Tumour necrosis factor receptor 11A (IPR022361)
Short name: TNFR_11A
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Tumour necrosis factor receptor 11 (IPR022323)
- Tumour necrosis factor receptor 11A (IPR022361)
The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) superfamily comprises more than 20 type-I transmembrane proteins. Family members are defined based on similarity in their extracellular domain - a region that contains many cysteine residues arranged in a specific repetitive pattern [PMID: 7917108]. The cysteines allow formation of an extended rod-like structure, responsible for ligand binding [PMID: 8387891].
Upon receptor activation, different intracellular signalling complexes are assembled for different members of the TNFR superfamily, depending on their intracellular domains and sequences [PMID: 15500863]. Activation of TNFRs can therefore induce a range of disparate effects, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, or apoptotic cell death, depending upon the receptor involved [PMID: 11239407, PMID: 9826575].
TNFRs are widely distributed and play important roles in many crucial biological processes, such as lymphoid and neuronal development, innate and adaptive immunity, and maintenance of cellular homeostasis [PMID: 15500863]. Drugs that manipulate their signalling have potential roles in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, such as viral infections, coronary heart disease, transplant rejection, and immune disease [PMID: 9826574].
TNF receptors 11A and 11B mediate the effects of receptor activator for NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL), an essential osteoclast regulatory factor. The receptors have opposing effects - activation of TNF receptor 11A by RANKL promotes osteoclast differentiation [PMID: 9878548], while TNF receptor 11B acts as a soluble decoy receptor for the ligand, thus inhibiting differentiation [PMID: 11485016].
Mutations in the TNF receptor 11A gene have been implicated in a range of bone disorders, such as expansile osteolysis, osteopetrosis, and Paget disease of bone. The receptor also has a role in immune function, vascular disease and mammary gland development [PMID: 19416721].
- PR01974 (TNFACTORR11A)