Ras-related protein Ral (IPR028412)

Short name: Ral

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

Family relationships


Ral protein family, including RALA and RALB, belongs to the RAS family of small GTPases. Like other RAS GTPases, Ral proteins function as molecular switches alternating between inactive GDP-bound and active GT-bound states [PMID: 15367757].

In humans, RALA and RALB are activated in tumour-derived cell lines. RALA severely impairs the anchorage-independent proliferation of cancer cell lines [PMID: 15950903], while RALB is required to suppress apoptotic checkpoint activation and is essential for the survival of a variety of tumour-derived cell lines [PMID: 17018283].

RALA and RALB share the same effector molecules, such as SEC5 and EXO84. However, they seem to function in distinct but inter-related biological processes. RALA regulates the assembly interface of a full octameric exocyst complex through interaction with Sec5 and Exo84 [PMID: 14525976]. The RALB/Sec5 effector complex is involved in the TBK1-dependent innate immune signaling [PMID: 17018283], while the interaction between PALB and EXO84 promotes the assembly of catalytically active ULK1 and the beclin-1-VPS34 autophagy initiation complex [PMID: 24056301].

This entry also includes Xenopus RalA and RalB. RalB regulates the actin cytoskeleton during the early development and affects gastrulation [PMID: 15511640].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0007265 Ras protein signal transduction

Molecular Function

GO:0003924 GTPase activity

Cellular Component

GO:0005886 plasma membrane

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.