PDBsum entry 1a4o

Go to PDB code: 
protein Protein-protein interface(s) links
Signal transduction PDB id
Protein chains
197 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Signal transduction
Title: 14-3-3 protein zeta isoform
Structure: 14-3-3 protein zeta. Chain: a, b, c, d. Engineered: yes
Source: Bos taurus. Cattle. Organism_taxid: 9913. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.80Å     R-factor:   0.310     R-free:   0.345
Authors: D.Liu,J.Bienkowska,C.Petosa,R.J.Collier,H.Fu,R.C.Liddington
Key ref: D.Liu et al. (1995). Crystal structure of the zeta isoform of the 14-3-3 protein. Nature, 376, 191-194. PubMed id: 7603574
01-Feb-98     Release date:   02-Mar-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P63103  (1433Z_BOVIN) -  14-3-3 protein zeta/delta
245 a.a.
197 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     blood microparticle   7 terms 
  Biological process     Golgi reassembly   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     transcription factor binding     5 terms  


Nature 376:191-194 (1995)
PubMed id: 7603574  
Crystal structure of the zeta isoform of the 14-3-3 protein.
D.Liu, J.Bienkowska, C.Petosa, R.J.Collier, H.Fu, R.Liddington.
The 14-3-3 family of proteins have recently been identified as regulatory elements in intracellular signalling pathways: 14-3-3 proteins bind to oncogene and proto-oncogene products, including c-Raf-1 (refs 2-5), c-Bcr (ref. 6) and polyomavirus middle-T antigen; overexpression of 14-3-3 activates Raf kinase in yeast and induces meiotic maturation in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the crystal structure of the major isoform of mammalian 14-3-3 proteins at 2.9 A resolution. Each subunit of the dimeric protein consists of a bundle of nine antiparallel helices that form a palisade around an amphipathic groove. The groove is large enough to accommodate a tenth helix, and we propose that binding to an amphipathic helix represents a general mechanism for the interaction of 14-3-3 with diverse cellular proteins. The residues in the dimer interface and the putative ligand-binding surface are invariant among vertebrates, yeast and plants, suggesting a conservation of structure and function throughout the 14-3-3 family.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
22366688 C.Valente, G.Turacchio, S.Mariggiò, A.Pagliuso, R.Gaibisso, G.Di Tullio, M.Santoro, F.Formiggini, S.Spanò, D.Piccini, R.S.Polishchuk, A.Colanzi, A.Luini, and D.Corda (2012).
A 14-3-3γ dimer-based scaffold bridges CtBP1-S/BARS to PI(4)KIIIβ to regulate post-Golgi carrier formation.
  Nat Cell Biol, 14, 343-354.  
21242966 O.Barbash, E.K.Lee, and J.A.Diehl (2011).
Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of SCF(Fbx4) dimerization and activity involves a novel component, 14-3-3ɛ.
  Oncogene, 30, 1995-2002.  
21275878 S.Cockcroft, and K.Garner (2011).
Function of the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein gene family: is phosphatidylinositol transfer the mechanism of action?
  Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 46, 89.  
19920133 G.Messaritou, S.Grammenoudi, and E.M.Skoulakis (2010).
Dimerization is essential for 14-3-3zeta stability and function in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 1692-1700.  
20215589 G.Shen, S.Kuppu, S.Venkataramani, J.Wang, J.Yan, X.Qiu, and H.Zhang (2010).
ANKYRIN REPEAT-CONTAINING PROTEIN 2A is an essential molecular chaperone for peroxisomal membrane-bound ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE3 in Arabidopsis.
  Plant Cell, 22, 811-831.  
20639859 K.Kasahara, H.Goto, M.Enomoto, Y.Tomono, T.Kiyono, and M.Inagaki (2010).
14-3-3gamma mediates Cdc25A proteolysis to block premature mitotic entry after DNA damage.
  EMBO J, 29, 2802-2812.  
21203569 M.Inoue, K.Yasuda, H.Uemura, N.Yasaka, H.Inoue, Y.Sei, N.Horikoshi, and T.Fukuma (2010).
Phosphorylation-dependent protein interaction with Trypanosoma brucei 14-3-3 proteins that display atypical target recognition.
  PLoS One, 5, e15566.  
20519337 Z.T.Zhang, Y.Zhou, Y.Li, S.Q.Shao, B.Y.Li, H.Y.Shi, and X.B.Li (2010).
Interactome analysis of the six cotton 14-3-3s that are preferentially expressed in fibres and involved in cell elongation.
  J Exp Bot, 61, 3331-3344.  
19662078 B.Kostelecky, A.T.Saurin, A.Purkiss, P.J.Parker, and N.Q.McDonald (2009).
Recognition of an intra-chain tandem 14-3-3 binding site within PKCepsilon.
  EMBO Rep, 10, 983-989.
PDB code: 2wh0
19575580 D.Chevalier, E.R.Morris, and J.C.Walker (2009).
14-3-3 and FHA domains mediate phosphoprotein interactions.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 60, 67-91.  
19173303 E.Rampakakis, D.N.Arvanitis, D.Di Paola, and M.Zannis-Hadjopoulos (2009).
Metazoan origins of DNA replication: regulation through dynamic chromatin structure.
  J Cell Biochem, 106, 512-520.  
19371722 K.Kligys, J.Yao, D.Yu, and J.C.Jones (2009).
14-3-3zeta/tau heterodimers regulate Slingshot activity in migrating keratinocytes.
  Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 383, 450-454.  
18618111 R.Kobayashi, M.Deavers, R.Patenia, T.Rice-Stitt, J.Halbe, S.Gallardo, and R.S.Freedman (2009).
14-3-3 zeta protein secreted by tumor associated monocytes/macrophages from ascites of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.
  Cancer Immunol Immunother, 58, 247-258.  
19366886 S.Sun, E.W.Wong, M.W.Li, W.M.Lee, and C.Y.Cheng (2009).
14-3-3 and its binding partners are regulators of protein-protein interactions during spermatogenesis.
  J Endocrinol, 202, 327-336.  
  19513242 A.L.Paul, K.M.Folta, and R.J.Ferl (2008).
14-3-3 proteins, red light and photoperiodic flowering: A point of connection?
  Plant Signal Behav, 3, 511-515.  
18445273 D.L.Bolton, R.A.Barnitz, K.Sakai, and M.J.Lenardo (2008).
14-3-3 theta binding to cell cycle regulatory factors is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpr.
  Biol Direct, 3, 17.  
18606808 H.Sakiyama, R.M.Wynn, W.R.Lee, M.Fukasawa, H.Mizuguchi, K.H.Gardner, J.J.Repa, and K.Uyeda (2008).
Regulation of Nuclear Import/Export of Carbohydrate Response Element-binding Protein (ChREBP): INTERACTION OF AN {alpha}-HELIX OF ChREBP WITH THE 14-3-3 PROTEINS AND REGULATION BY PHOSPHORYLATION.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 24899-24908.  
18550856 H.Takala, E.Nurminen, S.M.Nurmi, M.Aatonen, T.Strandin, M.Takatalo, T.Kiema, C.G.Gahmberg, J.Ylänne, and S.C.Fagerholm (2008).
Beta2 integrin phosphorylation on Thr758 acts as a molecular switch to regulate 14-3-3 and filamin binding.
  Blood, 112, 1853-1862.
PDB codes: 2jf1 2v7d
18078716 K.Omi, N.S.Hachiya, M.Tanaka, K.Tokunaga, and K.Kaneko (2008).
14-3-3zeta is indispensable for aggregate formation of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin protein.
  Neurosci Lett, 431, 45-50.  
18054234 M.Zannis-Hadjopoulos, W.Yahyaoui, and M.Callejo (2008).
14-3-3 cruciform-binding proteins as regulators of eukaryotic DNA replication.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 33, 44-50.  
19001422 S.Visconti, L.Camoni, M.Marra, and P.Aducci (2008).
Role of the 14-3-3 C-terminal region in the interaction with the plasma membrane H+-ATPase.
  Plant Cell Physiol, 49, 1887-1897.  
18391969 T.Obsil, and V.Obsilova (2008).
Structure/function relationships underlying regulation of FOXO transcription factors.
  Oncogene, 27, 2263-2275.  
18687683 X.Liang, M.B.Butterworth, K.W.Peters, W.H.Walker, and R.A.Frizzell (2008).
An Obligatory Heterodimer of 14-3-3{beta} and 14-3-3{epsilon} Is Required for Aldosterone Regulation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 27418-27425.  
17235285 C.Ottmann, L.Yasmin, M.Weyand, J.L.Veesenmeyer, M.H.Diaz, R.H.Palmer, M.S.Francis, A.R.Hauser, A.Wittinghofer, and B.Hallberg (2007).
Phosphorylation-independent interaction between 14-3-3 and exoenzyme S: from structure to pathogenesis.
  EMBO J, 26, 902-913.
PDB code: 2o02
17913709 J.S.Kim, B.A.Diebold, B.M.Babior, U.G.Knaus, and G.M.Bokoch (2007).
Regulation of Nox1 activity via protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of NoxA1 and 14-3-3 binding.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 34787-34800.  
17932789 O.Gileadi, S.Knapp, W.H.Lee, B.D.Marsden, S.Müller, F.H.Niesen, K.L.Kavanagh, L.J.Ball, F.von Delft, D.A.Doyle, U.C.Oppermann, and M.Sundström (2007).
The scientific impact of the Structural Genomics Consortium: a protein family and ligand-centered approach to medically-relevant human proteins.
  J Struct Funct Genomics, 8, 107-119.  
17443672 Y.Li, X.Lin, R.T.Kilani, J.C.Jones, and A.Ghahary (2007).
14-3-3 sigma isoform interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane BP180 in keratinocytes.
  J Cell Physiol, 212, 675-681.  
16678438 A.Aitken (2006).
14-3-3 proteins: a historic overview.
  Semin Cancer Biol, 16, 162-172.  
16678437 A.K.Gardino, S.J.Smerdon, and M.B.Yaffe (2006).
Structural determinants of 14-3-3 binding specificities and regulation of subcellular localization of 14-3-3-ligand complexes: a comparison of the X-ray crystal structures of all human 14-3-3 isoforms.
  Semin Cancer Biol, 16, 173-182.  
16367866 A.Patel, N.Cummings, M.Batchelor, P.J.Hill, T.Dubois, K.H.Mellits, G.Frankel, and I.Connerton (2006).
Host protein interactions with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC): 14-3-3tau binds Tir and has a role in EPEC-induced actin polymerization.
  Cell Microbiol, 8, 55-71.  
16498703 G.P.van Heusden, and H.Y.Steensma (2006).
Yeast 14-3-3 proteins.
  Yeast, 23, 159-171.  
16697216 G.W.Porter, F.R.Khuri, and H.Fu (2006).
Dynamic 14-3-3/client protein interactions integrate survival and apoptotic pathways.
  Semin Cancer Biol, 16, 193-202.  
16938151 K.Chaithirayanon, R.Grams, S.Vichasri-Grams, A.Hofmann, G.Korge, V.Viyanant, E.S.Upatham, and P.Sobhon (2006).
Molecular and immunological characterization of encoding gene and 14-3-3 protein 1 in Fasciola gigantica.
  Parasitology, 133, 763-775.  
16420486 L.Yasmin, A.L.Jansson, T.Panahandeh, R.H.Palmer, M.S.Francis, and B.Hallberg (2006).
Delineation of exoenzyme S residues that mediate the interaction with 14-3-3 and its biological activity.
  FEBS J, 273, 638-646.  
16368691 M.Lalle, A.M.Salzano, M.Crescenzi, and E.Pozio (2006).
The Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 protein is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation and polyglycylation of the C-terminal tail.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 5137-5148.  
16943217 W.F.Xu, and W.M.Shi (2006).
Expression profiling of the 14-3-3 gene family in response to salt stress and potassium and iron deficiencies in young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots: analysis by real-time RT-PCR.
  Ann Bot, 98, 965-974.  
17085597 X.Yang, W.H.Lee, F.Sobott, E.Papagrigoriou, C.V.Robinson, J.G.Grossmann, M.Sundström, D.A.Doyle, and J.M.Elkins (2006).
Structural basis for protein-protein interactions in the 14-3-3 protein family.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 17237-17242.
PDB codes: 2bq0 2br9 2btp 2c23 2c63 2c74
15883195 C.Faul, S.Hüttelmaier, J.Oh, V.Hachet, R.H.Singer, and P.Mundel (2005).
Promotion of importin alpha-mediated nuclear import by the phosphorylation-dependent binding of cargo protein to 14-3-3.
  J Cell Biol, 169, 415-424.  
15619233 D.W.Powell, W.M.Pierce, and K.R.McLeish (2005).
Defining mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways with mass spectrometry-based approaches.
  Mass Spectrom Rev, 24, 847-864.  
15731107 E.W.Wilker, R.A.Grant, S.C.Artim, and M.B.Yaffe (2005).
A structural basis for 14-3-3sigma functional specificity.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 18891-18898.
PDB code: 1ywt
15934090 I.Jéru, S.Papin, S.L'hoste, P.Duquesnoy, C.Cazeneuve, J.Camonis, and S.Amselem (2005).
Interaction of pyrin with 14.3.3 in an isoform-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner regulates its translocation to the nucleus.
  Arthritis Rheum, 52, 1848-1857.  
15592873 I.M.Rienties, J.Vink, J.W.Borst, E.Russinova, and Vries (2005).
The Arabidopsis SERK1 protein interacts with the AAA-ATPase AtCDC48, the 14-3-3 protein GF14lambda and the PP2C phosphatase KAPP.
  Planta, 221, 394-405.  
16009721 J.Sunayama, F.Tsuruta, N.Masuyama, and Y.Gotoh (2005).
JNK antagonizes Akt-mediated survival signals by phosphorylating 14-3-3.
  J Cell Biol, 170, 295-304.  
15691829 L.Baisamy, N.Jurisch, and D.Diviani (2005).
Leucine zipper-mediated homo-oligomerization regulates the Rho-GEF activity of AKAP-Lbc.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 15405-15412.  
15389601 L.G.Rodriguez, and J.L.Guan (2005).
14-3-3 regulation of cell spreading and migration requires a functional amphipathic groove.
  J Cell Physiol, 202, 285-294.  
15653691 M.Inoue, Y.Nakamura, K.Yasuda, N.Yasaka, T.Hara, A.Schnaufer, K.Stuart, and T.Fukuma (2005).
The 14-3-3 proteins of Trypanosoma brucei function in motility, cytokinesis, and cell cycle.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 14085-14096.  
16246723 N.Macdonald, J.P.Welburn, M.E.Noble, A.Nguyen, M.B.Yaffe, D.Clynes, J.G.Moggs, G.Orphanides, S.Thomson, J.W.Edmunds, A.L.Clayton, J.A.Endicott, and L.C.Mahadevan (2005).
Molecular basis for the recognition of phosphorylated and phosphoacetylated histone h3 by 14-3-3.
  Mol Cell, 20, 199-211.
PDB codes: 2c1j 2c1n
16239341 Q.Li, Q.Lu, G.Estepa, and I.M.Verma (2005).
Identification of 14-3-3sigma mutation causing cutaneous abnormality in repeated-epilation mutant mouse.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 15977-15982.  
16045749 S.J.Clokie, K.Y.Cheung, S.Mackie, R.Marquez, A.H.Peden, and A.Aitken (2005).
BCR kinase phosphorylates 14-3-3 Tau on residue 233.
  FEBS J, 272, 3767-3776.  
15722337 S.Urschel, F.Bassermann, R.Y.Bai, S.Münch, C.Peschel, and J.Duyster (2005).
Phosphorylation of grb10 regulates its interaction with 14-3-3.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 16987-16993.  
15632116 W.Zheng, D.Schwarzer, A.Lebeau, J.L.Weller, D.C.Klein, and P.A.Cole (2005).
Cellular stability of serotonin N-acetyltransferase conferred by phosphonodifluoromethylene alanine (Pfa) substitution for Ser-205.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 10462-10467.  
15479448 A.Ulloa-Aguirre, J.A.Janovick, S.P.Brothers, and P.M.Conn (2004).
Pharmacologic rescue of conformationally-defective proteins: implications for the treatment of human disease.
  Traffic, 5, 821-837.  
15229649 D.Diviani, L.Abuin, S.Cotecchia, and L.Pansier (2004).
Anchoring of both PKA and 14-3-3 inhibits the Rho-GEF activity of the AKAP-Lbc signaling complex.
  EMBO J, 23, 2811-2820.  
15071501 F.Tsuruta, J.Sunayama, Y.Mori, S.Hattori, S.Shimizu, Y.Tsujimoto, K.Yoshioka, N.Masuyama, and Y.Gotoh (2004).
JNK promotes Bax translocation to mitochondria through phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins.
  EMBO J, 23, 1889-1899.  
15549319 G.E.Palmer, and J.E.Sturtevant (2004).
Random mutagenesis of an essential Candida albicans gene.
  Curr Genet, 46, 343-356.  
15282546 J.M.Mingot, M.T.Bohnsack, U.Jäkle, and D.Görlich (2004).
Exportin 7 defines a novel general nuclear export pathway.
  EMBO J, 23, 3227-3236.  
15347690 J.Silhan, V.Obsilova, J.Vecer, P.Herman, M.Sulc, J.Teisinger, and T.Obsil (2004).
14-3-3 protein C-terminal stretch occupies ligand binding groove and is displaced by phosphopeptide binding.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 49113-49119.  
15139812 M.B.Yaffe, and S.J.Smerdon (2004).
The use of in vitro peptide-library screens in the analysis of phosphoserine/threonine-binding domain structure and function.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 33, 225-244.  
15314064 N.O.Ku, H.Fu, and M.B.Omary (2004).
Raf-1 activation disrupts its binding to keratins during cell stress.
  J Cell Biol, 166, 479-485.  
15032850 R.J.Ferl (2004).
14-3-3 proteins: regulation of signal-induced events.
  Physiol Plant, 120, 173-178.  
14613942 V.Obsilova, P.Herman, J.Vecer, M.Sulc, J.Teisinger, and T.Obsil (2004).
14-3-3zeta C-terminal stretch changes its conformation upon ligand binding and phosphorylation at Thr232.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 4531-4540.  
12667096 A.Ulloa-Aguirre, J.A.Janovick, A.Leaños-Miranda, and P.M.Conn (2003).
Misrouted cell surface receptors as a novel disease aetiology and potential therapeutic target: the case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to gonadotropin-releasing hormone resistance.
  Expert Opin Ther Targets, 7, 175-185.  
12795617 D.Alvarez, M.Callejo, R.Shoucri, L.Boyer, G.B.Price, and M.Zannis-Hadjopoulos (2003).
Analysis of the cruciform binding activity of recombinant 14-3-3zeta-MBP fusion protein, its heterodimerization profile with endogenous 14-3-3 isoforms, and effect on mammalian DNA replication in vitro.
  Biochemistry, 42, 7205-7215.  
12622836 D.C.Klein, S.Ganguly, S.L.Coon, Q.Shi, P.Gaildrat, F.Morin, J.L.Weller, T.Obsil, A.Hickman, and F.Dyda (2003).
14-3-3 proteins in pineal photoneuroendocrine transduction: how many roles?
  J Neuroendocrinol, 15, 370-377.  
12861023 D.W.Powell, M.J.Rane, B.A.Joughin, R.Kalmukova, J.H.Hong, B.Tidor, W.L.Dean, W.M.Pierce, J.B.Klein, M.B.Yaffe, and K.R.McLeish (2003).
Proteomic identification of 14-3-3zeta as a mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 substrate: role in dimer formation and ligand binding.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 5376-5387.  
14737123 H.Hermeking (2003).
The 14-3-3 cancer connection.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 3, 931-943.  
12865427 J.M.Woodcock, J.Murphy, F.C.Stomski, M.C.Berndt, and A.F.Lopez (2003).
The dimeric versus monomeric status of 14-3-3zeta is controlled by phosphorylation of Ser58 at the dimer interface.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 36323-36327.  
12773546 K.Sasaki, M.Sato, and Y.Umezawa (2003).
Fluorescent indicators for Akt/protein kinase B and dynamics of Akt activity visualized in living cells.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 30945-30951.  
12426317 M.Nomura, S.Shimizu, T.Sugiyama, M.Narita, T.Ito, H.Matsuda, and Y.Tsujimoto (2003).
14-3-3 Interacts directly with and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic Bax.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 2058-2065.  
12606564 M.Würtele, C.Jelich-Ottmann, A.Wittinghofer, and C.Oecking (2003).
Structural view of a fungal toxin acting on a 14-3-3 regulatory complex.
  EMBO J, 22, 987-994.
PDB codes: 1o9c 1o9d 1o9e 1o9f
12468542 S.D.Shumway, Y.Li, and Y.Xiong (2003).
14-3-3beta binds to and negatively regulates the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) tumor suppressor gene product, tuberin.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 2089-2092.  
12660984 S.Hong, and P.L.Pedersen (2003).
Subunit E of mitochondrial ATP synthase: a bioinformatic analysis reveals a phosphopeptide binding motif supporting a multifunctional regulatory role and identifies a related human brain protein with the same motif.
  Proteins, 51, 155-161.  
12509351 S.Visconti, L.Camoni, M.R.Fullone, M.Lalle, M.Marra, and P.Aducci (2003).
Mutational analysis of the interaction between 14-3-3 proteins and plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 8172-8178.  
14690436 T.Obsil, R.Ghirlando, D.E.Anderson, A.B.Hickman, and F.Dyda (2003).
Two 14-3-3 binding motifs are required for stable association of Forkhead transcription factor FOXO4 with 14-3-3 proteins and inhibition of DNA binding.
  Biochemistry, 42, 15264-15272.  
12753586 W.Shen, A.C.Clark, and S.C.Huber (2003).
The C-terminal tail of Arabidopsis 14-3-3omega functions as an autoinhibitor and may contain a tenth alpha-helix.
  Plant J, 34, 473-484.  
14551260 Y.H.Shen, J.Godlewski, A.Bronisz, J.Zhu, M.J.Comb, J.Avruch, and G.Tzivion (2003).
Significance of 14-3-3 self-dimerization for phosphorylation-dependent target binding.
  Mol Biol Cell, 14, 4721-4733.  
12529354 Y.Zhou, S.Reddy, H.Murrey, H.Fei, and I.B.Levitan (2003).
Monomeric 14-3-3 protein is sufficient to modulate the activity of the Drosophila slowpoke calcium-dependent potassium channel.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 10073-10080.  
12360521 A.B.Truong, S.C.Masters, H.Yang, and H.Fu (2002).
Role of the 14-3-3 C-terminal loop in ligand interaction.
  Proteins, 49, 321-325.  
11864996 A.Brunet, F.Kanai, J.Stehn, J.Xu, D.Sarbassova, J.V.Frangioni, S.N.Dalal, J.A.DeCaprio, M.E.Greenberg, and M.B.Yaffe (2002).
14-3-3 transits to the nucleus and participates in dynamic nucleocytoplasmic transport.
  J Cell Biol, 156, 817-828.  
11851916 G.S.Athwal, and S.C.Huber (2002).
Divalent cations and polyamines bind to loop 8 of 14-3-3 proteins, modulating their interaction with phosphorylated nitrate reductase.
  Plant J, 29, 119-129.  
11709560 G.Tzivion, and J.Avruch (2002).
14-3-3 proteins: active cofactors in cellular regulation by serine/threonine phosphorylation.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 3061-3064.  
  11773420 J.S.Orlando, and D.A.Ornelles (2002).
E4orf6 variants with separate abilities to augment adenovirus replication and direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kilodalton protein.
  J Virol, 76, 1475-1487.  
11862948 J.Yan, J.Wang, and H.Zhang (2002).
An ankyrin repeat-containing protein plays a role in both disease resistance and antioxidation metabolism.
  Plant J, 29, 193-202.  
12142274 K.A.Fields, and T.Hackstadt (2002).
The chlamydial inclusion: escape from the endocytic pathway.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 18, 221-245.  
12383250 M.L.Henriksson, M.S.Francis, A.Peden, M.Aili, K.Stefansson, R.Palmer, A.Aitken, and B.Hallberg (2002).
A nonphosphorylated 14-3-3 binding motif on exoenzyme S that is functional in vivo.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 4921-4929.  
  12184815 R.J.Ferl, M.S.Manak, and M.F.Reyes (2002).
The 14-3-3s.
  Genome Biol, 3, REVIEWS3010.  
11969417 T.Ichimura, A.Wakamiya-Tsuruta, C.Itagaki, M.Taoka, T.Hayano, T.Natsume, and T.Isobe (2002).
Phosphorylation-dependent interaction of kinesin light chain 2 and the 14-3-3 protein.
  Biochemistry, 41, 5566-5572.  
11345195 C.J.Bagley, J.M.Woodcock, M.A.Guthridge, F.C.Stomski, and A.F.Lopez (2001).
Structural and functional hot spots in cytokine receptors.
  Int J Hematol, 73, 299-307.  
11410287 H.Yang, S.C.Masters, H.Wang, and H.Fu (2001).
The proapoptotic protein Bad binds the amphipathic groove of 14-3-3zeta.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1547, 313-319.  
11737199 J.Voigt, I.Liebich, M.Kiess, and R.Frank (2001).
Subcellular distribution of 14-3-3 proteins in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 6449-6457.  
11260479 M.A.Scidmore, and T.Hackstadt (2001).
Mammalian 14-3-3beta associates with the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion membrane via its interaction with IncG.
  Mol Microbiol, 39, 1638-1650.  
11598960 M.J.van Hemert, H.Y.Steensma, and G.P.van Heusden (2001).
14-3-3 proteins: key regulators of cell division, signalling and apoptosis.
  Bioessays, 23, 936-946.  
11359875 R.Kleppe, K.Toska, and J.Haavik (2001).
Interaction of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase with 14-3-3 proteins: evidence for a phosphoserine 40-dependent association.
  J Neurochem, 77, 1097-1107.  
11336675 T.Obsil, R.Ghirlando, D.C.Klein, S.Ganguly, and F.Dyda (2001).
Crystal structure of the 14-3-3zeta:serotonin N-acetyltransferase complex. a role for scaffolding in enzyme regulation.
  Cell, 105, 257-267.
PDB code: 1ib1
10611249 C.W.Chow, and R.J.Davis (2000).
Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 702-712.  
10836149 H.Fu, R.R.Subramanian, and S.C.Masters (2000).
14-3-3 proteins: structure, function, and regulation.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 40, 617-647.  
10835362 H.Seimiya, H.Sawada, Y.Muramatsu, M.Shimizu, K.Ohko, K.Yamane, and T.Tsuruo (2000).
Involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in nuclear localization of telomerase.
  EMBO J, 19, 2652-2661.  
10949031 M.A.Guthridge, F.C.Stomski, E.F.Barry, W.Winnall, J.M.Woodcock, B.J.McClure, M.Dottore, M.C.Berndt, and A.F.Lopez (2000).
Site-specific serine phosphorylation of the IL-3 receptor is required for hemopoietic cell survival.
  Mol Cell, 6, 99.  
10982874 T.Halbach, N.Scheer, and W.Werr (2000).
Transcriptional activation by the PHD finger is inhibited through an adjacent leucine zipper that binds 14-3-3 proteins.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 3542-3550.  
  10323858 A.Kumagai, and W.G.Dunphy (1999).
Binding of 14-3-3 proteins and nuclear export control the intracellular localization of the mitotic inducer Cdc25.
  Genes Dev, 13, 1067-1072.  
  9858547 A.M.Cacace, N.R.Michaud, M.Therrien, K.Mathes, T.Copeland, G.M.Rubin, and D.K.Morrison (1999).
Identification of constitutive and ras-inducible phosphorylation sites of KSR: implications for 14-3-3 binding, mitogen-activated protein kinase binding, and KSR overexpression.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 229-240.  
10559254 C.Dorner, A.Ullrich, H.U.Häring, and R.Lammers (1999).
The kinesin-like motor protein KIF1C occurs in intact cells as a dimer and associates with proteins of the 14-3-3 family.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 33654-33660.  
10488331 K.Rittinger, J.Budman, J.Xu, S.Volinia, L.C.Cantley, S.J.Smerdon, S.J.Gamblin, and M.B.Yaffe (1999).
Structural analysis of 14-3-3 phosphopeptide complexes identifies a dual role for the nuclear export signal of 14-3-3 in ligand binding.
  Mol Cell, 4, 153-166.
PDB codes: 1qja 1qjb
  10090724 L.Chen, T.H.Liu, and N.C.Walworth (1999).
Association of Chk1 with 14-3-3 proteins is stimulated by DNA damage.
  Genes Dev, 13, 675-685.  
10224112 L.Prezeau, J.G.Richman, S.W.Edwards, and L.E.Limbird (1999).
The zeta isoform of 14-3-3 proteins interacts with the third intracellular loop of different alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 13462-13469.  
10411906 L.Zhang, J.Chen, and H.Fu (1999).
Suppression of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-induced cell death by 14-3-3 proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 8511-8515.  
10026197 M.Garcia-Guzman, F.Dolfi, M.Russello, and K.Vuori (1999).
Cell adhesion regulates the interaction between the docking protein p130(Cas) and the 14-3-3 proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 5762-5768.  
10361086 M.R.Groves, and D.Barford (1999).
Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 383-389.  
10463061 S.A.Bustin, and I.A.McKay (1999).
The product of the primary response gene BRF1 inhibits the interaction between 14-3-3 proteins and cRaf-1 in the yeast trihybrid system.
  DNA Cell Biol, 18, 653-661.  
10088721 S.C.Luk, S.M.Ngai, S.K.Tsui, K.P.Fung, C.Y.Lee, and M.M.Waye (1999).
In vivo and in vitro association of 14-3-3 epsilon isoform with calmodulin: implication for signal transduction and cell proliferation.
  J Cell Biochem, 73, 31-35.  
10213629 S.C.Masters, K.J.Pederson, L.Zhang, J.T.Barbieri, and H.Fu (1999).
Interaction of 14-3-3 with a nonphosphorylated protein ligand, exoenzyme S of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5216-5221.  
15012211 W.H.Campbell (1999).
NITRATE REDUCTASE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND REGULATION: Bridging the Gap between Biochemistry and Physiology.
  Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol, 50, 277-303.  
9482716 A.K.Das, P.W.Cohen, and D.Barford (1998).
The structure of the tetratricopeptide repeats of protein phosphatase 5: implications for TPR-mediated protein-protein interactions.
  EMBO J, 17, 1192-1199.
PDB code: 1a17
9632691 C.Petosa, S.C.Masters, L.A.Bankston, J.Pohl, B.Wang, H.Fu, and R.C.Liddington (1998).
14-3-3zeta binds a phosphorylated Raf peptide and an unphosphorylated peptide via its conserved amphipathic groove.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 16305-16310.
PDB codes: 1a37 1a38
9626666 E.M.Skoulakis, and R.L.Davis (1998).
14-3-3 proteins in neuronal development and function.
  Mol Neurobiol, 16, 269-284.  
9632690 H.Wang, L.Zhang, R.Liddington, and H.Fu (1998).
Mutations in the hydrophobic surface of an amphipathic groove of 14-3-3zeta disrupt its interaction with Raf-1 kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 16297-16304.  
  9710607 J.A.Thorson, L.W.Yu, A.L.Hsu, N.Y.Shih, P.R.Graves, J.W.Tanner, P.M.Allen, H.Piwnica-Worms, and A.S.Shaw (1998).
14-3-3 proteins are required for maintenance of Raf-1 phosphorylation and kinase activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 5229-5238.  
9690043 J.V.Bonventre, and T.Force (1998).
Mitogen-activated protein kinases and transcriptional responses in renal injury and repair.
  Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens, 7, 425-433.  
9837925 M.Gu, and X.Du (1998).
A novel ligand-binding site in the zeta-form 14-3-3 protein recognizing the platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha and distinct from the c-Raf-binding site.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 33465-33471.  
9738002 S.J.Tang, T.C.Suen, R.R.McInnes, and M.Buchwald (1998).
Association of the TLX-2 homeodomain and 14-3-3eta signaling proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 25356-25363.  
9705322 T.Megidish, J.Cooper, L.Zhang, H.Fu, and S.Hakomori (1998).
A novel sphingosine-dependent protein kinase (SDK1) specifically phosphorylates certain isoforms of 14-3-3 protein.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 21834-21845.  
  9420259 X.Culleré, P.Rose, U.Thathamangalam, A.Chatterjee, K.P.Mullane, D.C.Pallas, T.L.Benjamin, T.M.Roberts, and B.S.Schaffhausen (1998).
Serine 257 phosphorylation regulates association of polyomavirus middle T antigen with 14-3-3 proteins.
  J Virol, 72, 558-563.  
9720760 Y.C.Liu, and A.Altman (1998).
Cbl: complex formation and functional implications.
  Cell Signal, 10, 377-385.  
9111084 A.Craparo, R.Freund, and T.A.Gustafson (1997).
14-3-3 (epsilon) interacts with the insulin-like growth factor I receptor and insulin receptor substrate I in a phosphoserine-dependent manner.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 11663-11669.  
9069260 D.K.Morrison, and R.E.Cutler (1997).
The complexity of Raf-1 regulation.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 9, 174-179.  
9261098 G.J.Clark, J.K.Drugan, K.L.Rossman, J.W.Carpenter, K.Rogers-Graham, H.Fu, C.J.Der, and S.L.Campbell (1997).
14-3-3 zeta negatively regulates raf-1 activity by interactions with the Raf-1 cysteine-rich domain.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 20990-20993.  
9211421 L.Perego, and G.Berruti (1997).
Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression of the mouse homologue of the rat brain 14-3-3 theta protein: characterization of its cellular and developmental pattern of expression in the male germ line.
  Mol Reprod Dev, 47, 370-379.  
9153224 L.Zhang, H.Wang, D.Liu, R.Liddington, and H.Fu (1997).
Raf-1 kinase and exoenzyme S interact with 14-3-3zeta through a common site involving lysine 49.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 13717-13724.  
9428519 M.B.Yaffe, K.Rittinger, S.Volinia, P.R.Caron, A.Aitken, H.Leffers, S.J.Gamblin, S.J.Smerdon, and L.C.Cantley (1997).
The structural basis for 14-3-3:phosphopeptide binding specificity.
  Cell, 91, 961-971.
PDB code: 14ps
9223628 M.L.Knetsch, G.P.van Heusden, H.L.Ennis, D.R.Shaw, S.J.Epskamp, and B.E.Snaar-Jagalska (1997).
Isolation of a Dictyostelium discoideum 14-3-3 homologue.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1357, 243-248.  
9215628 R.L.Roberts, H.U.Mösch, and G.R.Fink (1997).
14-3-3 proteins are essential for RAS/MAPK cascade signaling during pseudohyphal development in S. cerevisiae.
  Cell, 89, 1055-1065.  
9341175 S.H.Zhang, R.Kobayashi, P.R.Graves, H.Piwnica-Worms, and N.K.Tonks (1997).
Serine phosphorylation-dependent association of the band 4.1-related protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 with 14-3-3beta protein.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 27281-27287.  
9360956 T.Dubois, C.Rommel, S.Howell, U.Steinhussen, Y.Soneji, N.Morrice, K.Moelling, and A.Aitken (1997).
14-3-3 is phosphorylated by casein kinase I on residue 233. Phosphorylation at this site in vivo regulates Raf/14-3-3 interaction.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 28882-28888.  
9312143 T.Ogihara, T.Isobe, T.Ichimura, M.Taoka, M.Funaki, H.Sakoda, Y.Onishi, K.Inukai, M.Anai, Y.Fukushima, M.Kikuchi, Y.Yazaki, Y.Oka, and T.Asano (1997).
14-3-3 protein binds to insulin receptor substrate-1, one of the binding sites of which is in the phosphotyrosine binding domain.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 25267-25274.  
9334190 U.Banik, G.A.Wang, P.D.Wagner, and S.Kaufman (1997).
Interaction of phosphorylated tryptophan hydroxylase with 14-3-3 proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 26219-26225.  
8601312 A.J.Muslin, J.W.Tanner, P.M.Allen, and A.S.Shaw (1996).
Interaction of 14-3-3 with signaling proteins is mediated by the recognition of phosphoserine.
  Cell, 84, 889-897.  
8938125 E.M.Skoulakis, and R.L.Davis (1996).
Olfactory learning deficits in mutants for leonardo, a Drosophila gene encoding a 14-3-3 protein.
  Neuron, 17, 931-944.  
8805370 G.Moorhead, P.Douglas, N.Morrice, M.Scarabel, A.Aitken, and C.MacKintosh (1996).
Phosphorylated nitrate reductase from spinach leaves is inhibited by 14-3-3 proteins and activated by fusicoccin.
  Curr Biol, 6, 1104-1113.  
8692945 H.G.Wang, S.Takayama, U.R.Rapp, and J.C.Reed (1996).
Bcl-2 interacting protein, BAG-1, binds to and activates the kinase Raf-1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 7063-7068.  
8609167 J.Liao, and M.B.Omary (1996).
14-3-3 proteins associate with phosphorylated simple epithelial keratins during cell cycle progression and act as a solubility cofactor.
  J Cell Biol, 133, 345-357.  
8620541 M.C.Faux, and J.D.Scott (1996).
Molecular glue: kinase anchoring and scaffold proteins.
  Cell, 85, 9.  
  8816492 N.Meller, Y.C.Liu, T.L.Collins, N.Bonnefoy-Bérard, G.Baier, N.Isakov, and A.Altman (1996).
Direct interaction between protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) and 14-3-3 tau in T cells: 14-3-3 overexpression results in inhibition of PKC theta translocation and function.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 5782-5791.  
15012282 R.J.Ferl (1996).
  Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol, 47, 49-73.  
8791452 R.Lill, F.E.Nargang, and W.Neupert (1996).
Biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 505-512.  
8910575 S.Li, J.Couet, and M.P.Lisanti (1996).
Src tyrosine kinases, Galpha subunits, and H-Ras share a common membrane-anchored scaffolding protein, caveolin. Caveolin binding negatively regulates the auto-activation of Src tyrosine kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 29182-29190.  
  8798343 W.Wang, and D.C.Shakes (1996).
Molecular evolution of the 14-3-3 protein family.
  J Mol Evol, 43, 384-398.  
8663231 Y.C.Liu, C.Elly, H.Yoshida, N.Bonnefoy-Berard, and A.Altman (1996).
Activation-modulated association of 14-3-3 proteins with Cbl in T cells.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 14591-14595.  
8548282 B.Bax, and H.Jhoti (1995).
Protein-protein interactions. Putting the pieces together.
  Curr Biol, 5, 1119-1121.  
7499362 T.Ichimura, J.Uchiyama, O.Kunihiro, M.Ito, T.Horigome, S.Omata, F.Shinkai, H.Kaji, and T.Isobe (1995).
Identification of the site of interaction of the 14-3-3 protein with phosphorylated tryptophan hydroxylase.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 28515-28518.  
7559537 Z.J.Luo, X.F.Zhang, U.Rapp, and J.Avruch (1995).
Identification of the 14.3.3 zeta domains important for self-association and Raf binding.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 23681-23687.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.