Pathways & interactions
Perforin-1, C2 domain (IPR037300)
Short name: Perforin-1_C2
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- C2 domain superfamily (IPR035892)
- C2 domain (IPR000008)
- Perforin-1, C2 domain (IPR037300)
Perforin-1 contains a single copy of a C2 domain in its C terminus and plays a role in lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity [PMID: 9058810]. Mutations in perforin-1 lead to familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2, a rare, rapidly fatal, autosomal recessive immune disorder characterized by uncontrolled activation of T cells and macrophages and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines [PMID: 10583959]. The function of perforin-1 is calcium dependent and the C2 domain is thought to confer this binding to target cell membranes [PMID: 15576364].
C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements, type I and type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions [PMID: 9632630, PMID: 8976547, PMID: 8771209, PMID: 8662510, PMID: 7791877, PMID: 7697723, PMID: 1589771, PMID: 2333096].
- cd04032 (C2_Perforin)