Domain

Phospholipase A2 domain (IPR016090)

Short name: PLipase_A2_dom

Domain relationships

None.

Description

This entry represents eukaryotic and prokaryotic phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2; EC:3.1.1.4), small lipolytic enzymes that releases fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol, usually in a metal-dependent reaction, to generate lysophospholipid (LysoPL) and a free fatty acid (FA) [PMID: 11872155]. The resulting products are either dietary or used in synthetic pathways for leukotrienes and prostaglandins. Often, arachidonic acid is released as a free fatty acid and acts as second messenger in signaling networks [PMID: 10331081]. These enzymes enable the of fatty acids and lysophospholipid by hydrolysing the 2-ester bond of 1,2-diacyl-3-sn-phosphoglycerides. In eukaryotes, PLA2 plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin and other mediators of inflammation. These enzymes are either secreted or cytosolic; the latter are either Ca dependent or Ca independent. Secreted PLA2s have also been found to specifically bind to a variety of soluble and membrane proteins in mammals, including receptors [PMID: 11293116]. As a toxin, PLA2 is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin which blocks nerve terminals by binding to the nerve membrane and hydrolyzing stable membrane lipids [PMID: 11212293]. The products of the hydrolysis (LysoPL and FA) cannot form bilayers leading to a change in membrane conformation and ultimately to a block in the release of neurotransmitters [PMID: 16805767,PMID: 10838563,PMID: 16339444].

The phospholipase domain adopts an alpha-helical secondary structure, consisting of five alpha-helices and two helical segments. PLA2 may form dimers or oligomers [PMID: 11080675,PMID: 11897785,PMID: 12161451].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0050482 arachidonic acid secretion
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process

Molecular Function

GO:0004623 phospholipase A2 activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
GENE3D
Pfam
Pfam
SUPERFAMILY
SMART
CDD