Domain

Aromatic amino acid hydroxylase, C-terminal (IPR019774)

Short name: Aromatic-AA_hydroxylase_C

Domain relationships

None.

Description

Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases constitute a family of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, all of which are rate-limiting catalysts for important metabolic pathways [PMID: 3475690]. The proteins are structurally and functionally related, each containing iron, and catalysing ring hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids, using tetra-hydrobiopterin (BH4) as a substrate. All are regulated by phosphorylation at serines in their N-termini. It has been suggested that the proteins each contain a conserved C-terminal catalytic (C) domain and an unrelated N-terminal regulatory (R) domain. It is possible that the R domains arose from genes that were recruited from different sources to combine with the common gene for the catalytic core. Thus, by combining with the same C domain, the proteins acquired the unique regulatory properties of the separate R domains.

A variety of enzymes belong to this family that includes, phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase from Chromobacterium violaceum where it is copper-dependent; it is iron-dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. In humans, deficiencies are the cause of phenylketonuria, the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism [PMID: 9406548], tryptophan 5-hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in serotonin biosynthesis: the conversion of tryptophan to 3-hydroxy-anthranilate and tyrosine 3-hydroxylase catalyzes the rate limiting step in catecholamine biosynthesis: the conversion of tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process

Molecular Function

GO:0016714 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
SUPERFAMILY
PROSITE profiles
PRINTS
Pfam