the Apo, unactivated insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor kinase. Implication for inhibitor specificity.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 38797-38802.
PDB code: 1m7n
12218050 S.Shackleton, I.Hamer, M.Foti, N.Zumwald, C.Maeder, and J.L.Carpentier (2002).
Role of two dileucine-like motifs in insulin receptor anchoring to microvilli.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 43631-43637.  
11751579 S.Vainio, S.Heino, J.E.Mansson, P.Fredman, E.Kuismanen, O.Vaarala, and E.Ikonen (2002).
Dynamic association of human insulin receptor with lipid rafts in cells lacking caveolae.
  EMBO Rep, 3, 95.  
11726652 V.Béréziat, A.Kasus-Jacobi, D.Perdereau, B.Cariou, J.Girard, and A.F.Burnol (2002).
Inhibition of insulin receptor catalytic activity by the molecular adapter Grb14.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 4845-4852.  
12082108 X.L.Niu, K.G.Peters, and C.D.Kontos (2002).
Deletion of the carboxyl terminus of Tie2 enhances kinase activity, signaling, and function. Evidence for an autoinhibitory mechanism.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 31768-31773.  
11746695 A.Cavalli, C.Dezi, G.Folkers, L.Scapozza, and M.Recanatini (2001).
Three-dimensional model of the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1): Ab initio active site parameters for molecular dynamics studies of CDKS.
  Proteins, 45, 478-485.  
11598120 A.J.Ablooglu, M.Frankel, E.Rusinova, J.B.Ross, and R.A.Kohanski (2001).
Multiple activation loop conformations and their regulatory properties in the insulin receptor's kinase domain.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 46933-46940.  
11134346 A.W.Craig, R.Zirngibl, K.Williams, L.A.Cole, and P.A.Greer (2001).
Mice devoid of fer protein-tyrosine kinase activity are viable and fertile but display reduced cortactin phosphorylation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 603-613.  
11376122 C.W.Ward, T.P.Garrett, N.M.McKern, M.Lou, L.J.Cosgrove, L.G.Sparrow, M.J.Frenkel, P.A.Hoyne, T.C.Elleman, T.E.Adams, G.O.Lovrecz, L.J.Lawrence, and P.A.Tulloch (2001).
The three dimensional structure of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor.
  Mol Pathol, 54, 125-132.  
11471071 D.Telting, G.C.van der Zon, J.Dorrestijn, and J.A.Maassen (2001).
IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation reflects insulin-induced metabolic and mitogenic responses in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.
  Arch Physiol Biochem, 109, 52-62.  
11320314 G.Webster, T.Leung, S.Karthikeyan, G.Birrane, and J.A.Ladias (2001).
Crystallographic characterization of the PDZ1 domain of the human Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 714-716.  
11500492 J.Whittaker, A.V.Groth, D.C.Mynarcik, L.Pluzek, V.L.Gadsbøll, and L.J.Whittaker (2001).
Alanine scanning mutagenesis of a type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor ligand binding site.
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11572780 L.E.Wybenga-Groot, B.Baskin, S.H.Ong, J.Tong, T.Pawson, and F.Sicheri (2001).
Structural basis for autoinhibition of the Ephb2 receptor tyrosine kinase by the unphosphorylated juxtamembrane region.
  Cell, 106, 745-757.
PDB code: 1jpa
11568484 M.Balasubramanyam, and V.Mohan (2001).
Orally active insulin mimics: where do we stand now?
  J Biosci, 26, 383-390.  
11390649 M.Frankel, A.J.Ablooglu, J.W.Leone, E.Rusinova, J.B.Ross, R.L.Heinrikson, and R.A.Kohanski (2001).
Intrasteric inhibition of ATP binding is not required to prevent unregulated autophosphorylation or signaling by the insulin receptor.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 4197-4207.  
11354004 M.Miller, K.Ginalski, B.Lesyng, N.Nakaigawa, L.Schmidt, and B.Zbar (2001).
Structural basis of oncogenic activation caused by point mutations in the kinase domain of the MET proto-oncogene: modeling studies.
  Proteins, 44, 32-43.  
11440715 R.Dajani, E.Fraser, S.M.Roe, N.Young, V.Good, T.C.Dale, and L.H.Pearl (2001).
Crystal structure of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta: structural basis for phosphate-primed substrate specificity and autoinhibition.
  Cell, 105, 721-732.
PDB code: 1h8f
11694888 S.Favelyukis, J.H.Till, S.R.Hubbard, and W.T.Miller (2001).
Structure and autoregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 8, 1058-1063.
PDB code: 1k3a
11376431 T.R.Burke, Z.J.Yao, D.G.Liu, J.Voigt, and Y.Gao (2001).
Phosphoryltyrosyl mimetics in the design of peptide-based signal transduction inhibitors.
  Biopolymers, 60, 32-44.  
11250149 W.Brogiolo, H.Stocker, T.Ikeya, F.Rintelen, R.Fernandez, and E.Hafen (2001).
An evolutionarily conserved function of the Drosophila insulin receptor and insulin-like peptides in growth control.
  Curr Biol, 11, 213-221.  
11418769 X.Ji, J.Blaszczyk, and X.Chen (2001).
The absorption edge of protein-bound mercury and a double-edge strategy for HgMAD data acquisition.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 1003-1007.  
11163213 A.Salmeen, J.N.Andersen, M.P.Myers, N.K.Tonks, and D.Barford (2000).
Molecular basis for the dephosphorylation of the activation segment of the insulin receptor by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Mol Cell, 6, 1401-1412.
PDB codes: 1g1f 1g1g 1g1h
10781064 A.Watty, G.Neubauer, M.Dreger, M.Zimmer, M.Wilm, and S.J.Burden (2000).
The in vitro and in vivo phosphotyrosine map of activated MuSK.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 4585-4590.  
10734138 C.C.Lai, C.Henningson, and D.DiMaio (2000).
Bovine papillomavirus E5 protein induces the formation of signal transduction complexes containing dimeric activated platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor and associated signaling proteins.
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11163214 F.Cong, S.Spencer, J.F.Côté, Y.Wu, M.L.Tremblay, L.A.Lasky, and S.P.Goff (2000).
Cytoskeletal protein PSTPIP1 directs the PEST-type protein tyrosine phosphatase to the c-Abl kinase to mediate Abl dephosphorylation.
  Mol Cell, 6, 1413-1423.  
10921887 H.Gille, J.Kowalski, L.Yu, H.Chen, M.T.Pisabarro, T.Davis-Smyth, and N.Ferrara (2000).
A repressor sequence in the juxtamembrane domain of Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) constitutively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activation and endothelial cell migration.
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11057895 J.Schlessinger (2000).
Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.
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10713991 K.A.Denessiouk, and M.S.Johnson (2000).
When fold is not important: a common structural framework for adenine and AMP binding in 12 unrelated protein families.
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10592276 K.A.Stenberg, P.T.Riikonen, and M.Vihinen (2000).
KinMutBase, a database of human disease-causing protein kinase mutations.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 369-371.  
11080633 L.M.Shewchuk, A.M.Hassell, B.Ellis, W.D.Holmes, R.Davis, E.L.Horne, S.H.Kadwell, D.D.McKee, and J.T.Moore (2000).
Structure of the Tie2 RTK domain: self-inhibition by the nucleotide binding loop, activation loop, and C-terminal tail.
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PDB code: 1fvr
10679341 L.Shapiro, and T.Harris (2000).
Finding function through structural genomics.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 11, 31-35.  
10634792 M.Tateno, Y.Nishida, and T.Adachi-Yamada (2000).
Regulation of JNK by Src during Drosophila development.
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Janus kinases and signal transducers and activators of transcription: their roles in cytokine signaling, development and immunoregulation.
  Arthritis Res, 2, 16-32.  
10870104 R.Eck, A.Bruckmann, R.Wetzker, and W.Künkel (2000).
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase of Candida albicans: molecular cloning and characterization.
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10619845 R.Herbst, and S.J.Burden (2000).
The juxtamembrane region of MuSK has a critical role in agrin-mediated signaling.
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10827454 S.C.Robertson, J.A.Tynan, and D.J.Donoghue (2000).
RTK mutations and human syndromeswhen good receptors turn bad.
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A large family of eukaryotic-like protein Ser/Thr kinases of Myxococcus xanthus, a developmental bacterium.
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10966463 S.R.Hubbard, and J.H.Till (2000).
Protein tyrosine kinase structure and function.
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10861667 S.Shatzky, S.Moses, J.Levy, V.Pinsk, E.Hershkovitz, L.Herzog, Z.Shorer, A.Luder, and R.Parvari (2000).
Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) in Israeli-Bedouins: genetic heterogeneity, novel mutations in the TRKA/NGF receptor gene, clinical findings, and results of nerve conduction studies.
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10908660 T.C.Yeh, E.Dondi, G.Uze, and S.Pellegrini (2000).
A dual role for the kinase-like domain of the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 in interferon-alpha signaling.
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10988075 T.Schindler, W.Bornmann, P.Pellicena, W.T.Miller, B.Clarkson, and J.Kuriyan (2000).
Structural mechanism for STI-571 inhibition of abelson tyrosine kinase.
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PDB code: 1fpu
10506185 A.Bardelli, P.Longati, T.A.Williams, S.Benvenuti, and P.M.Comoglio (1999).
A peptide representing the carboxyl-terminal tail of the met receptor inhibits kinase activity and invasive growth.
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10454200 A.Levitzki (1999).
Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents.
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10197447 B.Guerra, and O.G.Issinger (1999).
Protein kinase CK2 and its role in cellular proliferation, development and pathology.
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Activating and dominant inactivating c-KIT catalytic domain mutations in distinct clinical forms of human mastocytosis.
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Discovery of a small molecule insulin mimetic with antidiabetic activity in mice.
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10574975 C.N.Woldin, F.S.Hing, J.Lee, P.F.Pilch, and G.G.Shipley (1999).
Structural studies of the detergent-solubilized and vesicle-reconstituted insulin receptor.
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11225731 E.Schmid, A.Hotz-Wagenblatt, and W.Dröge (1999).
Inhibition of the insulin receptor kinase phosphorylation by nitric oxide: functional and structural aspects.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 1, 45-53.  
10433517 F.H.Nystrom, and M.J.Quon (1999).
Insulin signalling: metabolic pathways and mechanisms for specificity.
  Cell Signal, 11, 563-574.  
10235685 F.L.Watson, M.A.Porcionatto, A.Bhattacharyya, C.D.Stiles, and R.A.Segal (1999).
TrkA glycosylation regulates receptor localization and activity.
  J Neurobiol, 39, 323-336.  
9920285 G.J.Zaman, P.M.Vink, A.A.van den Doelen, G.H.Veeneman, and H.J.Theunissen (1999).
Tyrosine kinase activity of purified recombinant cytoplasmic domain of platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor (beta-PDGFR) and discovery of a novel inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases.
  Biochem Pharmacol, 57, 57-64.  
  10091652 G.Kurapkat, M.Siedentop, H.G.Gattner, M.Hagelstein, D.Brandenburg, J.Grötzinger, and A.Wollmer (1999).
The solution structure of a superpotent B-chain-shortened single-replacement insulin analogue.
  Protein Sci, 8, 499-508.
PDB code: 1bzv
10542257 J.Lu, E.B.O'Hara, B.A.Trieselmann, P.R.Romano, and T.E.Dever (1999).
The interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR will phosphorylate serine, threonine, or tyrosine at residue 51 in eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 32198-32203.  
10454194 J.M.Sowadski, L.F.Epstein, L.Lankiewicz, and R.Karlsson (1999).
Conformational diversity of catalytic cores of protein kinases.
  Pharmacol Ther, 82, 157-164.  
10075741 J.S.Biscardi, M.C.Maa, D.A.Tice, M.E.Cox, T.H.Leu, and S.J.Parsons (1999).
c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor on Tyr845 and Tyr1101 is associated with modulation of receptor function.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 8335-8343.  
10368301 M.A.McTigue, J.A.Wickersham, C.Pinko, R.E.Showalter, C.V.Parast, A.Tempczyk-Russell, M.R.Gehring, B.Mroczkowski, C.C.Kan, J.E.Villafranca, and K.Appelt (1999).
Crystal structure of the kinase domain of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2: a key enzyme in angiogenesis.
  Structure, 7, 319-330.
PDB code: 1vr2
  10548062 M.Frankel, S.M.Bishop, A.J.Ablooglu, Y.P.Han, and R.A.Kohanski (1999).
Conformational changes in the activation loop of the insulin receptor's kinase domain.
  Protein Sci, 8, 2158-2165.  
10025408 M.Huse, Y.G.Chen, J.Massagué, and J.Kuriyan (1999).
Crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of the type I TGF beta receptor in complex with FKBP12.
  Cell, 96, 425-436.
PDB code: 1b6c
  10454588 R.M.Katso, R.B.Russell, and T.S.Ganesan (1999).
Functional analysis of H-Ryk, an atypical member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 6427-6440.  
10446056 R.Z.Luo, D.R.Beniac, A.Fernandes, C.C.Yip, and F.P.Ottensmeyer (1999).
Quaternary structure of the insulin-insulin receptor complex.
  Science, 285, 1077-1080.  
10454192 S.S.Taylor, E.Radzio-Andzelm, Madhusudan, X.Cheng, L.Ten Eyck, and N.Narayana (1999).
Catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: structure and dynamics of the active site cleft.
  Pharmacol Ther, 82, 133-141.  
10026152 S.S.Watowich, K.D.Liu, X.Xie, S.Y.Lai, A.Mikami, G.D.Longmore, and M.A.Goldsmith (1999).
Oligomerization and scaffolding functions of the erythropoietin receptor cytoplasmic tail.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 5415-5421.  
10528237 T.A.Williams, P.Longati, L.Pugliese, P.Gual, A.Bardelli, and P.Michieli (1999).
MET(PRC) mutations in the Ron receptor result in upregulation of tyrosine kinase activity and acquisition of oncogenic potential.
  J Cell Physiol, 181, 507-514.  
10360179 W.Xu, A.Doshi, M.Lei, M.J.Eck, and S.C.Harrison (1999).
Crystal structures of c-Src reveal features of its autoinhibitory mechanism.
  Mol Cell, 3, 629-638.
PDB code: 2src
9748281 A.Kasus-Jacobi, D.Perdereau, C.Auzan, E.Clauser, E.Van Obberghen, F.Mauvais-Jarvis, J.Girard, and A.F.Burnol (1998).
Identification of the rat adapter Grb14 as an inhibitor of insulin actions.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 26026-26035.  
9651379 C.Kristensen, F.C.Wiberg, L.Schäffer, and A.S.Andersen (1998).
Expression and characterization of a 70-kDa fragment of the insulin receptor that binds insulin. Minimizing ligand binding domain of the insulin receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 17780-17786.  
9817025, J.J.Wu, and K.S.Lam (1998).
Protein tyrosine kinases: structure, substrate specificity, and drug discovery.
  Biopolymers, 47, 197-223.  
9422757 G.B.Wells, R.Anand, F.Wang, and J.Lindstrom (1998).
Water-soluble nicotinic acetylcholine receptor formed by alpha7 subunit extracellular domains.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 964-973.  
9612082 J.C.Williams, R.K.Wierenga, and M.Saraste (1998).
Insights into Src kinase functions: structural comparisons.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 23, 179-184.  
10417854 J.Dorrestijn, F.J.van Bussel, J.A.Maassen, and D.S.Gomes de Mesquita (1998).
Early steps in insulin action.
  Arch Physiol Biochem, 106, 269-289.  
9927991 J.N.Ihle, W.Thierfelder, S.Teglund, D.Stravopodis, D.Stravapodis, D.Wang, J.Feng, and E.Parganas (1998).
Signaling by the cytokine receptor superfamily.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 865, 1-9.  
9705342 J.O.Contreres, R.Faure, G.Baquiran, J.J.Bergeron, and B.I.Posner (1998).
ATP-dependent desensitization of insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor kinase. The role of endosomal acidification.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 22007-22013.  
9856454 J.P.Changeux, and S.J.Edelstein (1998).
Allosteric receptors after 30 years.
  Neuron, 21, 959-980.  
  10082373 K.A.Denessiouk, J.V.Lehtonen, and M.S.Johnson (1998).
Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition.
  Protein Sci, 7, 1768-1771.  
  9605318 K.A.Denessiouk, J.V.Lehtonen, T.Korpela, and M.S.Johnson (1998).
Two "unrelated" families of ATP-dependent enzymes share extensive structural similarities about their cofactor binding sites.
  Protein Sci, 7, 1136-1146.  
9857185 M.E.Cunningham, and L.A.Greene (1998).
A function-structure model for NGF-activated TRK.
  EMBO J, 17, 7282-7293.  
9774334 M.Mohammadi, S.Froum, J.M.Hamby, M.C.Schroeder, R.L.Panek, G.H.Lu, A.V.Eliseenkova, D.Green, J.Schlessinger, and S.R.Hubbard (1998).
Crystal structure of an angiogenesis inhibitor bound to the FGF receptor tyrosine kinase domain.
  EMBO J, 17, 5896-5904.
PDB code: 2fgi
9475661 R.J.Duhé, and W.L.Farrar (1998).
Structural and mechanistic aspects of Janus kinases: how the two-faced god wields a double-edged sword.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 18, 1.  
9642269 R.M.Baxter, J.P.Secrist, R.R.Vaillancourt, and A.Kazlauskas (1998).
Full activation of the platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor kinase involves multiple events.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 17050-17055.  
9552154 S.Alberti (1998).
A phosphoinositide-binding sequence is shared by PH domain target molecules--a model for the binding of PH domains to proteins.
  Proteins, 31, 1-9.  
9506518 S.E.George, K.Simokat, J.Hardin, and A.D.Chisholm (1998).
The VAB-1 Eph receptor tyrosine kinase functions in neural and epithelial morphogenesis in C. elegans.
  Cell, 92, 633-643.  
  9724328 S.Marklund, J.Kijas, H.Rodriguez-Martinez, L.Rönnstrand, K.Funa, M.Moller, D.Lange, I.Edfors-Lilja, and L.Andersson (1998).
Molecular basis for the dominant white phenotype in the domestic pig.
  Genome Res, 8, 826-833.  
9575136 S.R.Hubbard, M.Mohammadi, and J.Schlessinger (1998).
Autoregulatory mechanisms in protein-tyrosine kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 11987-11990.  
9602534 T.Hunter (1998).
The Croonian Lecture 1997. The phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine: its role in cell growth and disease.
  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 353, 583-605.  
9556607 T.Imamura, T.Haruta, Y.Takata, I.Usui, M.Iwata, H.Ishihara, M.Ishiki, O.Ishibashi, E.Ueno, T.Sasaoka, and M.Kobayashi (1998).
Involvement of heat shock protein 90 in the degradation of mutant insulin receptors by the proteasome.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 11183-11188.  
9506989 W.He, D.W.Rose, J.M.Olefsky, and T.A.Gustafson (1998).
Grb10 interacts differentially with the insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor I receptor, and epidermal growth factor receptor via the Grb10 Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and a second novel domain located between the pleckstrin homology and SH2 domains.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 6860-6867.  
9597132 W.J.Leonard, and J.J.O'Shea (1998).
Jaks and STATs: biological implications.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 16, 293-322.  
9426201 A.Bardelli, L.Pugliese, and P.M.Comoglio (1997).
"Invasive-growth" signaling by the Met/HGF receptor: the hereditary renal carcinoma connection.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1333, M41-M51.  
  9190213 B.L.Goode, P.E.Denis, D.Panda, M.J.Radeke, H.P.Miller, L.Wilson, and S.C.Feinstein (1997).
Functional interactions between the proline-rich and repeat regions of tau enhance microtubule binding and assembly.
  Mol Biol Cell, 8, 353-365.  
9208937 C.Couture, S.Williams, N.Gauthier, P.Tailor, and T.Mustelin (1997).
Role of Tyr518 and Tyr519 in the regulation of catalytic activity and substrate phosphorylation by Syk protein-tyrosine kinase.
  Eur J Biochem, 246, 447-451.  
8999820 C.S.Zong, J.L.Chan, S.K.Yang, and L.H.Wang (1997).
Mutations of Ros differentially effecting signal transduction pathways leading to cell growth versus transformation.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 1500-1506.  
8999905 D.C.Mynarcik, P.F.Williams, L.Schaffer, G.Q.Yu, and J.Whittaker (1997).
Analog binding properties of insulin receptor mutants. Identification of amino acids interacting with the COOH terminus of the B-chain of the insulin molecule.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 2077-2081.  
9208839 D.L.Wiest, J.M.Ashe, T.K.Howcroft, H.M.Lee, D.M.Kemper, I.Negishi, D.S.Singer, A.Singer, and R.Abe (1997).
A spontaneously arising mutation in the DLAARN motif of murine ZAP-70 abrogates kinase activity and arrests thymocyte development.
  Immunity, 6, 663-671.  
9434895 F.Sicheri, and J.Kuriyan (1997).
Structures of Src-family tyrosine kinases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 777-785.  
  9070439 F.W.Herberg, B.Zimmermann, M.McGlone, and S.S.Taylor (1997).
Importance of the A-helix of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase for stability and for orienting subdomains at the cleft interface.
  Protein Sci, 6, 569-579.  
9295338 F.Wang, M.Kan, K.McKeehan, J.H.Jang, S.Feng, and W.L.McKeehan (1997).
A homeo-interaction sequence in the ectodomain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 23887-23895.  
9204760 G.Superti-Furga, and S.Gonfloni (1997).
A crystal milestone: the structure of regulated Src.
  Bioessays, 19, 447-450.  
9006901 J.D.Frantz, S.Giorgetti-Peraldi, E.A.Ottinger, and S.E.Shoelson (1997).
Human GRB-IRbeta/GRB10. Splice variants of an insulin and growth factor receptor-binding protein with PH and SH2 domains.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 2659-2667.  
  9111318 J.Feng, B.A.Witthuhn, T.Matsuda, F.Kohlhuber, I.M.Kerr, and J.N.Ihle (1997).
Activation of Jak2 catalytic activity requires phosphorylation of Y1007 in the kinase activation loop.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 2497-2501.  
8999819 J.Niu, and D.S.Lawrence (1997).
Nonphosphorylatable tyrosine surrogates. Implications for protein kinase inhibitor design.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 1493-1499.  
9395542 J.Zhao, J.Trewhella, J.Corbin, S.Francis, R.Mitchell, R.Brushia, and D.Walsh (1997).
Progressive cyclic nucleotide-induced conformational changes in the cGMP-dependent protein kinase studied by small angle X-ray scattering in solution.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 31929-31936.  
9252323 K.D.Kimura, H.A.Tissenbaum, Y.Liu, and G.Ruvkun (1997).
daf-2, an insulin receptor-like gene that regulates longevity and diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  Science, 277, 942-946.  
9382798 K.D.Liu, S.L.Gaffen, M.A.Goldsmith, and W.C.Greene (1997).
Janus kinases in interleukin-2-mediated signaling: JAK1 and JAK3 are differentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation.
  Curr Biol, 7, 817-826.  
9249040 K.Krishnan, R.Pine, and J.J.Krolewski (1997).
Kinase-deficient forms of Jak1 and Tyk2 inhibit interferon alpha signaling in a dominant manner.
  Eur J Biochem, 247, 298-305.  
9155023 K.Luo, and H.F.Lodish (1997).
Positive and negative regulation of type II TGF-beta receptor signal transduction by autophosphorylation on multiple serine residues.
  EMBO J, 16, 1970-1981.  
9108016 K.Shah, Y.Liu, C.Deirmengian, and K.M.Shokat (1997).
Engineering unnatural nucleotide specificity for Rous sarcoma virus tyrosine kinase to uniquely label its direct substrates.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 3565-3570.  
9204766 L.Yenush, and M.F.White (1997).
The IRS-signalling system during insulin and cytokine action.
  Bioessays, 19, 491-500.  
9029149 M.A.Lemmon, Z.Bu, J.E.Ladbury, M.Zhou, D.Pinchasi, I.Lax, D.M.Engelman, and J.Schlessinger (1997).
Two EGF molecules contribute additively to stabilization of the EGFR dimer.
  EMBO J, 16, 281-294.  
9099755 M.E.Cunningham, R.M.Stephens, D.R.Kaplan, and L.A.Greene (1997).
Autophosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines regulates signaling by the TRK nerve growth factor receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 10957-10967.  
9139660 M.Mohammadi, G.McMahon, L.Sun, C.Tang, P.Hirth, B.K.Yeh, S.R.Hubbard, and J.Schlessinger (1997).
Structures of the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor in complex with inhibitors.
  Science, 276, 955-960.
PDB codes: 1agw 1fgi
8989312 N.Kobayashi, and N.Go (1997).
ATP binding proteins with different folds share a common ATP-binding structural motif.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 6-7.  
  9416620 N.M.McKern, M.Lou, M.J.Frenkel, A.Verkuylen, J.D.Bentley, G.O.Lovrecz, N.Ivancic, T.C.Elleman, T.P.Garrett, L.J.Cosgrove, and C.W.Ward (1997).
Crystallization of the first three domains of the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.
  Protein Sci, 6, 2663-2666.  
9261084 N.Narayana, S.Cox, X.Nguyen-huu, L.F.Ten Eyck, and S.S.Taylor (1997).
A binary complex of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and adenosine further defines conformational flexibility.
  Structure, 5, 921-935.
PDB code: 1bkx
9050880 O.El-Hillal, T.Kurosaki, H.Yamamura, J.P.Kinet, and A.M.Scharenberg (1997).
syk kinase activation by a src kinase-initiated activation loop phosphorylation chain reaction.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 1919-1924.  
9278451 P.Berhanu, C.Anderson, M.Hickman, and T.P.Ciaraldi (1997).
Insulin signal transduction by a mutant human insulin receptor lacking the NPEY sequence. Evidence for an alternate mitogenic signaling pathway that is independent of Shc phosphorylation.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 22884-22890.  
9250364 R.L.Brockbank, and H.J.Vogel (1997).
NMR studies of the RRsrc peptide, a tyrosine kinase substrate.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 75, 163-169.  
9312046 R.P.Bourette, G.M.Myles, J.L.Choi, and L.R.Rohrschneider (1997).
Sequential activation of phoshatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase C-gamma2 by the M-CSF receptor is necessary for differentiation signaling.
  EMBO J, 16, 5880-5893.  
9287186 S.Desiderio (1997).
Role of Btk in B cell development and signaling.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 9, 534-540.  
9405355 S.Gonfloni, J.C.Williams, K.Hattula, A.Weijland, R.K.Wierenga, and G.Superti-Furga (1997).
The role of the linker between the SH2 domain and catalytic domain in the regulation and function of Src.
  EMBO J, 16, 7261-7271.  
9238016 S.J.Haque, Q.Wu, W.Kammer, K.Friedrich, J.M.Smith, I.M.Kerr, G.R.Stark, and B.R.Williams (1997).
Receptor-associated constitutive protein tyrosine phosphatase activity controls the kinase function of JAK1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 8563-8568.  
9046243 S.K.Hanks, and T.R.Polte (1997).
Signaling through focal adhesion kinase.
  Bioessays, 19, 137-145.  
9442882 S.M.Thomas, and J.S.Brugge (1997).
Cellular functions regulated by Src family kinases.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 13, 513-609.  
9312016 S.R.Hubbard (1997).
Crystal structure of the activated insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in complex with peptide substrate and ATP analog.
  EMBO J, 16, 5572-5581.
PDB code: 1ir3
9667861 S.S.Taylor, and E.Radzio-Andzelm (1997).
Protein kinase inhibition: natural and synthetic variations on a theme.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 1, 219-226.  
9303304 W.Tsai, A.D.Morielli, and E.G.Peralta (1997).
The m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor transactivates the EGF receptor to modulate ion channel activity.
  EMBO J, 16, 4597-4605.  
9233801 X.H.Feng, and R.Derynck (1997).
A kinase subdomain of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) type I receptor determines the TGF-beta intracellular signaling specificity.
  EMBO J, 16, 3912-3923.  
9391116 Y.J.Zhou, E.P.Hanson, Y.Q.Chen, K.Magnuson, M.Chen, P.G.Swann, R.L.Wange, P.S.Changelian, and J.J.O'Shea (1997).
Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in JAK3 kinase domain positively and negatively regulate its enzymatic activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13850-13855.  
  8985364 Z.He, Y.S.He, Y.Kim, L.Chu, C.Ohmstede, K.K.Biron, and D.M.Coen (1997).
The human cytomegalovirus UL97 protein is a protein kinase that autophosphorylates on serines and threonines.
  J Virol, 71, 405-411.  
9391111 Z.Li, M.I.Wahl, A.Eguinoa, L.R.Stephens, P.T.Hawkins, and O.N.Witte (1997).
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-gamma activates Bruton's tyrosine kinase in concert with Src family kinases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13820-13825.  
9122194 Z.Wang, P.C.Harkins, R.J.Ulevitch, J.Han, M.H.Cobb, and E.J.Goldsmith (1997).
The structure of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 at 2.1-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 2327-2332.
PDB code: 1p38
8734453 A.Krook, and S.O'Rahilly (1996).
Mutant insulin receptors in syndromes of insulin resistance.
  Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab, 10, 97.  
8856081 A.Weijland, G.Neubauer, S.A.Courtneidge, M.Mann, R.K.Wierenga, and G.Superti-Furga (1996).
The purification and characterization of the catalytic domain of Src expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Comparison of unphosphorylated and tyrosine phosphorylated species.
  Eur J Biochem, 240, 756-764.  
  8819164 B.D.Grant, I.Tsigelny, J.A.Adams, and S.S.Taylor (1996).
Examination of an active-site electrostatic node in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1316-1324.  
  9003756 B.Kobe, J.Heierhorst, S.C.Feil, M.W.Parker, G.M.Benian, K.R.Weiss, and B.E.Kemp (1996).
Giant protein kinases: domain interactions and structural basis of autoregulation.
  EMBO J, 15, 6810-6821.
PDB codes: 1koa 1kob
  8900530 B.Z.Stanger (1996).
Looking beneath the surface: the cell death pathway of Fas/APO-1 (CD95).
  Mol Med, 2, 7.  
8798432 C.Chan, and G.N.Gill (1996).
Mutational analysis of the nucleotide binding site of the epidermal growth factor receptor and v-Src protein-tyrosine kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 22619-22623.  
  8670804 C.E.Shamu, and P.Walter (1996).
Oligomerization and phosphorylation of the Ire1p kinase during intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus.
  EMBO J, 15, 3028-3039.  
8621421 C.W.Ward, K.H.Gough, M.Rashke, S.S.Wan, G.Tribbick, and J.Wang (1996).
Systematic mapping of potential binding sites for Shc and Grb2 SH2 domains on insulin receptor substrate-1 and the receptors for insulin, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 5603-5609.  
  8947048 D.H.Chu, H.Spits, J.F.Peyron, R.B.Rowley, J.B.Bolen, and A.Weiss (1996).
The Syk protein tyrosine kinase can function independently of CD45 or Lck in T cell antigen receptor signaling.
  EMBO J, 15, 6251-6261.  
8938649 F.Folli, S.Ghidella, L.Bonfanti, C.R.Kahn, and A.Merighi (1996).
The early intracellular signaling pathway for the insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor family in the mammalian central nervous system.
  Mol Neurobiol, 13, 155-183.  
  8617203 F.Weis-Garcia, and J.Massagué (1996).
Complementation between kinase-defective and activation-defective TGF-beta receptors reveals a novel form of receptor cooperativity essential for signaling.
  EMBO J, 15, 276-289.  
  8756661 G.Kong, M.Dalton, J.Bubeck Wardenburg, D.Straus, T.Kurosaki, and A.C.Chan (1996).
Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 5026-5035.  
8940181 H.K.Kole, A.S.Liotta, S.Kole, J.Roth, C.Montrose-Rafizadeh, and M.Bernier (1996).
A synthetic peptide derived from a COOH-terminal domain of the insulin receptor specifically enhances insulin receptor signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 31619-31626.  
8913682 H.S.Pappa, A.E.Stewart, and N.Q.McDonald (1996).
Incorporating anomalous scattering centres into macromolecules.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 611-616.  
8641381 H.W.Hofer (1996).
Conservation, evolution, and specificity in cellular control by protein phosphorylation.
  Experientia, 52, 449-454.  
8756515 I.Tsigelny, B.D.Grant, S.S.Taylor, and L.F.Ten Eyck (1996).
Catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase: electrostatic features and peptide recognition.
  Biopolymers, 39, 353-365.  
8702623 J.Bass, T.Kurose, M.Pashmforoush, and D.F.Steiner (1996).
Fusion of insulin receptor ectodomains to immunoglobulin constant domains reproduces high-affinity insulin binding in vitro.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 19367-19375.  
8940173 J.E.Peterson, G.Kulik, T.Jelinek, C.W.Reuter, J.A.Shannon, and M.J.Weber (1996).
Src phosphorylates the insulin-like growth factor type I receptor on the autophosphorylation sites. Requirement for transformation by src.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 31562-31571.  
8900199 J.G.Aparicio, and M.L.Applebury (1996).
The photoreceptor guanylate cyclase is an autophosphorylating protein kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 27083-27089.  
8601311 J.Goldberg, A.C.Nairn, and J.Kuriyan (1996).
Structural basis for the autoinhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I.
  Cell, 84, 875-887.
PDB code: 1a06
  8947030 J.L.Smith, L.A.Silveira, and J.A.Spudich (1996).
Activation of Dictyostelium myosin light chain kinase A by phosphorylation of Thr166.
  EMBO J, 15, 6075-6083.  
  8786235 J.M.Sowadski (1996).
Introduction: crystallization of membrane proteins--in need of a new focus?
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 3-5.  
  8786241 J.M.Sowadski, C.A.Ellis, and Madhusudan (1996).
Detergent binding to unmyristylated protein kinase A--structural implications for the role of myristate.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 7.  
8550578 K.Cheng, and J.G.Koland (1996).
Nucleotide binding by the epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. Trinitrophenyl-ATP as a spectroscopic probe.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 311-318.  
  8744943 K.Lu, and G.Guidotti (1996).
Identification of the cysteine residues involved in the class I disulfide bonds of the human insulin receptor: properties of insulin receptor monomers.
  Mol Biol Cell, 7, 679-691.  
8798788 K.M.Neilson, and R.Friesel (1996).
Ligand-independent activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors by point mutations in the extracellular, transmembrane, and kinase domains.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 25049-25057.  
8702477 L.Ling, D.Templeton, and H.J.Kung (1996).
Identification of the major autophosphorylation sites of Nyk/Mer, an NCAM-related receptor tyrosine kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 18355-18362.  
8612268 L.N.Johnson, M.E.Noble, and D.J.Owen (1996).
Active and inactive protein kinases: structural basis for regulation.
  Cell, 85, 149-158.  
8994876 L.N.Johnson, and M.O'Reilly (1996).
Control by phosphorylation.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 762-769.  
8640234 M.C.Naski, Q.Wang, J.Xu, and D.M.Ornitz (1996).
Graded activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by mutations causing achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia.
  Nat Genet, 13, 233-237.  
  8754806 M.K.Webster, P.Y.D'Avis, S.C.Robertson, and D.J.Donoghue (1996).
Profound ligand-independent kinase activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by the activation loop mutation responsible for a lethal skeletal dysplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia type II.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 4081-4087.  
8824259 M.Kan, F.Wang, B.To, J.L.Gabriel, and W.L.McKeehan (1996).
Divalent cations and heparin/heparan sulfate cooperate to control assembly and activity of the fibroblast growth factor receptor complex.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 26143-26148.  
  8622701 M.Mohammadi, I.Dikic, A.Sorokin, W.H.Burgess, M.Jaye, and J.Schlessinger (1996).
Identification of six novel autophosphorylation sites on fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and elucidation of their importance in receptor activation and signal transduction.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 977-989.  
8672527 M.T.Brown, and J.A.Cooper (1996).
Regulation, substrates and functions of src.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1287, 121-149.  
8930123 O.Marin, F.Meggio, J.W.Perich, and L.A.Pinna (1996).
Phosphotyrosine specifies the phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 of a peptide reproducing the activation loop of the insulin receptor protein tyrosine kinase.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 28, 999.  
8939691 P.R.Thompson, D.W.Hughes, and G.D.Wright (1996).
Mechanism of aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase type IIIa: His188 is not a phosphate-accepting residue.
  Chem Biol, 3, 747-755.  
8885720 P.T.Mattsson, M.Vihinen, and C.I.Smith (1996).
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): a genetic tyrosine kinase (Btk) disease.
  Bioessays, 18, 825-834.  
8621434 P.Tsoulfas, R.M.Stephens, D.R.Kaplan, and L.F.Parada (1996).
TrkC isoforms with inserts in the kinase domain show impaired signaling responses.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 5691-5697.  
8901551 P.V.LoGrasso, J.Hawkins, L.J.Frank, D.Wisniewski, and A.Marcy (1996).
Mechanism of activation for Zap-70 catalytic activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12165-12170.  
8702742 R.A.Segal, A.Bhattacharyya, L.A.Rua, J.A.Alberta, R.M.Stephens, D.R.Kaplan, and C.D.Stiles (1996).
Differential utilization of Trk autophosphorylation sites.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 20175-20181.  
  8786233 R.M.Garavito, D.Picot, and P.J.Loll (1996).
Strategies for crystallizing membrane proteins.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 13-27.  
8692801 R.Murali, P.J.Brennan, T.Kieber-Emmons, and M.I.Greene (1996).
Structural analysis of p185c-neu and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases: oligomerization of kinase domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 6252-6257.  
  8668163 S.C.Robertson, and D.J.Donoghue (1996).
Identification of an autoinhibitory region in the activation loop of the Mos protein kinase.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 3472-3479.  
8970723 S.S.Watowich, H.Wu, M.Socolovsky, U.Klingmuller, S.N.Constantinescu, and H.F.Lodish (1996).
Cytokine receptor signal transduction and the control of hematopoietic cell development.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 12, 91.  
  8786236 W.A.Hendrickson (1996).
Production of crystallizable fragments of membrane proteins.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 35-40.  
  8726462 X.C.Wang, R.Katso, R.Butler, A.M.Hanby, R.Poulsom, T.Jones, D.Sheer, and T.S.Ganesan (1996).
H-RYK, an unusual receptor kinase: isolation and analysis of expression in ovarian cancer.
  Mol Med, 2, 189-203.  
  8887677 Z.Songyang, K.P.Lu, Y.T.Kwon, L.H.Tsai, O.Filhol, C.Cochet, D.A.Brickey, T.R.Soderling, C.Bartleson, D.J.Graves, A.J.DeMaggio, M.F.Hoekstra, J.Blenis, T.Hunter, and L.C.Cantley (1996).
A structural basis for substrate specificities of protein Ser/Thr kinases: primary sequence preference of casein kinases I and II, NIMA, phosphorylase kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, CDK5, and Erk1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 6486-6493.  
8846218 A.Bateman, and C.Chothia (1995).
Outline structures for the extracellular domains of the fibroblast growth factor receptors.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 1068-1074.  
  7781602 A.C.Chan, M.Dalton, R.Johnson, G.H.Kong, T.Wang, R.Thoma, and T.Kurosaki (1995).
Activation of ZAP-70 kinase activity by phosphorylation of tyrosine 493 is required for lymphocyte antigen receptor function.
  EMBO J, 14, 2499-2508.  
8770389 A.J.Bridges, D.R.Cody, H.Zhou, A.McMichael, and D.W.Fry (1995).
Enantioselective inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase by 4-(alpha-phenethylamino)quinazolines.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 3, 1651-1656.  
7647787 B.Pasini, M.G.Borrello, A.Greco, I.Bongarzone, Y.Luo, P.Mondellini, L.Alberti, C.Miranda, E.Arighi, and R.Bocciardi (1995).
Loss of function effect of RET mutations causing Hirschsprung disease.
  Nat Genet, 10, 35-40.  
7493944 C.Hernández-Sánchez, V.Blakesley, T.Kalebic, L.Helman, and D.LeRoith (1995).
The role of the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in intracellular signaling, cellular proliferation, and tumorigenesis.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 29176-29181.  
7552705 C.Ostermeier, S.Iwata, B.Ludwig, and H.Michel (1995).
Fv fragment-mediated crystallization of the membrane protein bacterial cytochrome c oxidase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 842-846.  
8846213 D.Barford, Z.Jia, and N.K.Tonks (1995).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases take off.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 1043-1053.  
  7651388 D.Chen, D.J.Van Horn, M.F.White, and J.M.Backer (1995).
Insulin receptor substrate 1 rescues insulin action in CHO cells expressing mutant insulin receptors that lack a juxtamembrane NPXY motif.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 4711-4717.  
8527837 D.W.Fry, and A.J.Bridges (1995).
Inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 6, 662-667.  
7544790 F.Ahmad, P.M.Li, J.Meyerovitch, and B.J.Goldstein (1995).
Osmotic loading of neutralizing antibodies demonstrates a role for protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B in negative regulation of the insulin action pathway.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 20503-20508.  
7486706 H.Xu, and D.R.Littman (1995).
The kinase-dependent function of Lck in T-cell activation requires an intact site for tyrosine autophosphorylation.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 766, 99.  
7613861 J.A.Endicott, and P.Nurse (1995).
The cell cycle and suc1: from structure to function?
  Structure, 3, 321-325.  
7579649 J.L.Popot, and M.Saraste (1995).
Engineering membrane proteins.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 6, 394-402.  
7559572 K.Durick, V.J.Yao, M.G.Borrello, I.Bongarzone, M.A.Pierotti, and S.S.Taylor (1995).
Tyrosines outside the kinase core and dimerization are required for the mitogenic activity of RET/ptc2.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 24642-24645.  
9383454 K.M.Shokat (1995).
Tyrosine kinases: modular signaling enzymes with tunable specificities.
  Chem Biol, 2, 509-514.  
8749392 L.M.Keranen, E.M.Dutil, and A.C.Newton (1995).
Protein kinase C is regulated in vivo by three functionally distinct phosphorylations.
  Curr Biol, 5, 1394-1403.  
7713916 L.Wei, S.R.Hubbard, W.A.Hendrickson, and L.Ellis (1995).
Expression, characterization, and crystallization of the catalytic core of the human insulin receptor protein-tyrosine kinase domain.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 8122-8130.  
7657612 M.Guiton, F.J.Gunn-Moore, D.J.Glass, D.R.Geis, G.D.Yancopoulos, and J.M.Tavaré (1995).
Naturally occurring tyrosine kinase inserts block high affinity binding of phospholipase C gamma and Shc to TrkC and neurotrophin-3 signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 20384-20390.  
7559456 N.P.Møller, K.B.Møller, R.Lammers, A.Kharitonenkov, E.Hoppe, F.C.Wiberg, I.Sures, and A.Ullrich (1995).
Selective down-regulation of the insulin receptor signal by protein-tyrosine phosphatases alpha and epsilon.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 23126-23131.  
7743124 N.Q.McDonald, J.Murray-Rust, and T.L.Blundell (1995).
The first structure of a receptor tyrosine kinase domain: a further step in understanding the molecular basis of insulin action.
  Structure, 3, 1-6.  
7649974 N.Q.McDonald, and M.V.Chao (1995).
Structural determinants of neurotrophin action.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 19669-19672.  
7673185 P.A.Cole, M.R.Grace, R.S.Phillips, P.Burn, and C.T.Walsh (1995).
The role of the catalytic base in the protein tyrosine kinase Csk.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 22105-22108.  
8789188 P.Furet, G.Caravatti, N.Lydon, J.P.Priestle, J.M.Sowadski, U.Trinks, and P.Traxler (1995).
Modelling study of protein kinase inhibitors: binding mode of staurosporine and origin of the selectivity of CGP 52411.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 9, 465-472.  
  7791763 X.J.Liu, A.Sorisky, L.Zhu, and T.Pawson (1995).
Molecular cloning of an amphibian insulin receptor substrate 1-like cDNA and involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in insulin-induced Xenopus oocyte maturation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 3563-3570.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.