Citrate synthase-like, large alpha subdomain (IPR016142)
Short name: Citrate_synth-like_lrg_a-sub
- Citrate synthase (IPR002020)
- Citrate synthase, eukaryotic-type (IPR010109)
- Citrate synthase, type I (IPR010953)
- 2-methylcitrate synthase/citrate synthase type I (IPR011278)
- Citrate synthase-like, small alpha subdomain (IPR016143)
- Citrate synthase active site (IPR019810)
- Citrate synthase, bacterial-type (IPR024176)
- Citrate synthase superfamily (IPR036969)
Citrate synthase EC:126.96.36.199 is a member of a small family of enzymes that can directly form a carbon-carbon bond without the presence of metal ion cofactors. It catalyses the first reaction in the Krebs' cycle, namely the conversion of oxaloacetate and acetyl-coenzyme A into citrate and coenzyme A. This reaction is important for energy generation and for carbon assimilation. The reaction proceeds via a non-covalently bound citryl-coenzyme A intermediate in a 2-step process (aldol-Claisen condensation followed by the hydrolysis of citryl-CoA).
Citrate synthase enzymes are found in two distinct structural types: type I enzymes (found in eukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and archaea) form homodimers and have shorter sequences than type II enzymes, which are found in Gram-negative bacteria and are hexameric in structure. In both types, the monomer is composed of two domains: a large alpha-helical domain consisting of two structural repeats, where the second repeat is interrupted by a small alpha-helical domain. The cleft between these domains forms the active site, where both citrate and acetyl-coenzyme A bind. The enzyme undergoes a conformational change upon binding of the oxaloacetate ligand, whereby the active site cleft closes over in order to form the acetyl-CoA binding site [PMID: 15147839]. The energy required for domain closure comes from the interaction of the enzyme with the substrate. Type II enzymes possess an extra N-terminal beta-sheet domain, and some type II enzymes are allosterically inhibited by NADH [PMID: 17087502].
This entry represents the large alpha-helical domain from type I and II citrate synthase enzymes, as well as a homologous domain found in the related enzyme 2-methylcitrate synthase. 2-Methylcitrate (EC:188.8.131.52) synthase catalyses the conversion of oxaloacetate and propanoyl-CoA into (2R,3S)-2-hydroxybutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate and coenzyme A. This enzyme is induced during bacterial growth on propionate, while type II hexameric citrate synthase is constitutive [PMID: 9579066].
- G3DSA:1.10.580.10 (G3DSA:1.10.580.10)