PDBsum entry 1hrp

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Hormone PDB id
Protein chains
86 a.a. *
110 a.a. *
NAG ×2
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hormone
Title: Crystal structure of human chorionic gonadotropin
Structure: Human chorionic gonadotropin. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Human chorionic gonadotropin. Chain: b. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Tissue: placenta.
Biol. unit: Tetramer (from PQS)
3.00Å     R-factor:   0.218     R-free:   0.314
Authors: A.J.Lapthorn,D.C.Harris,N.W.Isaacs
Key ref: A.J.Lapthorn et al. (1994). Crystal structure of human chorionic gonadotropin. Nature, 369, 455-461. PubMed id: 8202136
15-Aug-94     Release date:   01-Nov-94    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01215  (GLHA_HUMAN) -  Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain
116 a.a.
86 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01233  (CGHB_HUMAN) -  Choriogonadotropin subunit beta
165 a.a.
110 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   1 term 
  Biological process     developmental growth   17 terms 
  Biochemical function     protein binding     2 terms  


Nature 369:455-461 (1994)
PubMed id: 8202136  
Crystal structure of human chorionic gonadotropin.
A.J.Lapthorn, D.C.Harris, A.Littlejohn, J.W.Lustbader, R.E.Canfield, K.J.Machin, F.J.Morgan, N.W.Isaacs.
The three-dimensional structure of human chorionic gonadotropin shows that each of its two different subunits has a similar topology, with three disulphide bonds forming a cystine knot. This same folding motif is found in some protein growth factors. The heterodimer is stabilized by a segment of the beta-subunit which wraps around the alpha-subunit and is covalently linked like a seat belt by the disulphide Cys 26-Cys 110. This extraordinary feature appears to be essential not only for the association of these heterodimers but also for receptor binding by the glycoprotein hormones.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20872871 A.E.Aliaga, T.Aguayo, C.Garrido, E.Clavijo, E.Hevia, J.S.Gómez-Jeria, P.Leyton, M.M.Campos-Vallette, and S.Sanchez-Cortes (2011).
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and theoretical studies of the C-terminal peptide of the β-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin without linked carbohydrates.
  Biopolymers, 95, 135-143.  
19171054 L.A.Cole (2009).
New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 7, 8.  
19627123 M.Yamada, P.Mao, J.Fu, and J.Han (2009).
Rapid quantification of disease-marker proteins using continuous-flow immunoseparation in a nanosieve fluidic device.
  Anal Chem, 81, 7067-7074.  
19633318 N.A.Khan, D.Susa, J.W.van den Berg, M.Huisman, M.H.Ameling, S.van den Engel, H.P.Roest, J.N.Ijzermans, W.A.Dik, R.Benner, and Bruin (2009).
Amelioration of renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury by synthetic oligopeptides related to human chorionic gonadotropin.
  Nephrol Dial Transplant, 24, 2701-2708.  
19710244 N.A.Rahman, and C.V.Rao (2009).
Recent progress in luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone research.
  Mol Hum Reprod, 15, 703-711.  
18945715 Medeiros, and R.J.Norman (2009).
Human choriogonadotrophin protein core and sugar branches heterogeneity: basic and clinical insights.
  Hum Reprod Update, 15, 69-95.  
18339208 A.Jankowska, S.I.Gunderson, M.Andrusiewicz, B.Burczynska, A.Szczerba, A.Jarmolowski, E.Nowak-Markwitz, and J.B.Warchol (2008).
Reduction of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit expression by modified U1 snRNA caused apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.
  Mol Cancer, 7, 26.  
18048353 E.Miller, D.Fiete, N.M.Blake, M.Beranek, E.L.Oates, Y.Mi, D.S.Roseman, and J.U.Baenziger (2008).
A Necessary and Sufficient Determinant for Protein-selective Glycosylation in Vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 1985-1991.  
17897645 J.G.Scammell, J.D.Funkhouser, F.S.Moyer, S.V.Gibson, and D.L.Willis (2008).
Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.
  Gen Comp Endocrinol, 155, 534-541.  
18084009 M.Ghadami, S.A.Salama, N.Khatoon, R.Chilvers, M.Nagamani, P.J.Chedrese, and A.Al-Hendy (2008).
Toward gene therapy of primary ovarian failure: adenovirus expressing human FSH receptor corrects the Finnish C566T mutation.
  Mol Hum Reprod, 14, 9.  
18382626 M.J.Russell, F.L.Flynt, A.L.Harroff, and O.Fadare (2008).
Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma of the Retroperitoneum with Extensive Leiomyosarcomatous Differentiation and beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production.
  Sarcoma, 2008, 658090.  
19002615 P.Dominguez-Lopez, L.Diaz-Cueto, A.Ulloa-Aguirre, M.A.Lopez-Valle, and F.Arechavaleta-Velasco (2008).
No evidence of the human chorionic gonadotropin-beta gene 5 betaV79M polymorphism in Mexican women.
  Endocrine, 34, 117-120.  
18563855 R.Ramírez-Llanelis, E.Llop, R.Ventura, J.Segura, and R.Gutiérrez-Gallego (2008).
Can glycans unveil the origin of glycoprotein hormones? - human chorionic gonadotrophin as an example -.
  J Mass Spectrom, 43, 936-948.  
18274893 V.Blanchard, R.A.Gadkari, A.V.George, S.Roy, G.J.Gerwig, B.R.Leeflang, R.R.Dighe, R.Boelens, and J.P.Kamerling (2008).
High-level expression of biologically active glycoprotein hormones in Pichia pastoris strains--selection of strain GS115, and not X-33, for the production of biologically active N-glycosylated 15N-labeled phCG.
  Glycoconj J, 25, 245-257.  
18624572 W.T.Huang, J.C.Hsieh, M.J.Chiou, J.Y.Chen, J.L.Wu, and C.M.Kuo (2008).
Application of RNAi technology to the inhibition of zebrafish GtHalpha, FSHbeta, and LHbeta expression and to functional analyses.
  Zoolog Sci, 25, 614-621.  
17059864 D.Puett, Y.Li, G.DeMars, K.Angelova, and F.Fanelli (2007).
A functional transmembrane complex: the luteinizing hormone receptor with bound ligand and G protein.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 260, 126-136.  
17358049 J.A.Wilken, and E.Bedows (2007).
A novel four-amino acid determinant defines conformational freedom within chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits.
  Biochemistry, 46, 4417-4424.  
17287585 K.Miyai (2007).
Congenital thyrotropin deficiency--from discovery to molecular biology, postgenome and preventive medicine.
  Endocr J, 54, 191-203.  
17158104 P.M.Smallwood, J.Williams, Q.Xu, D.J.Leahy, and J.Nathans (2007).
Mutational analysis of Norrin-Frizzled4 recognition.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 4057-4068.  
17045735 Q.R.Fan, and W.A.Hendrickson (2007).
Assembly and structural characterization of an authentic complex between human follicle stimulating hormone and a hormone-binding ectodomain of its receptor.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 260, 73-82.  
17143726 S.R.Setlur, and R.R.Dighe (2007).
Single chain human chorionic gonadotropin, hCGalphabeta: effects of mutations in the alpha subunit on structure and bioactivity.
  Glycoconj J, 24, 97.  
17059863 W.Lin, M.P.Bernard, D.Cao, R.V.Myers, J.E.Kerrigan, and W.R.Moyle (2007).
Follitropin receptors contain cryptic ligand binding sites.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 260, 83-92.  
16385622 F.Zhu, N.W.Isaacs, L.Hecht, G.E.Tranter, and L.D.Barron (2006).
Raman optical activity of proteins, carbohydrates and glycoproteins.
  Chirality, 18, 103-115.  
  17065429 K.Hotakainen, S.Lintula, B.Ljungberg, P.Finne, A.Paju, U.H.Stenman, and J.Stenman (2006).
Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit type I genes predicts adverse outcome in renal cell carcinoma.
  J Mol Diagn, 8, 598-603.  
16543672 K.Kinoshita, M.Kusunoki, and K.Miyai (2006).
Analysis of the three dimensional structure of the CXGXC motif in the CMGCC and CAGYC regions of alpha-and beta-subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin: importance of glycine residue (G) in the motif.
  Endocr J, 53, 51-58.  
16810064 S.Liang, G.Stone, E.Chalas, M.Pearl, F.Callan, and W.Zheng (2006).
A high-grade uterine leiomyosarcoma with human chorionic gonadotropin production.
  Int J Gynecol Pathol, 25, 257-261.  
16467256 D.Puett, Y.Li, K.Angelova, G.Demars, T.P.Meehan, F.Fanelli, and P.Narayan (2005).
Structure-function relationships of the luteinizing hormone receptor.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1061, 41-54.  
16279938 L.J.Reigstad, J.E.Varhaug, and J.R.Lillehaug (2005).
Structural and functional specificities of PDGF-C and PDGF-D, the novel members of the platelet-derived growth factors family.
  FEBS J, 272, 5723-5741.  
16052074 N.S.Srilatha, P.T.Selvi, and G.S.Murthy (2005).
Epitope mapping from real time kinetic studies - role of crosslinked disulphides and incidental interacting regions in affinity measurements: study with human chorionic gonadotropin and monoclonal antibodies.
  J Biosci, 30, 359-370.  
15662415 Q.R.Fan, and W.A.Hendrickson (2005).
Structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone in complex with its receptor.
  Nature, 433, 269-277.
PDB code: 1xwd
18248232 A.C.Wong, and A.L.Eenennaam (2004).
Gonadotropin hormone and receptor sequences from model teleost species.
  Zebrafish, 1, 203-221.  
14585810 A.Jablonka-Shariff, and I.Boime (2004).
Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone exhibit different secretion patterns from cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
  Biol Reprod, 70, 649-655.  
15345720 G.Kleinau, H.Jäschke, S.Neumann, J.Lättig, R.Paschke, and G.Krause (2004).
Identification of a novel epitope in the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor ectodomain acting as intramolecular signaling interface.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 51590-51600.  
15004409 M.Furuhashi, and N.Suganuma (2004).
Processing of O-linked glycosylation in the chimera consisting of alpha-subunit and carboxyl-terminal peptide of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit is affected by dimer formation with follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit.
  Endocr J, 51, 53-59.  
15304512 M.P.Bernard, W.Lin, D.Cao, R.V.Myers, Y.Xing, and W.R.Moyle (2004).
Only a portion of the small seatbelt loop in human choriogonadotropin appears capable of contacting the lutropin receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 44438-44441.  
15571461 M.W.Szkudlinski (2004).
Recombinant human thyrotropins of the twenty-first century.
  Expert Opin Pharmacother, 5, 2435-2440.  
15521866 S.D.Keay, M.Vatish, E.Karteris, E.W.Hillhouse, and H.S.Randeva (2004).
The role of hCG in reproductive medicine.
  BJOG, 111, 1218-1228.  
15449706 W.Sebald, J.Nickel, J.L.Zhang, and T.D.Mueller (2004).
Molecular recognition in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/receptor interaction.
  Biol Chem, 385, 697-710.  
15161903 Y.Xing, R.V.Myers, D.Cao, W.Lin, M.Jiang, M.P.Bernard, and W.R.Moyle (2004).
Glycoprotein hormone assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum: II. Multiple roles of a redox sensitive beta-subunit disulfide switch.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 35437-35448.  
15161904 Y.Xing, R.V.Myers, D.Cao, W.Lin, M.Jiang, M.P.Bernard, and W.R.Moyle (2004).
Glycoprotein hormone assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum: III. The seatbelt and its latch site determine the assembly pathway.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 35449-35457.  
15161918 Y.Xing, R.V.Myers, D.Cao, W.Lin, M.Jiang, M.P.Bernard, and W.R.Moyle (2004).
Glycoprotein hormone assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum: I. The glycosylated end of human alpha-subunit loop 2 is threaded through a beta-subunit hole.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 35426-35436.  
15166248 Y.Xing, R.V.Myers, D.Cao, W.Lin, M.Jiang, M.P.Bernard, and W.R.Moyle (2004).
Glycoprotein hormone assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum: IV. Probable mechanism of subunit docking and completion of assembly.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 35458-35468.  
15304492 Y.Xing, W.Lin, M.Jiang, D.Cao, R.V.Myers, M.P.Bernard, and W.R.Moyle (2004).
Use of protein knobs to characterize the position of conserved alpha-subunit regions in lutropin receptor complexes.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 44427-44437.  
12655539 G.Meduri, N.Charnaux, F.Spyratos, K.Hacene, H.Loosfelt, and E.Milgrom (2003).
Luteinizing hormone receptor status and clinical, pathologic, and prognostic features in patients with breast carcinomas.
  Cancer, 97, 1810-1816.  
12773385 G.Smits, M.Campillo, C.Govaerts, V.Janssens, C.Richter, G.Vassart, L.Pardo, and S.Costagliola (2003).
Glycoprotein hormone receptors: determinants in leucine-rich repeats responsible for ligand specificity.
  EMBO J, 22, 2692-2703.  
12930599 J.Deladoëy, J.M.Vuissoz, H.M.Domené, N.Malik, L.Gruneiro-Papendieck, A.Chiesa, J.J.Heinrich, and P.E.Mullis (2003).
Congenital secondary hypothyroidism due to a mutation C105Vfs114X thyrotropin-beta mutation: genetic study of five unrelated families from Switzerland and Argentina.
  Thyroid, 13, 553-559.  
12963710 J.Sohn, H.Youn, M.Jeoung, Y.Koo, C.Yi, I.Ji, and T.H.Ji (2003).
Orientation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) subunits complexed with the FSH receptor. Beta subunit toward the N terminus of exodomain and alpha subunit to exoloop 3.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 47868-47876.  
12940452 M.Furuhashi, and N.Suganuma (2003).
Effect of additional N-glycosylation signal in the N-terminal region on intracellular function of the human gonadotropin alpha-subunit.
  Endocr J, 50, 245-253.  
14751029 R.A.Sendak, C.Ganesa, K.L.Lee, J.J.Harrahy, R.Théberge, C.J.Morgan, E.S.Cole, L.D.Kohn, and R.J.Mattaliano (2003).
The effect of posttranslational modifications on the in vitro activity of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  Thyroid, 13, 1091-1101.  
  14526438 Y.Jiang, F.Zeng, C.Xiao, and J.Liu (2003).
Expression of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin genes in renal cell cancer and benign renal disease tissues.
  J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci, 23, 291-293.  
12437123 D.Bisacchi, D.M.Noonan, S.Carlone, A.Albini, and U.Pfeffer (2002).
Kaposi's sarcoma and human chorionic gonadotropin: mechanisms, moieties and mysteries.
  Biol Chem, 383, 1315-1320.  
12415629 H.F.Acevedo (2002).
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the hormone of life and death: a review.
  J Exp Ther Oncol, 2, 133-145.  
12470481 I.B.Baluja Conde, A.I.Brito Moreno, C.Acosta Bas, O.Zalueta Rodríguez, A.Melchor Rodríguez, I.Amores Sanchéz, L.Martínez, and M.Hernández (2002).
Monoclonal antibody against free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  Hybrid Hybridomics, 21, 381-384.  
11793416 J.A.Wilken, K.Matsumoto, L.S.Laughlin, B.L.Lasley, and E.Bedows (2002).
Comparison of chorionic gonadotropin expression in human and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) trophoblasts.
  Am J Primatol, 56, 89-97.  
11870503 K.Hotakainen, B.Ljungberg, A.Paju, T.Rasmuson, H.Alfthan, and U.H.Stenman (2002).
The free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin as a prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma.
  Br J Cancer, 86, 185-189.  
  12045258 K.Nakabayashi, H.Matsumi, A.Bhalla, J.Bae, S.Mosselman, S.Y.Hsu, and A.J.Hsueh (2002).
Thyrostimulin, a heterodimer of two new human glycoprotein hormone subunits, activates the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor.
  J Clin Invest, 109, 1445-1452.  
12225244 P.J.Delves (2002).
The development of contraceptive vaccines.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 11, 1225-1237.  
11501762 A.Amoresano, S.Orrù, R.A.Siciliano, E.De Luca, R.Napoleoni, A.Sirna, and P.Pucci (2001).
Assignment of the complete disulphide bridge pattern in the human recombinant follitropin beta-chain.
  Biol Chem, 382, 961-968.  
11589683 C.P.Yeo, D.H.Khoo, P.H.Eng, H.K.Tan, S.L.Yo, and E.Jacob (2001).
Prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis in Asian women evaluated in the 8th to 14th weeks of pregnancy: correlations with total and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin.
  Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 55, 391-398.  
11412304 M.D.Chiesa, P.M.Martensen, C.Simmons, N.Porakishvili, J.Justesen, G.Dougan, I.M.Roitt, P.J.Delves, and T.Lund (2001).
Refocusing of B-cell responses following a single amino acid substitution in an antigen.
  Immunology, 103, 172-178.  
11148053 R.J.Darling, J.A.Wilken, R.W.Ruddon, and E.Bedows (2001).
Intracellular folding pathway of the cystine knot-containing glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit.
  Biochemistry, 40, 577-585.  
11167125 V.Garcia-Campayo, and I.Boime (2001).
Novel recombinant gonadotropins.
  Trends Endocrinol Metab, 12, 72-77.  
11266609 Y.Xing, C.Williams, R.K.Campbell, S.Cook, M.Knoppers, T.Addona, V.Altarocca, and W.R.Moyle (2001).
Threading of a glycosylated protein loop through a protein hole: implications for combination of human chorionic gonadotropin subunits.
  Protein Sci, 10, 226-235.  
11591722 Y.Xing, W.Lin, M.Jiang, R.V.Myers, D.Cao, M.P.Bernard, and W.R.Moyle (2001).
Alternatively folded choriogonadotropin analogs. Implications for hormone folding and biological activity.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 46953-46960.  
10773074 E.B.Vervoort, A.van Ravestein, N.N.van Peij, J.C.Heikoop, P.J.van Haastert, G.F.Verheijden, and M.H.Linskens (2000).
Optimizing heterologous expression in dictyostelium: importance of 5' codon adaptation.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 2069-2074.  
11001407 I.B.Baluja Conde, A.I.Brito Moreno, I.Amores Sanchéz, and C.Acosta Bas (2000).
Production and characterization of specific monoclonal antibodies of the human thyroid stimulating hormone.
  Hybridoma, 19, 335-338.  
10992290 M.T.Hearn, and P.T.Gomme (2000).
Molecular architecture and biorecognition processes of the cystine knot protein superfamily: part I. The glycoprotein hormones.
  J Mol Recognit, 13, 223-278.  
10821673 P.J.Erbel, Y.Karimi-Nejad, J.A.van Kuik, R.Boelens, J.P.Kamerling, and J.F.Vliegenthart (2000).
Effects of the N-linked glycans on the 3D structure of the free alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  Biochemistry, 39, 6012-6021.
PDB codes: 1e9j 1hd4
10809777 R.J.Darling, R.W.Ruddon, F.Perini, and E.Bedows (2000).
Cystine knot mutations affect the folding of the glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit. Differential secretion and assembly of partially folded intermediates.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 15413-15421.  
10913841 R.V.Myers, Y.Wang, and W.R.Moyle (2000).
The surface of alpha-subunit loop 1 distant from the subunit interface is exposed in the hCG lutropin receptor complex.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1475, 390-394.  
10789723 S.A.Butler, M.S.Ikram, S.Mathieu, and R.K.Iles (2000).
The increase in bladder carcinoma cell population induced by the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin is a result of an anti-apoptosis effect and not cell proliferation.
  Br J Cancer, 82, 1553-1556.  
10766799 V.Singh, and W.E.Merz (2000).
Disulfide bond formation is not required for human chorionic gonadotropin subunit association. Studies with dithiothreitol in JEG-3 cells.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 11765-11770.  
10869857 X.Yang, R.A.McGraw, and D.C.Ferguson (2000).
cDNA cloning of canine common alpha gene and its co-expression with canine thyrotropin beta gene in baculovirus expression system.
  Domest Anim Endocrinol, 18, 379-393.  
  10365675 B.D.Weintraub, and M.W.Szkudlinski (1999).
Development and in vitro characterization of human recombinant thyrotropin.
  Thyroid, 9, 447-450.  
10563789 D.Ben-Menahem, R.Hyde, M.Pixley, P.Berger, and I.Boime (1999).
Synthesis of multi-subunit domain gonadotropin complexes: a model for alpha/beta heterodimer formation.
  Biochemistry, 38, 15070-15077.  
10103036 J.C.Heikoop, B.Huisman-de Winkel, and P.D.Grootenhuis (1999).
Towards minimized gonadotropins with full bioactivity.
  Eur J Biochem, 261, 81-84.  
  10484290 L.Lobel, S.Pollak, S.Wang, M.Chaney, and J.W.Lustbader (1999).
Expression and characterization of recombinant beta-subunit hCG homodimer.
  Endocrine, 10, 261-270.  
10651281 M.L.Kouwijzer, H.J.Berendsen, and P.D.Grootenhuis (1999).
Computer simulations of the dynamics of human choriogonadotropin and its alpha subunit.
  Proteins, 37, 668-682.  
10425673 M.R.Wormald, and R.A.Dwek (1999).
Glycoproteins: glycan presentation and protein-fold stability.
  Structure, 7, R155-R160.  
10518802 N.Venkatesh, S.Krishnaswamy, S.Meuris, and G.S.Murthy (1999).
Epitope analysis and molecular modeling reveal the topography of the C-terminal peptide of the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  Eur J Biochem, 265, 1061-1066.  
10095786 P.J.Erbel, Y.Karimi-Nejad, T.De Beer, R.Boelens, J.P.Kamerling, and J.F.Vliegenthart (1999).
Solution structure of the alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  Eur J Biochem, 260, 490-498.
PDB code: 1dz7
10583046 P.Y.Venencie, G.Méduri, S.Pissard, A.Jolivet, H.Loosfelt, E.Milgrom, and M.Misrahi (1999).
Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin receptors in various epidermal structures.
  Br J Dermatol, 141, 438-446.  
10423550 R.A.Silva, S.A.Sherman, and T.A.Keiderling (1999).
Beta-hairpin stabilization in a 28-residue peptide derived from the beta-subunit sequence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone.
  Biopolymers, 50, 413-423.  
10209277 R.H.van der Linden, L.G.Frenken, Geus, M.M.Harmsen, R.C.Ruuls, W.Stok, Ron, S.Wilson, P.Davis, and C.T.Verrips (1999).
Comparison of physical chemical properties of llama VHH antibody fragments and mouse monoclonal antibodies.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1431, 37-46.  
10451534 R.K.Iles, S.A.Butler, and E.Jacoby (1999).
Dimerization of urinary beta-core/hCFbetacf: a cause of poor beta-core assay performance in Down syndrome screening studies.
  Prenat Diagn, 19, 790-792.  
9923845 Z.Darzynkiewicz (1999).
The butler did it: search for killer(s) of Kaposi's sarcoma cells in preparations of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, 104-106.  
9712877 C.Fotinou, J.Beauchamp, P.Emsley, A.deHaan, W.J.Schielen, E.Bos, and N.W.Isaacs (1998).
Structure of an Fab fragment against a C-terminal peptide of hCG at 2.0 A resolution.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 22515-22518.
PDB code: 1sbs
9761910 C.Fotinou, J.Beauchamp, P.Emsley, I.Black, A.DeHaan, E.Bos, and N.W.Isaacs (1998).
Crystallization of two hCG-specific monoclonal antibody fragments.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 54, 405-406.  
9485301 C.J.Arnold, C.Liu, B.Lindau-Shepard, M.L.Losavio, M.T.Patrascu, and J.A.Dias (1998).
The human follitropin alpha-subunit C terminus collaborates with a beta-subunit cystine noose and an alpha-subunit loop to assemble a receptor-binding domain competent for signal transduction.
  Biochemistry, 37, 1762-1768.  
9743123 M.Grossmann, H.Leitolf, B.D.Weintraub, and M.W.Szkudlinski (1998).
A rational design strategy for protein hormone superagonists.
  Nat Biotechnol, 16, 871-875.  
9558473 M.L.Dufau (1998).
The luteinizing hormone receptor.
  Annu Rev Physiol, 60, 461-496.  
9582090 S.Dirnhofer, C.Berger, M.Hermann, G.Steiner, S.Madersbacher, and P.Berger (1998).
Coexpression of gonadotropic hormones and their corresponding FSH- and LH/CG-receptors in the human prostate.
  Prostate, 35, 212-220.  
9593729 T.Phang, G.Kundu, S.Hong, I.Ji, and T.H.Ji (1998).
The amino-terminal region of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor contacts both subunits of human choriogonadotropin. II. Photoaffinity labeling.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 13841-13847.  
  9165082 A.Bergner, T.Muta, S.Iwanaga, H.G.Beisel, R.Delotto, and W.Bode (1997).
Horseshoe crab coagulogen is an invertebrate protein with a nerve growth factor-like domain.
  Biol Chem, 378, 283-287.  
9218442 A.Sato, E.Perlas, D.Ben-Menahem, M.Kudo, M.R.Pixley, M.Furuhashi, A.J.Hsueh, and I.Boime (1997).
Cystine knot of the gonadotropin alpha subunit is critical for intracellular behavior but not for in vitro biological activity.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 18098-18103.  
9223186 E.L.Sonnhammer, S.R.Eddy, and R.Durbin (1997).
Pfam: a comprehensive database of protein domain families based on seed alignments.
  Proteins, 28, 405-420.  
9183002 J.C.Heikoop, M.M.van Beuningen-de Vaan, P.van den Boogaart, and P.D.Grootenhuis (1997).
Evaluation of subunit truncation and the nature of the spacer for single chain human gonadotropins.
  Eur J Biochem, 245, 656-662.  
9219269 J.C.Heikoop, P.van den Boogaart, J.W.Mulders, and P.D.Grootenhuis (1997).
Structure-based design and protein engineering of intersubunit disulfide bonds in gonadotropins.
  Nat Biotechnol, 15, 658-662.  
9467969 J.C.Spetzler, M.Meldal, E.Meinjohanns, L.Steinaa, S.Mouritsen, and K.Bock (1997).
Synthetic hFSH peptide constructs in the evaluation of previous studies on the hFSH receptor interaction.
  J Pept Sci, 3, 397-414.  
9013570 L.Cosowsky, W.Lin, Y.Han, M.P.Bernard, R.K.Campbell, and W.R.Moyle (1997).
Influence of subunit interactions on lutropin specificity. Implications for studies of glycoprotein hormone function.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 3309-3314.  
9182589 M.Grossmann, M.W.Szkudlinski, R.Wong, J.A.Dias, T.H.Ji, and B.D.Weintraub (1997).
Substitution of the seat-belt region of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) beta-subunit with the corresponding regions of choriogonadotropin or follitropin confers luteotropic but not follitropic activity to chimeric TSH.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 15532-15540.  
9261143 M.Grossmann, R.Wong, M.W.Szkudlinski, and B.D.Weintraub (1997).
Human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) subunit gene fusion produces hTSH with increased stability and serum half-life and compensates for mutagenesis-induced defects in subunit association.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 21312-21316.  
9496262 M.M.Kennedy, S.B.Lucas, R.Russell-Jones, D.D.Howells, S.J.Picton, A.Bardon, I.L.Comley, J.O.McGee, and J.J.O'Leary (1997).
HHV8 and female Kaposi's sarcoma.
  J Pathol, 183, 447-452.  
9364441 M.R.Sairam, L.G.Jiang, T.A.Yarney, and H.Khan (1997).
Alternative splicing converts the G-protein coupled follitropin receptor gene into a growth factor type I receptor: implications for pleiotropic actions of the hormone.
  Mol Reprod Dev, 48, 471-479.  
9284286 N.Grewal, S.Nagpal, G.B.Chavali, S.S.Majumdar, R.Pal, and D.M.Salunke (1997).
Ligand-induced receptor dimerization may be critical for signal transduction by choriogonadotropin.
  Biophys J, 73, 1190-1197.  
9131622 R.K.Campbell, E.R.Bergert, Y.Wang, J.C.Morris, and W.R.Moyle (1997).
Chimeric proteins can exceed the sum of their parts: implications for evolution and protein design.
  Nat Biotechnol, 15, 439-443.  
9081984 R.W.Ruddon, and E.Bedows (1997).
Assisted protein folding.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 3125-3128.  
9315876 S.Purohit, K.Shao, S.V.Balasubramanian, and O.P.Bahl (1997).
Mutants of human choriogonadotropin lacking N-glycosyl chains in the alpha-subunit. 1. Mechanism for the differential action of the N-linked carbohydrates.
  Biochemistry, 36, 12355-12363.  
9219270 V.Garcia-Campayo, A.Sato, B.Hirsch, T.Sugahara, M.Muyan, A.J.Hsueh, and I.Boime (1997).
Design of stable biologically active recombinant lutropin analogs.
  Nat Biotechnol, 15, 663-667.  
9207067 Y.A.Muller, B.Li, H.W.Christinger, J.A.Wells, B.C.Cunningham, and Vos (1997).
Vascular endothelial growth factor: crystal structure and functional mapping of the kinase domain receptor binding site.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 7192-7197.
PDB code: 1vpf
9351807 Y.A.Muller, H.W.Christinger, B.A.Keyt, and Vos (1997).
The crystal structure of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) refined to 1.93 A resolution: multiple copy flexibility and receptor binding.
  Structure, 5, 1325-1338.
PDB code: 2vpf
9022688 A.Amoresano, R.Siciliano, S.Orrù, R.Napoleoni, V.Altarocca, E.De Luca, A.Sirna, and P.Pucci (1996).
Structural characterisation of human recombinant glycohormones follitropin, lutropin and choriogonadotropin expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
  Eur J Biochem, 242, 608-618.  
  9003754 A.Bergner, V.Oganessyan, T.Muta, S.Iwanaga, D.Typke, R.Huber, and W.Bode (1996).
Crystal structure of a coagulogen, the clotting protein from horseshoe crab: a structural homologue of nerve growth factor.
  EMBO J, 15, 6789-6797.
PDB code: 1aoc
8887120 A.M.Jackson, T.Klonisch, A.J.Lapthorn, P.Berger, N.W.Isaacs, P.J.Delves, T.Lund, and I.M.Roitt (1996).
Identification and selective destruction of shared epitopes in human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit.
  J Reprod Immunol, 31, 21-36.  
8940183 C.Wu, P.Narayan, and D.Puett (1996).
Protein engineering of a novel constitutively active hormone-receptor complex.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 31638-31642.  
8768899 D.F.Wyss, and G.Wagner (1996).
The structural role of sugars in glycoproteins.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 7, 409-416.  
  8562337 D.J.Gillott, R.K.Iles, and T.Chard (1996).
The effects of beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin on the in vitro growth of bladder cancer cell lines.
  Br J Cancer, 73, 323-326.  
8570652 D.L.Griffith, P.C.Keck, T.K.Sampath, D.C.Rueger, and W.D.Carlson (1996).
Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human osteogenic protein 1: structural paradigm for the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 878-883.
PDB code: 1bmp
9027343 D.Puett, N.Bhowmick, L.M.Fernandez, J.Huang, C.Wu, and P.Narayan (1996).
hCG-receptor binding and transmembrane signaling.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 55-64.  
8626648 G.C.Kundu, I.Ji, D.J.McCormick, and T.H.Ji (1996).
Photoaffinity labeling of the lutropin receptor with synthetic peptide for carboxyl terminus of the human choriogonadotropin alpha subunit.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 11063-11066.  
8636437 G.Medeiros-Neto, D.T.Herodotou, S.Rajan, S.Kommareddi, Lacerda, R.Sandrini, M.C.Boguszewski, A.N.Hollenberg, S.Radovick, and F.E.Wondisford (1996).
A circulating, biologically inactive thyrotropin caused by a mutation in the beta subunit gene.
  J Clin Invest, 97, 1250-1256.  
9027339 G.R.Bousfield, V.Y.Butnev, R.R.Gotschall, V.L.Baker, and W.T.Moore (1996).
Structural features of mammalian gonadotropins.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 3.  
8941011 H.F.Acevedo, and R.J.Hartsock (1996).
Metastatic phenotype correlates with high expression of membrane-associated complete beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in vivo.
  Cancer, 78, 2388-2399.  
8953654 H.W.Christinger, Y.A.Muller, L.T.Berleau, B.A.Keyt, B.C.Cunningham, N.Ferrara, and Vos (1996).
Crystallization of the receptor binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor.
  Proteins, 26, 353-357.  
9027342 J.A.Dias (1996).
Human follitropin heterodimerization and receptor binding structural motifs: identification and analysis by a combination of synthetic peptide and mutagenesis approaches.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 45-54.  
8939750 J.H.Naismith, T.Q.Devine, T.Kohno, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
Structures of the extracellular domain of the type I tumor necrosis factor receptor.
  Structure, 4, 1251-1262.
PDB code: 1ext
9027346 J.J.Remy, L.Couture, J.Pantel, T.Haertlé, H.Rabesona, V.Bozon, E.Pajot-Augy, P.Robert, F.Troalen, R.Salesse, and J.M.Bidart (1996).
Mapping of HCG-receptor complexes.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 79-91.  
9027352 J.L.Jameson (1996).
Inherited disorders of the gonadotropin hormones.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 143-149.  
9027340 J.W.Lustbader, S.Pollak, L.Lobel, I.Trakht, S.Homans, J.M.Brown, and R.E.Canfield (1996).
Three-dimensional structures of gonadotropins.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 21-31.  
8895101 K.C.Peng, G.R.Bousfield, D.Puett, and D.N.Ward (1996).
Circular dichroic spectroscopy of Arg46-nicked ovine lutropin alpha and derived fragments.
  J Protein Chem, 15, 547-552.  
8672495 K.E.Roth, and J.A.Dias (1996).
Follitropin conformational stability mediated by loop 2 beta effects follitropin-receptor interaction.
  Biochemistry, 35, 7928-7935.  
9027347 K.S.Ryu, I.Ji, L.Chang, and T.H.Ji (1996).
Molecular mechanism of LH/CG receptor activation.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 93.  
8902847 K.Shao, S.Purohit, and O.P.Bahl (1996).
Effect of modification of all loop regions in the alpha- and beta-subunits of human choriogonadotropin on its signal transduction activity.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 122, 173-182.  
8917465 L.Couture, J.J.Remy, H.Rabesona, F.Troalen, E.Pajot-Augy, V.Bozon, T.Haertle, J.M.Bidart, and R.Salesse (1996).
A defined epitope on the human choriogonadotropin alpha-subunit interacts with the second extracellular loop of the transmembrane domain of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor.
  Eur J Biochem, 241, 627-632.  
9631089 M.W.Szkudlinski, N.G.Teh, M.Grossmann, J.E.Tropea, and B.D.Weintraub (1996).
Engineering human glycoprotein hormone superactive analogues.
  Nat Biotechnol, 14, 1257-1263.  
9027344 N.el Tayar (1996).
Advances in the molecular understanding of gonadotropins-receptors interactions.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 65-70.  
9027341 P.Berger, J.M.Bidart, P.S.Delves, S.Dirnhofer, R.Hoermann, N.Isaacs, A.Jackson, T.Klonisch, A.Lapthorn, T.Lund, K.Mann, I.Roitt, S.Schwarz, and G.Wick (1996).
Immunochemical mapping of gonadotropins.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 33-43.  
8870072 P.Bork, A.K.Downing, B.Kieffer, and I.D.Campbell (1996).
Structure and distribution of modules in extracellular proteins.
  Q Rev Biophys, 29, 119-167.  
  8819159 P.R.Mittl, J.P.Priestle, D.A.Cox, G.McMaster, N.Cerletti, and M.G.Grütter (1996).
The crystal structure of TGF-beta 3 and comparison to TGF-beta 2: implications for receptor binding.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1261-1271.
PDB codes: 1tgj 1tgk
9031839 R.K.Iles (1996).
Urinary analysis for Down's syndrome: is the measurement of urinary beta-core the future of biochemical screening for Down's syndrome.
  Early Hum Dev, 47, S41-S45.  
9631081 R.W.Ruddon (1996).
Super hormones.
  Nat Biotechnol, 14, 1224.  
  8844836 R.W.Ruddon, S.A.Sherman, and E.Bedows (1996).
Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum: lessons from the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1443-1452.  
8647799 S.M.Manzella, L.V.Hooper, and J.U.Baenziger (1996).
Oligosaccharides containing beta 1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosamine, a paradigm for protein-specific glycosylation.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 12117-12120.  
8784347 S.Spinelli, L.Frenken, D.Bourgeois, Ron, W.Bos, T.Verrips, C.Anguille, C.Cambillau, and M.Tegoni (1996).
The crystal structure of a llama heavy chain variable domain.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 752-757.
PDB code: 1hcv
8898911 T.De Beer, C.W.Van Zuylen, B.R.Leeflang, K.Hård, R.Boelens, R.Kaptein, J.P.Kamerling, and J.F.Vliegenthart (1996).
NMR studies of the free alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. Structural influences of N-glycosylation and the beta subunit on the conformation of the alpha subunit.
  Eur J Biochem, 241, 229-242.  
8765037 T.Klonisch, P.J.Delves, P.Berger, G.Panayotou, A.J.Lapthorn, N.W.Isaacs, G.Wick, T.Lund, and I.M.Roitt (1996).
Relative location of epitopes involved in synergistic antibody binding using human chorionic gonadotropin as a model.
  Eur J Immunol, 26, 1897-1905.  
9027345 T.Sugahara, P.D.Grootenhuis, A.Sato, M.Kudo, D.Ben-Menahem, M.R.Pixley, A.J.Hsueh, and I.Boime (1996).
Expression of biologically active fusion genes encoding the common alpha subunit and either the CG beta or FSH beta subunits: role of a linker sequence.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 71-77.  
8856063 W.D.Fairlie, P.G.Stanton, and M.T.Hearn (1996).
Contribution of specific disulphide bonds to two epitopes of thyrotropin beta-subunit associated with receptor recognition.
  Eur J Biochem, 240, 622-627.  
  8925835 Y.Koide, H.Papkoff, and H.Kawauchi (1996).
Complete amino acid sequences of follitropin and lutropin in the ostrich, Struthio camelus.
  Eur J Biochem, 240, 262-267.  
8811096 Y.Lin, D.Nieuwlandt, A.Magallanez, B.Feistner, and S.D.Jayasena (1996).
High-affinity and specific recognition of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) by in vitro-selected 2'-amino-modified RNA.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 3407-3414.  
7796259 A.J.Lapthorn, R.W.Janes, N.W.Isaacs, and B.A.Wallace (1995).
Cystine nooses and protein specificity.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 266-268.  
7876230 A.N.Baldwin, and E.M.Shooter (1995).
Zone mapping of the binding domain of the rat low affinity nerve growth factor receptor by the introduction of novel N-glycosylation sites.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 4594-4602.  
8535781 A.V.Kajava, G.Vassart, and S.J.Wodak (1995).
Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of proteins with the typical leucine-rich repeats.
  Structure, 3, 867-877.  
7831319 B.J.Mengeling, S.M.Manzella, and J.U.Baenziger (1995).
A cluster of basic amino acids within an alpha-helix is essential for alpha-subunit recognition by the glycoprotein hormone N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 502-506.  
7583641 B.Kobe, and J.Deisenhofer (1995).
Proteins with leucine-rich repeats.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 409-416.  
7598845 C.F.Ibáñez (1995).
Neurotrophic factors: from structure-function studies to designing effective therapeutics.
  Trends Biotechnol, 13, 217-227.  
7703377 C.Liang, and K.Mislow (1995).
Topological features of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  Biopolymers, 35, 343-345.  
7735831 C.W.Carter (1995).
Entropy, likelihood and phase determination.
  Structure, 3, 147-150.  
7544284 C.W.Van Zuylen, T.De Beer, G.J.Rademaker, J.Haverkamp, J.E.Thomas-Oates, K.Hård, J.P.Kamerling, and J.F.Vliegenthart (1995).
Site-specific and complete enzymic deglycosylation of the native human chorionic gonadotropin alpha-subunit.
  Eur J Biochem, 231, 754-760.  
8620425 H.F.Acevedo, J.Y.Tong, and R.J.Hartsock (1995).
Human chorionic gonadotropin-beta subunit gene expression in cultured human fetal and cancer cells of different types and origins.
  Cancer, 76, 1467-1475.  
8530405 J.Huang, and D.Puett (1995).
Identification of two amino acid residues on the extracellular domain of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor important in signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 30023-30028.  
7877975 K.A.Risma, C.M.Clay, T.M.Nett, T.Wagner, J.Yun, and J.H.Nilson (1995).
Targeted overexpression of luteinizing hormone in transgenic mice leads to infertility, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian tumors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 1322-1326.  
7650019 L.Cosowsky, S.N.Rao, G.J.Macdonald, H.Papkoff, R.K.Campbell, and W.R.Moyle (1995).
The groove between the alpha- and beta-subunits of hormones with lutropin (LH) activity appears to contact the LH receptor, and its conformation is changed during hormone binding.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 20011-20019.  
7493973 M.Grossmann, M.W.Szkudlinski, J.E.Tropea, L.A.Bishop, N.R.Thotakura, P.R.Schofield, and B.D.Weintraub (1995).
Expression of human thyrotropin in cell lines with different glycosylation patterns combined with mutagenesis of specific glycosylation sites. Characterization of a novel role for the oligosaccharides in the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 29378-29385.  
  8770367 M.W.Parker (1995).
Protein crystallography in Australia.
  Aust N Z J Med, 25, 876-882.  
7568073 M.W.Szkudlinski, N.R.Thotakura, and B.D.Weintraub (1995).
Subunit-specific functions of N-linked oligosaccharides in human thyrotropin: role of terminal residues of alpha- and beta-subunit oligosaccharides in metabolic clearance and bioactivity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 9062-9066.  
7649974 N.Q.McDonald, and M.V.Chao (1995).
Structural determinants of neurotrophin action.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 19669-19672.  
7583638 N.W.Isaacs (1995).
Cystine knots.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 391-395.  
7548959 P.Laidler, D.A.Cowan, R.C.Hider, A.Keane, and A.T.Kicman (1995).
Tryptic mapping of human chorionic gonadotropin by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
  Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 9, 1021-1026.  
8674812 P.Ren, M.R.Sairam, and T.A.Yarney (1995).
Bacterial expression of human chorionic gonadotropin alpha subunit: studies on refolding, dimer assembly and interaction with two different beta subunits.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 113, 39-51.  
8574693 R.J.Woods (1995).
Three-dimensional structures of oligosaccharides.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 591-598.  
7743129 S.Doublié, G.Bricogne, C.Gilmore, and C.W.Carter (1995).
Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase crystal structure reveals an unexpected homology to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase.
  Structure, 3, 17-31.  
7545167 S.M.Manzella, S.M.Dharmesh, M.C.Beranek, P.Swanson, and J.U.Baenziger (1995).
Evolutionary conservation of the sulfated oligosaccharides on vertebrate glycoprotein hormones that control circulatory half-life.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 21665-21671.  
7589781 S.Slaughter, Y.Wang, R.V.Myers, and W.R.Moyle (1995).
The lutropin beta-subunit N-terminus facilitates subunit combination by offsetting the inhibitory effects of residues needed for LH activity.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 112, 21-25.  
7745621 T.Ebendal, A.Tomac, B.J.Hoffer, and L.Olson (1995).
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates fiber formation and survival in cultured neurons from peripheral autonomic ganglia.
  J Neurosci Res, 40, 276-284.  
7627630 T.Gudermann, B.Nürnberg, and G.Schultz (1995).
Receptors and G proteins as primary components of transmembrane signal transduction. Part 1. G-protein-coupled receptors: structure and function.
  J Mol Med, 73, 51-63.  
7892221 T.Sugahara, M.R.Pixley, S.Minami, E.Perlas, D.Ben-Menahem, A.J.Hsueh, and I.Boime (1995).
Biosynthesis of a biologically active single peptide chain containing the human common alpha and chorionic gonadotropin beta subunits in tandem.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 2041-2045.  
7705351 W.D.Fairlie, P.G.Stanton, and M.T.Hearn (1995).
Delineation of tyrosine-containing epitopes within the beta subunit of bovine thyrotropin.
  Eur J Biochem, 228, 373-380.  
7650020 W.R.Moyle, R.K.Campbell, S.N.Rao, N.G.Ayad, M.P.Bernard, Y.Han, and Y.Wang (1995).
Model of human chorionic gonadotropin and lutropin receptor interaction that explains signal transduction of the glycoprotein hormones.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 20020-20031.  
8747461 X.Jiang, M.Dreano, D.R.Buckler, S.Cheng, A.Ythier, H.Wu, W.A.Hendrickson, and N.el Tayar (1995).
Structural predictions for the ligand-binding region of glycoprotein hormone receptors and the nature of hormone-receptor interactions.
  Structure, 3, 1341-1353.
PDB codes: 1lut 1xul 1xum 1xun
7954826 K.D.Irvine, and E.Wieschaus (1994).
fringe, a Boundary-specific signaling molecule, mediates interactions between dorsal and ventral cells during Drosophila wing development.
  Cell, 79, 595-606.  
7765410 W.J.De Koning, G.A.Walsh, A.S.Wrynn, and D.R.Headon (1994).
Recombinant reproduction.
  Biotechnology (N Y), 12, 988-992.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.