Galanin message associated peptide (GMAP) (IPR013068)

Short name: GMAP

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Domain relationships



Galanin is a peptide hormone that controls various biological activities [PMID: 1710578]. Galanin-like immuno-reactivity has been found in the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals, with high concentrations demonstrated in discrete regions of the central nervous system, including the median eminence, hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, septum, neuro-intermediate lobe of the pituitary, and the spinal cord. Its localisation within neurosecretory granules suggests that galanin may function as a neurotransmitter, and it has been shown to coexist with a variety of other peptide and amine neurotransmitters within individual neurons [PMID: 2448788].

Although the precise physiological role of galanin is uncertain, it has a number of pharmacological properties: it stimulates food intake, when injected into the third ventricle of rats; it increases levels of plasma growth hormone and prolactin, and decreases dopamine levels in the median eminence [PMID: 2448788]; and infusion into humans results in hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, and inhibits pancreatic release of insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic peptide. Galanin also modulates smooth muscle contractility within the gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary tracts, all such activities suggesting that the hormone may play an important role in the nervous modulation of endocrine and smooth muscle function [PMID: 2448788].

This domain represents the galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP) domain which is found C-terminal to the galanin domain in the preprogalanin precursor protein. GMAP sequences in different species show a high degree of homology, but the biological function of the GMAP peptide is not known [PMID: 9639260].

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.