Calcium/calmodulin-dependent/calcium-dependent protein kinase (IPR020636)
Short name: Ca/CaM-dep_Ca-dep_prot_Kinase
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Protein kinase-like domain superfamily (IPR011009)
Protein phosphorylation, which plays a key role in most cellular activities, is a reversible process mediated by protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. Protein kinases catalyse the transfer of the gamma phosphate from nucleotide triphosphates (often ATP) to one or more amino acid residues in a protein substrate side chain, resulting in a conformational change affecting protein function. Phosphoprotein phosphatases catalyse the reverse process. Protein kinases fall into three broad classes, characterised with respect to substrate specificity [PMID: 3291115]:
- Serine/threonine-protein kinases
- Tyrosine-protein kinases
- Dual specificity protein kinases (e.g. MEK - phosphorylates both Thr and Tyr on target proteins)
Protein kinase function is evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to human [PMID: 12471243]. Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [PMID: 12368087]. Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. The catalytic subunits of protein kinases are highly conserved, and several structures have been solved [PMID: 15078142], leading to large screens to develop kinase-specific inhibitors for the treatments of a number of diseases [PMID: 15320712].
The divalent cation calcium (Ca2+) is one of the most widely utilised second messengers in cellular signaling. Many of the second messenger effects of Ca2+ are mediated through the ubiquitous Ca2+ sensing protein, calmodulin (CaM). CaM has no enzymatic activity as such, and its function is to integrate the Ca2+ signal and transduce it to other downstream enzymes, like the calmodulin-dependent kinases [PMID: 18463790].
This entry includes both type I and type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases [PMID: 18463790], as well as plant calcium-dependent protein kinases, which may also play a role in signal transduction pathways that involve calcium as a second messenger [PMID: 12068094].
- PTHR43895 (PTHR43895)