Transcription factor RelA (p65) (IPR030495)

Short name: RelA

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


This entry represents RelA, also known as nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit. RelA and p50 is the mostly commonly found heterodimer complex among NF-kappaB homodimers and heterodimers, and is the functional component participating in nuclear transclocation and activation of NF-kappaB [PMID: 9450761].

NF-kappaB is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types. It is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappaB is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RelA/p65, RelB, NFKB1/p50, c-Rel and NFKB2/p52 [PMID: 22302935]. Each individual NF-kappaB subunit, and perhaps each dimer, carries out unique functions in regulating transcription. Dimer-specific functions can be conferred by selective protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors, coregulatory proteins, and chromatin proteins [PMID: 22435556].

The prototypical NF-kB complex is a p50/RelA heterodimer. NF-kB is largely sequestered in the cytoplasm through its association with an IkB inhibitor [PMID: 16135789]. Cytoplasmic events culminating in the phosphorylation of IkB-alpha lead to its polyubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation. The liberated NF-kB complex translocates to the nucleus. In the nucleus, site-specific acetylation and phosphorylation of RelA regulates the actions of the NF-kB complex [PMID: 16135789, PMID: 15122352].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0051092 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity

Molecular Function

GO:0003700 DNA binding transcription factor activity

Cellular Component

GO:0071159 NF-kappaB complex
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005634 nucleus

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.