Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (IPR011264)

Short name: BADH

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

Family relationships



Under osmotic stress, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase oxidises glycine betaine aldehyde into the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, via the second of two oxidation steps from exogenously supplied choline or betaine aldehyde. This choline-glycine betaine synthesis pathway can be found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In Escherichia coli, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betB) is osmotically co-induced with choline dehydrogenase (betA) in the presence of choline. These dehydrogenases are located in a betaine gene cluster with the upstream choline transporter (betT) and transcriptional regulator (betI) [PMID: 3065456].

Similar to E. coli, betaine synthesis in Staphylococcus xylosus is also influenced by osmotic stress and the presence of choline with genes localised in a functionally equivalent gene cluster [PMID: 10094709]. Organisation of the betaine gene cluster in Rhizobium meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) and Bacillus subtilis differs from that of E. coli by the absence of upstream choline transporter and transcriptional regulator homologues [PMID: 10094709, PMID: 9141699]. Additionally, B. subtilis co-expresses a type II alcohol dehydrogenase with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase instead of choline dehydrogenase as in E. coli, S. xylosus, and S. meliloti [PMID: 9141699]. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase family.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0019285 glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline

Molecular Function

GO:0008802 betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity
GO:0046872 metal ion binding

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.