GINS subunit, domain A (IPR021151)

Short name: GINS_A

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

Domain relationships


DNA replication in eukaryotes results from a highly coordinated interaction between proteins, often as part of protein complexes, and the DNA template. One of the key early steps leading to DNA replication is formation of the pre-replication complex, or pre-RC. The pre-RC is formed by the sequential binding of the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6 and Cdt1 proteins, and the MCM complex. Activation of the pre-RC into the initiation complex (IC) is achieved via the action of S-phase kinases, eventually leading to the loading of the replication machinery.

Recently, a novel replication complex, GINS (for Go, Ichi, Nii, and San; five, one, two, and three in Japanese), has been identified [PMID: 12730133, PMID: 12730134]. The precise function of GINS is not known. However, genetic and two-hybrid interactions indicate that it mediates the loading of the enzymatic replication machinery at a step after the action of the S-phase kinases [PMID: 12730134]. Furthermore, GINS may be a part of the replication machinery itself, since it is found associated with replicating DNA [PMID: 12730133, PMID: 12730134]. Electron microscopy of GINS shows that it forms a ring-like structure [PMID: 12730133], reminiscent of the structure of PCNA [PMID: 8001157], the DNA polymerase delta replication clamp.This observation, coupled with the observed interactions for GINS, indicates that the complex may represent the replication clamp for DNA polymerase epsilon [PMID: 12730133].

The GINS complex is essential for initiation of DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts [PMID: 12730133]. This 100kDa stable complex includes Sld5, Psf1, Psf2, and Psf3. Homologues of these components are found also in other eukaryotes [PMID: 12730134]. The archaeal GINS complex contains two subunits (SSO0772/gins23 and SO1049/gins15 in Sulfolobus) that are poorly conserved homologues of the eukaryotic GINS subunits [PMID: 16485022]. Only Gins23 is included in this entry.

The eukaryotic GINS subunits are homologous. The four subunits of the complex consist of two domains each, termed the alpha-helical (A) and beta-strand (B) domains. The A and B domains of Sld5/Psf1 are permuted with respect to Psf1/Psf3 [PMID: 17417653].

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.