Fibroblast growth factor 9 (IPR028251)
Short name: FGF9
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Cytokine IL1/FGF (IPR008996)
- Fibroblast growth factor family (IPR002209)
- Fibroblast growth factor 9 (IPR028251)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) [PMID: 2549857, PMID: 3072709] are a family of multifunctional proteins, often referred to as 'promiscuous growth factors' due to their diverse actions on multiple cell types [PMID: 1705486, PMID: 8760337]. FGFs are mitogens, which stimulate growth or differentiation of cells of mesodermal or neuroectodermal origin. The function of FGFs in developmental processes include mesoderm induction, anterior-posterior patterning, limb development, and neural induction and development. In mature tissues, they are involved in diverse processes including keratinocyte organisation and wound healing [PMID: 11276432, PMID: 23000357, PMID: 15689573, PMID: 10441498, PMID: 23108135, PMID: 23016864]. FGF involvement is critical during normal development of both vertebrates and invertebrates, and irregularities in their function leads to a range of developmental defects [PMID: 1649700, PMID: 11746231, PMID: 14745970, PMID: 8978613]. Fibroblast growth factors are heparin-binding proteins and interactions with cell-surface-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to be essential for FGF signal transduction. FGFs have internal pseudo-threefold symmetry (beta-trefoil topology) [PMID: 10830168]. There are currently over 20 different FGF family members that have been identified in mammals, all of which are structurally related signaling molecules [PMID: 8652550, PMID: 11276432]. They exert their effects through four distinct membrane fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), FGFR1 to FGFR4 [PMID: 7583099], which belong to the tyrosine kinase superfamily. Upon binding to FGF, the receptors dimerize and their intracellular tyrosine kinase domains become active [PMID: 7583099].
This entry represents fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), also known as glia-activating factor and heparin-binding growth factor 9. This protein plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. It is involved in cyclic proliferation of uterine endometrial stroma [PMID: 12072406] and can act as both a paracrine mitogen for epithelial cells and an autocrine mitogen for stromal cells [PMID: 10362017]. FGF9 has also been shown to play a vital role in male development, as it is needed to carry out important masculinising developmental functions, such testicular embryogenesis [PMID: 16700629, PMID: 11290325]. FGF9 Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4, but has highest affinity for FGFR3 [PMID: 8576175, PMID: 10574949].
- PTHR11486:SF28 (PTHR11486:SF28)