Serine/threonine-protein kinase, SIK1/2 (IPR017090)
Short name: Ser/Thr_kinase_SIK1/2
Protein phosphorylation, which plays a key role in most cellular activities, is a reversible process mediated by protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. Protein kinases catalyse the transfer of the gamma phosphate from nucleotide triphosphates (often ATP) to one or more amino acid residues in a protein substrate side chain, resulting in a conformational change affecting protein function. Phosphoprotein phosphatases catalyse the reverse process. Protein kinases fall into three broad classes, characterised with respect to substrate specificity [PMID: 3291115]:
- Serine/threonine-protein kinases
- Tyrosine-protein kinases
- Dual specificity protein kinases (e.g. MEK - phosphorylates both Thr and Tyr on target proteins)
Protein kinase function is evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to human [PMID: 12471243]. Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [PMID: 12368087]. Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. The catalytic subunits of protein kinases are highly conserved, and several structures have been solved [PMID: 15078142], leading to large screens to develop kinase-specific inhibitors for the treatments of a number of diseases [PMID: 15320712].
This entry represents the salt-inducible protein kinases, SIK1 and SIK2, which are serine/threonine-protein kinases. SIK1 is involved in a variety of processes, such as cell cycle regulation, gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis regulation and muscle growth [PMID: 15511237, PMID: 15177563, PMID: 16148943]. SIK2 phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in insulin-stimulated adipocytes, potentially modulating the efficiency of insulin signal transduction, and may have a role in the development of insulin resistance in diabetes [PMID: 12624099].
- PIRSF037014 (Ser/Thr_PK_SNF1-like)