Domain

Methioninyl-tRNA synthetase core domain (IPR033911)

Short name: MetRS_core

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

None.

Domain relationships

Description

The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (also known as aminoacyl-tRNA ligase) catalyse the attachment of an amino acid to its cognate transfer RNA molecule in a highly specific two-step reaction [PMID: 10704480,PMID: 12458790]. These proteins differ widely in size and oligomeric state, and have limited sequence homology [PMID: 2203971]. The 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are divided into two classes, I and II. Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases contain a characteristic Rossman fold catalytic domain and are mostly monomeric [PMID: 10673435]. Class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases share an anti-parallel beta-sheet fold flanked by alpha-helices [PMID: 8364025], and are mostly dimeric or multimeric, containing at least three conserved regions [PMID: 8274143, PMID: 2053131, PMID: 1852601]. However, tRNA binding involves an alpha-helical structure that is conserved between class I and class II synthetases. In reactions catalysed by the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the aminoacyl group is coupled to the 2'-hydroxyl of the tRNA, while, in class II reactions, the 3'-hydroxyl site is preferred. The synthetases specific for arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine, tryptophan, valine, and some lysine synthetases (non-eukaryotic group) belong to class I synthetases. The synthetases specific for alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine,and some lysine synthetases (non-archaeal group), belong to class-II synthetases. Based on their mode of binding to the tRNA acceptor stem, both classes of tRNA synthetases have been subdivided into three subclasses, designated 1a, 1b, 1c and 2a, 2b, 2c [PMID: 10447505].

Methionine tRNA synthetase (MetRS, also known as methionine tRNA ligase), a class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, aminoacylates the 2'-OH of the nucleotide at the 3' of the appropriate tRNA. MetRS, which consists of the core domain and an anti-codon binding domain, functions as a monomer. However, in some species the anti-codon binding domain is followed by an EMAP domain. In this case, MetRS functions as a homodimer. The core domain is based on the Rossman fold and is responsible for the ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. It contains the characteristic class I 'HIGH' and 'KMSKS' motifs, which are involved in ATP binding. As a result of a deletion event, MetRS has a significantly shorter core domain insertion than IleRS, ValRS, and LeuR. Consequently, the MetRS insertion lacks the editing function [PMID: 12390027].

This entry represents the catalytic core domain of MetRS.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006431 methionyl-tRNA aminoacylation

Molecular Function

GO:0004825 methionine-tRNA ligase activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
CDD
PRINTS