Transforming growth factor-beta (IPR016319)

Short name: TGF-beta

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


The transforming growth factors-beta constitute a family of multi-functional cytokines that regulate cell growth and differentiation [PMID: 8424942]. Many cells synthesise TGF-beta, and essentially all have specific receptors for this peptide [PMID: 2879635]. TGF-beta regulates the actions of many other peptide growth factors and determines a positive or negative direction of their effects.

The protein functions as a disulphide-linked homodimer. Its sequence is characterised by the presence of several C-terminal cysteine residues, which form interlocking disulphide links arranged in a knot-like topology. A similar "cystine-knot" arrangement has been noted in the structures of some enzyme inhibitors and neurotoxins that bind to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, although the precise topology differs.

The three-dimensional structures of several members of the TGF-beta super-family have been deduced [PMID: 8819159, PMID: 8679613, PMID: 1631557]. TGF-beta genes are expressed differentially, suggesting that the various TGF- beta species may have distinct physiological roles in vivo.

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

No terms assigned in this category.

Cellular Component

GO:0005615 extracellular space

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.