Pathways & interactions
Contryphan, conserved site (IPR011062)
Short name: Contryphan_CS
Contryphans are a family of short disulphide constrained peptides isolated from various species of cone shell. They constitute a group of conopeptides that are known to contain an unusual density of post-translational modifications including tryptophan bromination, amidation of the C-terminal residue, leucine and tryptophan isomerisation, proline hydroxylation and glutamic acid gamma-carboxylation [PMID: 11041849, PMID: 11137539, PMID: 15150794, PMID: 15155730, PMID: 15155731].
Contryphans share the conserved sequence motif, CP(D-W or D-L)XPWC, that includes a tryptophan or leucine in the D-conformation, a disulphide bond between the two cysteines, and in some cases, hydroxylation of the proline preceding the D-Trp residue. The N-terminal Cys-Pro/Hyp (hydroxyproline) peptide bond exhibits cis-trans isomerisation in most contryphans; however the more abundant cis isomer is believed to be the functionally relevant conformer. The contryphan fold consists of a seven residue loop stabilised by a disulphide bridge [PMID: 11041849, PMID: 15150794, PMID: 15155731].
This family includes:
- Contryphan-P and Leu-contryphan-P from Conus purpurascens (Purple cone).
- Contryphan-Tx, contryphan-R/Tx and Leu-contryphan-Tx from Conus textile (Cloth-of-gold cone) [PMID: 11137539].
- Glacontryphan-M from Conus marmoreus (Marble cone), a calcium-dependent inhibitor of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels [PMID: 15155730, PMID: 15155731].
- Contryphan from Conus radiatus (Rayed cone).
- Contryphan-Sm from Conus stercusmuscarum (Fly-specked cone) [PMID: 11041849].
- Contryphan-Vn from Conus ventricosus (Mediterranean cone) [PMID: 15150794].
- PS60027 (CONTRYPHAN)