Pancreatic hormone-like, conserved site (IPR020392)
Short name: Pancreatic_hormone-like_CS
Pancreatic hormone (PP) [PMID: 6107857] is a peptide synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langherhans, which acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.
The hormone is produced as a larger propeptide, which is enzymatically cleaved to yield the mature active peptide: this is 36 amino acids in length [PMID: 3031687] and has an amidated C terminus [PMID: 2599092]. The hormone has a globular structure, residues 2-8 forming a left-handed poly-proline-II-like helix, residues 9-13 a beta turn, and 14-32 an alpha-helix,held close to the first helix by hydrophobic interactions [PMID: 3031687]. Unlike glucagon, another peptide hormone, the structure of pancreatic peptide is preserved in aqueous solution [PMID: 2067973]. Both N and C termini are required for activity: receptor binding and activation functions may reside in the N and C termini respectively [PMID: 3031687].
Pancreatic hormone is part of a wider family of active peptides that includes:
- Neuropeptide Y (NPY or melanostatin) [PMID: 3031687], one of the most abundant peptides in the mammalian nervous system. NPY is implicated in the control of feeding and the secretion of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.
- Peptide YY (PYY) [PMID: 6953409]. PPY is a gut peptide that inhibits exocrine pancreatic secretion, has a vasoconstrictory action and inhibits jejunal and colonic mobility. Known as goannatyrotoxin-Vere1 in the venom of the pygmy desert monitor lizard (Varanus eremius) where it has a triphasic action: rapid biphasic hypertension followed by prolonged hypotension in prey animals [PMID: 20631207].
- Various NPY and PYY-like polypeptides from fish and amphibians [PMID: 1459125, PMID: 1620652].
- Neuropeptide F (NPF) from invertebrates such as worms and snail.
- Skin peptide Tyr-Tyr (SPYY) from the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. SPYY shows a large spectra of antibacterial and antifungal activity.
- Polypeptide MY (peptide methionine-tyrosine). A regulatory peptide from the intestine of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) [PMID: 2070789].
This entry represents a conserved region corresponding to the C-terminal end of the active peptide.
- PS00265 (PANCREATIC_HORMONE_1)