Toll-like receptor 9 (IPR027181)

Short name: TLR9

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships



Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a key component of innate and adaptive immunity [PMID: 14993594, PMID: 20560798]. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR9 is activated by unmethylated cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) dinucleotides, which is more abundant in bacterial genomes or viral DNA compared to the vertebrate genomes [PMID: 11564765, PMID: 17932028, PMID: 11470918, PMID: 11867692]. It acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. TLR9 controls lymphocyte response to Helicobacter infection [PMID: 17474149].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0002755 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
GO:0045087 innate immune response
GO:0050729 positive regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0050707 regulation of cytokine secretion
GO:0002237 response to molecule of bacterial origin
GO:0034162 toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway

Molecular Function

GO:0004888 transmembrane signaling receptor activity

Cellular Component

GO:0016021 integral component of membrane

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.