Growth differentiation factor-9 (IPR015617)

Short name: Growth_differentiation_fac-9

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional peptide that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein.

A number of proteins are known to be related to TGF-beta-1 [PMID: 1575734, PMID: 8199356]. Proteins from the TGF-beta family are only active as homo- or heterodimer; the two chains being linked by a single disulphide bond. From X-ray studies of TGF-beta-2 [PMID: 1631557], it is known that all the other cysteines are involved in intrachain disulphide bonds. As shown in the following schematic representation, there are four disulphide bonds in the TGF-beta's and in inhibin beta chains, while the other members of this group lack the first bond.

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is a cysteine knot-containing hormone oocyte-derived growth factor and a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily that includes TGF-beta, activin, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)[PMID: 14684852]. GDF-9 is a growth factor secreted by oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Recombinant GDF-9 enhances growth and differentiation of cultured ovarian follicles [PMID: 10067849]. GDF-9 signalling is mediated by the type I receptor ALK5 [PMID: 14684852]. Transgenic mice with deletion of the GDF-9 gene are characterised by the arrest of ovarian follicle development at the primary stage, Recombinant growth of GDF-9 enhances growth and differentiation of cultured early ovarian follicles [PMID: 10067849].

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.