Glutamate decarboxylase (IPR010107)

Short name: Glutamate_decarboxylase

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

Family relationships


This entry represents glutamate decarboxylase (Gad;EC: it is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, which catalyses the irreversible alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA). This enzyme is widely distributed amongst eukaryotes and prokaryotes, but its function varies in different organisms [PMID: 12912902].

GadD has a crucial role in the vertebrate central nervous system where it is responsible for the synthesis of GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. In the majority of vertebrates Gad occurs in two isoforms, Gad65 and Gad67, both active at neutral pH [PMID: 9871412]. Gad isoforms (GadA and GadB) have also been reported in some bacterial species, including the Gram-negative bacterium [PMID: 1522060] and Gram-positive bacterium [PMID: 11309128].

A unique feature of plant and yeast Gad is the presence of a calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain in the C-terminal region. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast), Gad expression is required for normal oxidative stress tolerance [PMID: 11031268]. In plants, Gad is thought to be a stress-adapter chaperonin sensing Ca2+ signals.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006536 glutamate metabolic process

Molecular Function

GO:0004351 glutamate decarboxylase activity
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.