Transcription factor GATA (IPR039355)

Short name: Transcription_factor_GATA

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


This entry represents proteins with GATA-type zinc fingers (Znf). A number of transcription factors (including erythroid-specific transcription factor and nitrogen regulatory proteins) specifically bind the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G) [PMID: 2249770] in the regulatory regions of genes. They are consequently termed GATA-binding transcription factors. The interactions occur via highly-conserved Znf domains in which the zinc ion is coordinated by four cysteine residues [PMID: 2776214, PMID: 8332909]. NMR studies have shown the core of the Znf to comprise two irregular anti-parallel beta-sheets and an alpha-helix, followed by a long loop to the C-terminal end of the finger. The N-terminal part, which includes the helix, is similar in structure, but not sequence, to the N-terminal zinc module of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain. The helix and the loop connecting the two beta-sheets interact with the major groove of the DNA, while the C-terminal tail wraps around into the minor groove. It is this tail that is the essential determinant of specific binding. Interactions between the Znf and DNA are mainly hydrophobic, explaining the preponderance of thymines in the binding site; a large number of interactions with the phosphate backbone have also been observed [PMID: 8332909]. Two GATA zinc fingers are found in the GATA transcription factors. However there are several proteins which only contains a single copy of the domain.

The GATA-type transcription factors sreA and SRE1 from fungi regulate iron- acquisition genes [PMID: 18721228, PMID: 23980626].

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0003700 DNA-binding transcription factor activity
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.