N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase, active site (IPR023013)
Short name: AGPR_AS
N -Acetylglutamate (NAG) fulfils distinct biological roles in lower and higher organisms. In prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes and plants it is the first intermediate in the biosynthesis of arginine, whereas in ureotelic (excreting nitrogen mostly in the form of urea) vertebrates, it is an essential allosteric cofactor for carbamyl phosphate synthetase I (CPSI), the first enzyme of the urea cycle. The pathway that leads from glutamate to arginine in lower organisms employs eight steps, starting with the acetylation of glutamate to form NAG. In these species, NAG can be produced by two enzymatic reactions: one catalysed by NAG synthase (NAGS) and the other by ornithine acetyltransferase (OAT). In ureotelic species, NAG is produced exclusively by NAGS. In lower organisms, NAGS is feedback-inhibited by L-arginine, whereas mammalian NAGS activity is significantly enhanced by this amino acid. The NAGS genes of bacteria, fungi and mammals are more diverse than other arginine-biosynthesis and urea-cycle genes. The evolutionary relationship between the distinctly different roles of NAG and its metabolism in lower and higher organisms remains to be determined [PMID: 12633501].
The pathway from glutamate to arginine is:
- NAGS; N-acetylglutamate synthase (EC:188.8.131.52) (glutamate to N-acetylglutamate)
- NAGK; N-acetylglutamate kinase (EC:184.108.40.206) (N-acetylglutamate to N-acetylglutamate-5P)
- N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase (EC:220.127.116.11) (N-acetylglutamate-5P to N-acetylglumate semialdehyde)
- Acetylornithine aminotransferase (EC:18.104.22.168) (N-acetylglumate semialdehyde to N-acetylornithine)
- Acetylornithine deacetylase (EC:22.214.171.124) (N-acetylornithine to ornithine)
- Arginase (EC:126.96.36.199) (ornithine to arginine)
N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase (EC:188.8.131.52) (AGPR) [PMID: 1339424, PMID: 7907589] is the enzyme that catalyzes the third step in the biosynthesis of arginine from glutamate, the NADP-dependent reduction of N-acetyl-5-glutamyl phosphate into N-acetylglutamate 5-semialdehyde. In bacteria it is a monofunctional protein of 35 to 38kDa (gene argC) while in fungi it is part of a bifunctional mitochondrial enzyme (gene ARG5,6, arg11 or arg-6) which contains a N-terminal acetylglutamate kinase ((EC:184.108.40.206) domain and a C-terminal AGPR domain. In the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme, a cysteine has been shown to be implicated in the catalytic activity; the region around this residue is well conserved and is used as a signature pattern for the proteins in this entry [PMID: 1406250, PMID: 17316682].
- PS01224 (ARGC)