Domain

Phospholipase A2 domain (IPR016090)

Short name: PLipase_A2_dom

Domain relationships

None.

Description

Proteins containing this domain include eukaryotic phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2; EC:3.1.1.4), small lipolytic enzymes that releases fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol, usually in a metal-dependent reaction, to generate lysophospholipid (LysoPL) and a free fatty acid (FA) [PMID: 11872155]. The resulting products are either dietary or used in synthetic pathways for leukotrienes and prostaglandins. Often, arachidonic acid is released as a free fatty acid and acts as second messenger in signaling networks [PMID: 10331081]. These enzymes enable the of fatty acids and lysophospholipid by hydrolysing the 2-ester bond of 1,2-diacyl-3-sn-phosphoglycerides. In eukaryotes, PLA2 plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin and other mediators of inflammation. These enzymes are either secreted or cytosolic; the latter are either Ca dependent or Ca independent. Secreted PLA2s have also been found to specifically bind to a variety of soluble and membrane proteins in mammals, including receptors [PMID: 11293116]. As a toxin, PLA2 is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin which blocks nerve terminals by binding to the nerve membrane and hydrolyzing stable membrane lipids [PMID: 11212293]. The products of the hydrolysis (LysoPL and FA) cannot form bilayers leading to a change in membrane conformation and ultimately to a block in the release of neurotransmitters [PMID: 16805767,PMID: 10838563,PMID: 16339444].

The phospholipase domain adopts an alpha-helical secondary structure, consisting of five alpha-helices and two helical segments. PLA2 may form dimers or oligomers [PMID: 11080675,PMID: 11897785,PMID: 12161451].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0050482 arachidonic acid secretion
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process

Molecular Function

GO:0004623 phospholipase A2 activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
CDD
Pfam
Pfam
SMART