Conserved Site

Serum albumin, conserved site (IPR020857)

Short name: Serum_albumin_CS

Description

A number of serum transport proteins are known to be evolutionarily related, including albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein and afamin [PMID: 2481749, PMID: 2423133, PMID: 7517938]. Albumin is the main protein of plasma; it binds water, cations (such as Ca2+, Na+ and K+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs - its main function is to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Alphafeto- protein (alpha-fetoglobulin) is a foetal plasma protein that binds various cations, fatty acids and bilirubin. Vitamin D-binding protein binds to vitamin D and its metabolites, as well as to fatty acids. The biological role of afamin (alpha-albumin) has not yet been characterised. The 3D structure of human serum albumin has been determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.8A [PMID: 1630489]. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule [PMID: 1630489]. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs [PMID: 1630489]. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and IIIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. Structurally, the serum albumins are similar, each domain containing five or six internal disulphide bonds, as shown schematically below:

                    +---+          +----+                        +-----+
                    |   |          |    |                        |     |
 xxCxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxCCxxCxxxxCxxxxxCCxxxCxxxxxxxxxCxxxxxxxxxxxxxxCCxxxxCxxxx
   |                 |       |     |              |               |
   +-----------------+       +-----+              +---------------+

This entry represents a conserved site that covers the three conserved cysteines at the end of the Serum albumin domain. It is built in such a way that it can detect all 3 repeats in albumin and human afamin, the first two in AFP and the first one in VDB and rat afamin.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PROSITE patterns