Acyl-CoA desaturase (IPR015876)

Short name: Acyl-CoA_DS

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that catalyze the insertion of a double bond at the delta position of fatty acids. There seems to be two distinct families of fatty acid desaturases which do not seem to be evolutionary related: the first contains stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), also known as Acyl-CoA desaturase or delta-9 desaturase (EC:; the second includes plant stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein and cyanobacteria desA protein.

SCD is a key regulatory enzyme of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. In association with cytochrome b5 and NADP-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase, it constitutes part of a microsomal membrane-bound 3-component system in animals and fungi [PMID: 2903162]. SCD contains 4 putative transmembrane (TM) regions that anchor it in the microsomal membrane. SCD uses oxygen and electrons from reduced cytochrome b5 [PMID: 1978720,PMID: 2428815] to catalyse the insertion of a cis double bond between carbons 9 and 10 of a spectrum of fatty acids [PMID: 2903162,PMID: 1978720,PMID: 2428815]. The preferred substrates of SCD are palmitoyl-CoA and stearoyl-CoA, which are converted to palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids respectively [PMID: 2903162,PMID: 2428815]. These unsaturated molecules are the major storage form of fatty acids (as triacylglycerols) in adipocytes [PMID: 2903162].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process

Molecular Function

GO:0016717 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with oxidation of a pair of donors resulting in the reduction of molecular oxygen to two molecules of water

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.