Conserved Site

Squalene/phytoene synthase, conserved site (IPR019845)

Short name: Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS

Description

Squalene synthase EC:2.5.1.21 (farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase) (SQS) and Phytoene synthase EC:2.5.1.32 (PSY) share a number of functional similarities. These similarities are also reflected at the level of their primary structure [PMID: 8294001, PMID: 8474436, PMID: 8250898]. In particular three well conserved regions are shared by SQS and PSY; they could be involved in substrate binding and/or the catalytic mechanism. SQS catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into squalene. It is the first committed step in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The reaction carried out by SQS is catalyzed in two separate steps: the first is a head-to-head condensation of the two molecules of FPP to form presqualene diphosphate; this intermediate is then rearranged in a NADP-dependent reduction, to form squalene:

2 FPP -> presqualene diphosphate + NADP -> squalene

SQS is found in eukaryotes. In yeast it is encoded by the ERG9 gene, in mammals by the FDFT1 gene. SQS seems to be membrane-bound. PSY catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP)into phytoene. It is the second step in the biosynthesis of carotenoids from isopentenyl diphosphate. The reaction carried out by PSY is catalyzed in two separate steps: the first is a head-to-head condensation of the two molecules of GGPP to form prephytoene diphosphate; this intermediate is then rearranged to form phytoene.

2 GGPP -> prephytoene diphosphate -> phytoene

PSY is found in all organisms that synthesize carotenoids: plants and photosynthetic bacteria as well as some non- photosynthetic bacteria and fungi. In bacteria PSY is encoded by the gene crtB. In plants PSY is localized in the chloroplast.

Both SQS and PSY share a number of functional similarities which are also reflected at the level of their primary structure. In particular, three well conserved regions are shared by SQS and PSY, which could be involved in substrate binding and/or the catalytic mechanism. This entry contains the second and third conserved regions located in the central part of these enzymes.

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0016765 transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PROSITE patterns
PROSITE patterns