Domain

Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (IPR033910)

Short name: GluRS_core

Domain relationships

Description

This entry represents the discriminating Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) catalytic core domain. The discriminating form of GluRS is only found in bacteria and cellular organelles. GluRS is a monomer that attaches Glu to the appropriate tRNA. Like other class I tRNA synthetases, GluRS aminoacylates the 2'-OH of the nucleotide at the 3' end of the tRNA. The core domain is based on the Rossman fold and is responsible for the ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. It contains the characteristic class I 'HIGH' and 'KMSKS' motifs, which are involved in ATP binding [PMID: 9426192].

Glutamate-tRNA ligase (also known as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase; EC:6.1.1.17) is a class Ic ligase and shows several similarities with glutamate-tRNA ligase concerning structure and catalytic properties. It is an alpha2 dimer. To date one crystal structure of a glutamate-tRNA ligase (Thermus thermophilus) has been solved. The molecule has the form of a bent cylinder and consists of four domains. The N-terminal half (domains 1 and 2) contains the 'Rossman fold' typical for class I ligases and resembles the corresponding part of Escherichia coli GlnRS, whereas the C-terminal half exhibits a GluRS-specific structure [PMID: 9426192].

The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (also known as aminoacyl-tRNA ligase) catalyse the attachment of an amino acid to its cognate transfer RNA molecule in a highly specific two-step reaction [PMID: 10704480,PMID: 12458790]. These proteins differ widely in size and oligomeric state, and have limited sequence homology [PMID: 2203971]. The 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are divided into two classes, I and II. Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases contain a characteristic Rossman fold catalytic domain and are mostly monomeric [PMID: 10673435]. Class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases share an anti-parallel beta-sheet fold flanked by alpha-helices [PMID: 8364025], and are mostly dimeric or multimeric, containing at least three conserved regions [PMID: 8274143, PMID: 2053131, PMID: 1852601]. However, tRNA binding involves an alpha-helical structure that is conserved between class I and class II synthetases. In reactions catalysed by the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the aminoacyl group is coupled to the 2'-hydroxyl of the tRNA, while, in class II reactions, the 3'-hydroxyl site is preferred. The synthetases specific for arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine, tryptophan and valine belong to class I synthetases. The synthetases specific for alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and threonine belong to class-II synthetases. Based on their mode of binding to the tRNA acceptor stem, both classes of tRNA synthetases have been subdivided into three subclasses, designated 1a, 1b, 1c and 2a, 2b, 2c [PMID: 10447505].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006424 glutamyl-tRNA aminoacylation

Molecular Function

GO:0008270 zinc ion binding

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
CDD