Pathways & interactions
Bacillopeptidase F, peptidase domain (IPR033857)
Short name: Bacillopeptidase_F
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Peptidase S8/S53 domain superfamily (IPR036852)
- Peptidase S8/S53 domain (IPR000209)
- Bacillopeptidase F, peptidase domain (IPR033857)
Bacillus subtilis produces and secretes proteases and other types of exoenzymes at the end of the exponential phase of growth [PMID: 1798697]. The ones that make up this group are known as bacillopeptidase F (MEROPS identifier S08.017), encoded by bpr, a serine protease with high esterolytic activity which is inhibited by PMSF [PMID: 2106512]. Bacillopeptidase F is fibrinolytic and is synthesized as a precursor, which is either activated autocatalytically or by another, unidentified B. subtilis peptidase [PMID: 26497454]. Like other members of the peptidases S8 family these have a Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad similar to that found in trypsin-like proteases, but do not share their three-dimensional structure and are not homologous to trypsin. The stability of these enzymes may be enhanced by calcium, some members have been shown to bind up to 4 ions via binding sites with different affinity [PMID: 9070434].
These proteins contain a domain found in serine peptidases belonging to the MEROPS peptidase families S8 (subfamilies S8A (subtilisin) and S8B (kexin) and S53 (sedolisin), both of which are members of clan SB [PMID: 8439290].
The subtilisin family is one of the largest serine peptidase families characterised to date. Over 200 subtilises are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence [PMID: 9070434]. It is widespread, being found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, eukaryotes and viruses [PMID: 7845208]. The vast majority of the family are endopeptidases, although there is an exopeptidase, tripeptidyl peptidase [PMID: 7845208, PMID: 8439290]. Structures have been determined for several members of the subtilisin family: they exploit the same catalytic triad as the chymotrypsins, although the residues occur in a different order (HDS in chymotrypsin and DHS in subtilisin), but the structures show no other similarity [PMID: 7845208, PMID: 8439290]. Some subtilisins are mosaic proteins, while others contain N- and C-terminal extensions that show no sequence similarity to any other known protein [PMID: 7845208].
The proprotein-processing endopeptidases kexin, furin and related enzymes form a distinct subfamily known as the kexin subfamily (S8B). These preferentially cleave C-terminally to paired basic amino acids. Members of this subfamily can be identified by subtly different motifs around the active site [PMID: 7845208, PMID: 8439290]. Members of the kexin subfamily, along with endopeptidases R, T and K from the yeast Tritirachium and cuticle-degrading peptidase from Metarhizium, require thiol activation. This can be attributed to the presence of a cysteine near to the active site histidine [PMID: 8439290]. Only one viral member of the subtilisin family is known, a 56kDa protease from herpes virus 1, which infects the channel catfish [PMID: 7845208].
Sedolisins (serine-carboxyl peptidases) are proteolytic enzymes whose fold resembles that of subtilisin; however, they are considerably larger, with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique catalytic triad, Ser-Glu-Asp, as well as the presence of an aspartic acid residue in the oxyanion hole. High-resolution crystal structures have now been solved for sedolisin from Pseudomonas sp. 101, as well as for kumamolisin from a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. MN-32. Mutations in the human gene leads to a fatal neurodegenerative disease [PMID: 12673349].
- cd07481 (Peptidases_S8_Bacillopeptidase)