Domain

Vitellinogen, beta-sheet shell (IPR015258)

Short name: Vitellinogen_b-sht_shell

Domain relationships

None.

Description

Vitellinogen precursors provide the major egg yolk proteins that are a source of nutrients during early development of oviparous vertebrates and invertebrates. Vitellinogen precursors are multi-domain apolipoproteins that are cleaved into distinct yolk proteins. Different vitellinogen precursors exist, which are composed of variable combinations of yolk protein components; however, the cleavage sites are conserved [PMID: 17314313, PMID: 9692232].

In vertebrates, a complete vitellinogen is composed of an N-terminal signal peptide for export, followed by four regions that can be cleaved into yolk proteins: lipovitellin-1, phosvitin, lipovitellin-2, and a von Willebrand factor type D domain (YGP40). Vitellinogens are post-translationally glycosylated and phosphorylated in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex of hepatocytes, before being secreted into the circulatory system to be taken up by oocytes. In the ovary, vitellinogens bind to specific Vtgr receptors on oocyte membranes to become internalised by endocytosis, where they are cleaved into yolk proteins by cathepsin D. YGP40 is released into the yolk plasma before or during compartmentation of lipovitellin-phosvitin complex into the yolk granule.

The different yolk proteins have distinct roles. Phosvitins are important in sequestering calcium, iron and other cations for the developing embryo. Phosvitins are one of the most phosphorylated (10%) proteins in nature, the high concentration of phosphate groups providing efficient metal-binding sites in clusters [PMID: 17189915, PMID: 8838584]. Lipovitellins are involved in lipid and metal storage, and contain a heterogeneous mixture of about 16% (w/w) noncovalently bound lipid, most being phospholipid. Lipovitellin-1 contains two chains, LV1N and LV1C [PMID: 12135361, PMID: 9687371].

This entry represents the beta-sheet shell domain found in vitellinogen, which generally corresponds to the lipovitellin-2 peptide product. This domain consists of several large open beta-sheets [PMID: 12135361]. It is often found C-terminal to IPR001747 and IPR015255.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006869 lipid transport

Molecular Function

GO:0005319 lipid transporter activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
Pfam
GENE3D