Domain

Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter, serotonin, N-terminal (IPR013086)

Short name: Na/ntran_symport_serotonin_N

Domain relationships

None.

Description

Neurotransmitter transport systems are integral to the release, re-uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters at synapses. High affinity transport proteins found in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals and glial cells are responsible for the removal from the extracellular space of released-transmitters, thereby terminating their actions [PMID: 15336049]. Plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters fall into two structurally and mechanistically distinct families. The majority of the transporters constitute an extensive family of homologous proteins that derive energy from the co-transport of Na+ and Cl-, in order to transport neurotransmitter molecules into the cell against their concentration gradient. The family has a common structure of 12 presumed transmembrane helices and includes carriers for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline/adrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, proline, glycine, choline, betaine and taurine. They are structurally distinct from the second more-restricted family of plasma membrane transporters, which are responsible for excitatory amino acid transport. The latter couple glutamate and aspartate uptake to the cotransport of Na+ and the counter-transport of K+, with no apparent dependence on Cl- [PMID: 8811182]. In addition, both of these transporter families are distinct from the vesicular neurotransmitter transporters [PMID: 8103691, PMID: 7823024].

Sequence analysis of the Na+/Cl- neurotransmitter superfamily reveals that it can be divided into four subfamilies, these being transporters for monoamines, the amino acids proline and glycine, GABA, and a group of orphan transporters [PMID: 9779464].

The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter transporter is known to be expressed in the brain and also in the periphery: on platelet, placental and pulmonary cell membranes. The brain 5-HT transporter is thought to be the principal site of action of therapeutic anti-depressants (which inhibit this transporter), and it may also mediate the behavioural effects of cocaine and amphetamines [PMID: 7681602]. The human form (630 amino acids) is 92% identical to the rat brain 5-HT transporter, and shares the same predicted topology and conserved sites for post-translational modification.

This domain is found at the N-terminal region of some 5-HT neurotransmitters.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006836 neurotransmitter transport

Molecular Function

GO:0005335 serotonin:sodium symporter activity

Cellular Component

GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PRINTS
Pfam