Pathways & interactions
CASTOR family (IPR026249)
Short name: CASTOR_fam
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- CASTOR family (IPR026249)
- Cytosolic arginine sensor for mTORC1 subunit 1 (IPR030415)
CASTOR family members are well-conserved in eukaryotes (including human, chimpanzee, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish) [PMID: 16305752, PMID: 19468303]. Three subtypes, designated CASTOR1, CASTOR2 and CASTOR3, have been identified in humans.
CASTOR1 can form homodimers and bind arginine. It can also form heterodimers with CASTOR2 [PMID: 26972053]. The arginine binding of CASTOR1 disrupts the CASTOR1-GATOR2 interaction, and this triggers downstream activation of mTORC1 [PMID: 27487210]. Therefore, CASTOR1 functions as an intracellular arginine sensor for the mTORC1 Pathway [PMID: 26972053, PMID: 27487210]. Interestingly, CASTOR1 shares substantial structural homology with the lysine-binding regulatory domain of prokaryotic aspartate kinases [PMID: 27487210].
- PR02078 (GATSLIKEFMLY)