ATP phosphoribosyltransferase HisG, long form (IPR020621)

Short name: ATP_PRibTrfase_HisG_long

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (EC: is the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of histidine in bacteria, fungi and plants as shown below. It is a member of the larger phosphoribosyltransferase superfamily of enzymes which catalyse the condensation of 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate with nitrogenous bases in the presence of divalent metal ions [PMID: 11751055]. ATP + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate = 1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-ATP + diphosphate Histidine biosynthesis is an energetically expensive process and ATP phosphoribosyltransferase activity is subject to control at several levels. Transcriptional regulation is based primarily on nutrient conditions and determines the amount of enzyme present in the cell, while feedback inihibition rapidly modulates activity in response to cellular conditions. The enzyme has been shown to be inhibited by 1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-ATP, histidine, ppGpp (a signal associated with adverse environmental conditions) and ADP and AMP (which reflect the overall energy status of the cell). As this pathway of histidine biosynthesis is present only in prokayrotes, plants and fungi, this enzyme is a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial compounds and herbicides.

The ATP phosphoribosyltransferase come in two forms: a long form containing two catalytic domains and a C-terminal regulatory domain, and a short form in which the regulatory domain is missing. The long form is catalytically competent, but in organisms with the short form, a histidyl-tRNA synthetase paralogue, HisZ, is required for enzyme activity [PMID: 10430882].

The structures of the long form enzymes from Escherichia coli (P60757) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (P60759) have been determined [PMID: 14741209, PMID: 12511575]. The enzyme itself exists in equilibrium between an active dimeric form, an inactive hexameric form and higher aggregates. Interconversion between the various forms is largely reversible and is influenced by the binding of the natural substrates and inhibitors of the enzyme. The two catalytic domains are linked by a two-stranded beta-sheet and togther form a "periplamsic binding protein fold". A crevice between these domains contains the active site. The C-terminal domain is not directly involved in catalysis but appears to be involved the formation of hexamers, induced by the binding of inhibitors such as histidine to the enzyme, thus regulating activity.

This entry represents the long form ATP phosphoribosyltransferase.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0000105 histidine biosynthetic process

Molecular Function

GO:0003879 ATP phosphoribosyltransferase activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.